Skin diseases - 1,481 entries found
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Low molecular weight chemicals, hypersensitivity, and direct toxicity: the acid anhydrides
The acid anhydrides are a group of reactive chemicals used widely in alkyd and epoxy resins. The major hazards to health are mucosal and skin irritation and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. Most cases of occupational asthma caused by acid anhydrides appear to be immunologically mediated. Immunological mechanisms are proposed to explain an influenza-like syndrome and pulmonary haemorrhage, but direct toxicity may also be important in the aetiology of these conditions.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1989, Vol.46, No.4, p.222-232. Illus. 112 ref.
Jäppinen P., Pukkala E., Tola S.
Cancer incidence of workers in a Finnish sawmill
The cancer incidence of 1,223 sawmill workers with continuous employment of at least one year between 1 Jan. 1945 and 31 Dec. 1961 was followed until 31 Dec. 1980. Separate analyses were made for the 801 workers hired after 1 Jan. 1945, and smoking habits were surveyed. Among the men 90 cases of primary cancer were detected versus 83.5 expected and among the women 55 cancer cases versus 44.5 expected. Skin cancer was in excess among the men, especially among those employed after 1 Jan. 1945. Lip, mouth, and pharynx cancer and lymphomas were also slightly in excess among the men, as was leukaemia among both sexes. Workplace exposure, especially to chlorophenols, may be associated with the excess of skin cancer and the slight excess of lymphomas, but this finding should be further evaluated with special emphasis on well-defined exposure data.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1989, Vol.15, No.1, p.18-23. 25 ref.
Pisati G., Baruffini A., Galli C., Riboldi L., Tomasini M.
Selenious acid poisoning in a galvanisation worker. Description of a clinical case
Intossicazione da acido selenioso in galvanica - Descrizione di un caso clinico [in Italian]
Selenium, which is an essential trace element found in many animal species and in man, is highly irritating for the skin and mucous membranes. Cases of acute intoxication have been described in man with gastrointestinal disorders and irritation of the skin and upper airways. Necrotic hepatitis and cirrhosis have also been observed in animal experiments. The paper reports the case of a galvanisation worker occupationally exposed to selenious acid, probably mainly via skin absorption, who in the space of 2 weeks developed a severe irritative dermatitis on the face and arms, accompanied by acute hepatitis with steatosis and necrosis. The skin lesions, duly treated, healed in a month, but it took over a year for the signs of cytolysis to disappear. The action of the systemic toxicity of selenium appears to be due to the fact that it interferes with essential enzymatic systems (glutathione, succinicodelydrogenase, urease, methioninadenosiltransferase), with consequent disturbance of microsomial system function and fatty acid synthesis.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1988, Vol.79, No.2, p.127-135. Illus. 32 ref.
Minisci S., Garasto G., Corradini L., Laffi F., Canestri-Trotti G., Briolini G.
Infestation by Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790) in agricultural workers in Ferrara province
Infestazione da Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790) in lavoratori agricoli della provincia di Ferrara [in Italian]
The study aimed at verifying a previously reported aetiological hypothesis concerning the periodic late summer outbreaks of acute dermatitis among agricultural workers in the province of Ferrara (Italy). Assuming, on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data, that the most likely cause of the complaint was a chigger-mite, Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw 1790), several procedures of investigation were applied in order to isolate the acarus in the environment and in skin lesions. The efficacy and the limits of the various methods are discussed. Skin samples taken as soon as possible after the appearance of the complaint were particularly useful since larvae of N. autumnalis were found in papules of 3 workers.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1988, Vol.79, No.2, p.120-126. Illus. 7 ref.
Allergy to chromium, cobalt and nickel in metal and electrical industry workers
Patch tests were carried out on 303 metal and electrical industry workers. Allergy to chromium was diagnosed in 19.2% of the metal industry and in 12.5% of the electrical industry workers. Hypersensitivity to cobalt was observed in 9% of the metal industry and in 5.9% of the electrical industry workers. Allergy to nickel was encountered more frequently in the electrical industry workers than in the metal industry employees (5.9% and 1.8%, respectively). Sensitisation to chromium compounds prevailed among galvanisers. Hypersensitivity to metals was determined as the cause of dermatitis in 29.4% of the metal industry and 38.3% of the electrical industry workers.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1988, Vol.1, No.4, p.298-305. 23 ref.
Allergic eczema due to personal protective equipment and clothing
L'eczéma allergique aux objets et vêtements de protection individuelle [in French]
Presentation of personal protective equipment and clothing that can provoke an allergic contact dermatitis, and of the allergens responsible. 1. Industrial leather gloves (chromium); household and industrial rubber gloves; rubber finger stalls. 2. Rubber boots (results of chemical analysis). 3. Safety shoes (table of allergens to be tested in case of reaction to safety shoes). 4. Dust masks. 5. Safety glasses. 6. Diving equipment. 7. Various objects. 8 Diagnosis. 9. Interest and difficulty of chemical analysis.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.34, p.115-120. 32 ref.
Allergic contact dermatitis - A summary of the occupational health concern
The development of allergic contact dermatitis is described along with contributing factors including pre-existing skin conditions, the chemical nature of the allergenic substance, and individual and environmental factors. Allergens encountered in various occupations are listed and an outline is given of the recognition and treatment of the disease and appropriate preventive measures.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Sep. 1988. 6p. 7 ref.
McKinlay A.F., Harlen F., Whillock M.J.
Hazards of optical radiation: a guide to sources, uses and safety
This book reviews the sources of optical radiation - visible, ultraviolet, infrared and laser - and discusses the associated effects of each. Topics covered include biological effects, mechanisms of damage to the eyes and skin and situations where various optical radiation sources are likely to be found.
Adam Hilger Ltd., Techno House, Redcliffe Way, Bristol BS1 6NX, United Kingdom, 1988. 121p. Bibl. Appendices. Index. Price: GBP 15.00.
Irritant contact dermatitis - A summary of the occupational health concern
Irritant contact dermatitis can develop after short, heavy exposure or prolonged, light exposure to a substance. The appearance and development of the inflammation are discussed along with contributing factors such as the chemical nature of the substance, individual susceptibility and environmental factors. Occupations most at risk are listed and advice is given on recognition of the disease and its treatment and prevention.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario W8N 1H6, Canada, Aug. 1988. 6p. Bibl.
Grattan C.E.H., English J.S.C., Foulds I.S., Rycroft R.J.G.
Cutting fluid dermatitis
174 consecutive patients with suspected cutting fluid dermatitis were investigated in 2 occupational dermatology clinics. 43% showed allergic reactions which were thought to be relevant to their dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis occurred in 63%, but only in 21% was it thought to be the sole diagnosis. Biocides, especially formaldehyde releasers, were the commonest cause of allergic reactions in a cutting fluid patch test series.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1989, Vol.20, No.5, p.372-376. Illus. 6 ref.
Halkier-Sørensen L., Thestrup-Pedersen K.
Skin temperature and skin symptoms among workers in the fish processing industry
196 workers employed in the fish processing industry participated in a survey of skin disorders. 156 (80%) had experienced skin problems during their work with fish on some occasions. The symptoms were itching, redness and stinging. Although the fingers are in direct contact with fish meat and juice, skin symptoms only seldom occur here, appearing instead, almost exclusively, on the forearms (70%) and the backs of the hands (26%). The skin temperature of the fingers and palms of the hands ranged from 17-20°C, while the temperature on the backs of the hands and forearms ranged from 25-30°C. Skin temperatures of less than 20°C abolish itching and reduce vasodilation by half. It is suggested that the low temperature of the fingers affords protection against the development of some irritant skin reactions and that differences in skin temperature may be an important reason for the location of skin symptoms.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1988, Vol.19, No.3, p.206-209. 5 ref.
De Boer E.M., Bruynzeel D.P., Van Ketel W.G.
Dyshidrotic eczema as an occupational dermatitis in metal workers
Metalworkers exposed to metalworking fluids often encounter dermatological problems. In an epidemiological study of 286 metalworkers, 14% had dermatitis. Of these, 21 (54%) presented with the clinical appearance of dyshidrotic eczema. Three out of these 21 operators had positive patch test reactions, 1 to nickel and 2 to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers, while 1 other was diagnosed as atopic. According to the literature, dyshidrotic eczema is strongly related to an atopic constitution and to contact sensitisation, especially to nickel. However, the findings suggest that dyshidrotic eczema in metalworkers is a predominantly irritant dermatitis, mainly induced by exposure to soluble oils and unrelated to atopy.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1988, Vol.19, No.3, p.184-188. 18 ref.
Bruynzeel D.P., Hennipman G., Van Ketel W.G.
Irritant contact dermatitis and chrome-passivated metal
An outbreak of hand dermatitis is reported amongst employees working on a new assembly line of an electronics factory. Twenty-four out of 41 employees had signs of irritant contact dermatitis. The fingertips and the dorsal parts of the hands were especially affected. Mechanical factors in combination with zinc-chromium compounds from galvanised steel seemed to be responsible for the dermatitis and the dry skin. The use of an emollient solved the problem.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1988, Vol.19, No.3, p.175-179. Illus. 13 ref.
Garabrant D.H., Held J., Langholz B., Bernstein L.
Mortality of aircraft manufacturing workers in southern California
A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among men and women employed between 1958 and 1982 at an aircraft manufacturing company in San Diego County. Specific causes of death included cancer of the brain and nervous system, malignant melanoma, and cancer of the testicle, which previous reports have suggested to be associated with work in aircraft manufacturing. Follow-up of the cohort of 14,067 subjects for a mean duration of 15.8yr from the date of first employment resulted in successful tracing of 95% of the cohort and found 1,804 deaths through 1982. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on U.S. national mortality rates and separately based on San Diego County mortality rates. Mortality due to all causes was significantly low (SMR = 75), as was mortality due to all cancer (SMR = 84). There was no significant excess of cancer of the brain, malignant melanoma, cancer of the testicle, any other cancer site, or any other category of death.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.6, p.686-693. 12 ref.
Hogan D.J., Hill M., Lane P.R.
Results of routine patch testing of 542 patients in Saskatoon, Canada
542 patients (330 women, 212 men) with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested to standard series allergens between January 1983 and June 1987. Positive reactions were most frequently seen with nickel (17.4%), ethylenediamine (8.7%), formaldehyde (7.4%), colophony (7.0%), potassium dichromate (6.1%) and neomycin (5.7%). Patients with dermatitis involving the legs were those significantly more likely to be allergic to ethylenediamine (p=0.01) and benzocaine (p=0.04) than those with dermatitis not involving the legs. Neomycin allergy was not associated with dermatitis involving the legs. Patients allergic to ethylenediamine were significantly more likely to be allergic to neomycin than patients not allergic to ethylenediamine (p=0.002).
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1988, Vol.19, No.2, p.120-124. 17 ref.
Allergic dermatoses and respiratory diseases from reactive dyes
Five cases of occupational eczema, urticaria and respiratory disease from reactive dyes, occurring during 1977-1987, are reported. The patients, 4 men and 1 woman, were 24-52yrs old when examined. They had been working in dye houses or textile plants, and had been exposed to reactive dyes for 8 months to 4yrs before symptoms developed. On patch testing, the 4 patients with eczema reacted positively to 9 commercial dye powders. On scratch and/or prick testing, the 2 patients who also had respiratory symptoms and/or urticaria reacted positively to the same dyes as on patch testing. The 5th patient, who had urticaria and respiratory symptoms, reacted positively to 1 dye, but the patch test with that dye was negative. Thus, a 1% pet. dilution of commercial dye powder for patch testing and the same concentration in distilled water for prick testing seem to be suitable for the screening of allergy to reactive dyes.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1988, Vol.18, No.5, p.290-297. Illus. 20 ref.
Variable incidence of nickel dermatitis
The incidence of nickel sensitivity in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, was stable in the periods 1972-1976 (6.7%) and 1977-1981 (6.3%). An increase became apparent when the incidence rose to 8.0% in 1982, and 9.1% in 1982-1986. The sex ratio in 1972-1976 was 2:1 with a female predominance, doubling to 4:1 in 1977-1981 and doubling again to 9:1 in 1982-1986. The highest incidence was in the age groups of 11-20 and 21-30 yrs. Nickel remains a rare cause of occupational dermatitis. Cheap metal jewellery is the likely source of the increased incidence.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1988, Vol.18, No.5, p.287-289. Illus. 13 ref.
Nethercott J.R., Holness D.L.
Contact dermatitis in funeral service workers
Eighty-four funeral service workers and 38 control workers were evaluated for the presence of skin disease by history, clinical examination and patch tests with formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. No relationship between either personal or family history of cutaneous or respiratory manifestations of atopy and clinical parameters of cutaneous disease or patch test results was found. Cutaneous disease was reported in apprentices, active embalmers and inactive embalmers in decreasing order of frequency. Positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde were found in 4% and 7% of the exposed workers respectively, but in none of the controls. Although exposure to glutaraldehyde was less frequent, the prevalence of positive patch test reactions did not differ. This may suggest that glutaraldehyde poses a greater practical risk of cutaneous sensitisation in this trade than formaldehyde.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1988, Vol.18, No.5, p.263-267. 27 ref.
Van Joost T.
Occupational sensitisation to epichlorohydrin and epoxy resin
Sensitisation to epichlorohydrin (ECH) is reported in 6 patients with occupational contact allergy. In 2 cases, an isolated positive test to ECH was found. In the remaining 4 cases, concomitant positive reactions were seen to "EDCRG epoxy resin" (MW 385) and to liquid epoxy resin (MW 370). Allergy to bisphenol A was not seen in the patients. Five patients worked in an epoxy resin plant. Adequate preventive measures to avoid skin contact with ECH are required to prevent ECH sensitisation becoming a more serious industrial hazard.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1988, Vol.19, No.4, p.278-280. 9 ref.
Bruze M., Almgren G.
Occupational dermatoses in workers exposed to resins based on phenol and formaldehyde
During December 1985 and February 1986, an investigation was carried out on skin diseases among workers in a plant producing decorative equipment built of paper sheets impregnated with resol resins based on phenol and formaldehyde (P-F-R) . A questionnaire was sent to all 238 employees and its was completed by 218 (91.6%). Previous and current dermatoses were reported by 98 workers and 89 of these were examined and patch tested. The patch testing was conducted with a standard test series and products from the working environment and revealed contact alllergy to P-F-R in 9 persons and to formaldehyde in 1. Besides these 10 individuals with occupational allergic contact dermatitis, occupational dermatoses were diagnosed in an additional 20 workers; irritant contact dermatitis in 19 and chemical burn in 1. In total, the figure for occupational dermatoses was 30 (12.6%).
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1988, Vol.19, No.4, p.272-277. 21 ref.
Wrangsjö K., Wahlberg J.E., Axelsson I.G.K.
IgE-mediated allergy to natural rubber in 30 patients with contact urticaria
30 patients who had experienced contact urticaria after exposure to gloves, contraceptives, balloons or dental cofferdams went through a detailed examination including interviews on: exposure to rubber; local and distant symptoms; provocation test; skin prick tests with latex extracts from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis; patch testing, IgE and RAST analyses. 23 patients (77%) reported additional symptoms from distant organs. 13 had medical occupations; 25 were classified as atopics based on history; 21 had raised Is; 25 were RAST-positive to the extracts from Hevea brasiliensis. 13 had a pre-existing hand dermatitis, of whom 6 were patch-test positive to standard allergens. Skin prick tests with extracts from Hevea brasiliensis were the most diagnostic tool, while the RAST analysis was positive in 25-30 cases. These tests and analyses including RAST were negative in 40 control subjects. Provocation tests are of great value, but difficult to standardise.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1988, Vol.19, No.4, p.264-271. 27 ref.
Castelain P.Y., Castelain M., Vervloet D., Garbe L., Mallet B.
Sensitization to aluminium by aluminium-precipitated dust and pollen extracts
Two cases of aluminium sensitivity in adults are reported. In each case the means of sensitisation was the inoculation of aluminium-precipitated pollen or dust extracts for hyposensitisation. It is concluded that aluminium allergy is not exceptional and that in these cases allergic reactions to Finn Chamber tests can be observed.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1988, Vol.19, No.1, p.58-60. 11 ref.
Romaguera C., Grimalt F., Vilaplana J.
Contact dermatitis from nickel - An investigation of its sources
Patch tests with the GEIDC standard series of allergens, and with 8 washers made of copper, nickel, nickel-palladium, palladium, brass, bronze, gold and iron, were carried out in 964 consecutive patients who complained of intolerance to metals and in 200 controls who did not. All subjects were also questioned as to personal and family history of atopy, occupational contact and intolerance to gold. The results provide support for the substitution of nickel in imitation jewellery with metals such as palladium or bronze.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1988, Vol.19, No.1, p.52-57. 43 ref.
Nakayama H., Kobayashi M., Takahashi M., Ageishi Y., Takano T.
Generalized eruption with severe liver dysfunction associated with occupational exposure to trichloroethylene
Generalised dermatitis due to trichloroethylene is rare. A 21-year old printer developed exfoliative dermatitis with mucous membrane involvement, fever and liver dysfunction after a 2-week occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. Positive patch-test reactions to trichloroethylene and to one of its metabolites, trichloroethanol, were observed. This dermatitis is considered to be mediated by a delayed-type hypersensitivity mechanism.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1988, Vol.19, No.1, p.48-51. Illus. 7 ref.
The usefulness of detailed information to patients with contact allergy
To find out if patients with contact allergy are helped by computerised information lists, a retrospective study was carried out on 58 patients with contact allergy to lanolin, traced through a local database, DALUK. All were sent a questionnaire about their usage of the information list, clearance of their eczema, their education and other details. Clearance of the patient's eczema was found to correlate with use of the information list. It was also found that the effectiveness of the information depended on factors such as education, family circumstances, ethnic background and, most of all, how and where the information list was used.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1988, Vol.19, No.1, p.43-47. Illus. 11 ref.
Skin problems in workers using visual display terminals
201 patients with skin problems caused in their own opinion by working with visual display terminals (VDTs) were examined. In 25 patients, the skin problems occurred mainly on the cheek turned towards the VDT. Half the patients had rosacea and subjective skin symptoms such as severe pain, itching and burning. The rest of the patients mainly had common facial dermatoses such as seborrhoeic eczema, acne vulgaris and atopic dermatitis. 18% had non-specific skin problems, e.g. itching and redness. An attempt to correlate skin problems with VDTs' electrostatic field strength was unsuccessful because of difficulties in eliminating it. The prevalence of migraine-like headache was 40%, which is much higher than in a control population. After an average of 8 months, 2/3 of the patients had fewer skin complaints. The question of whether the prevalence of skin problems in general is higher amongst individuals using VDTs than in a control population is addressed in a current study.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1988, Vol.19, No.5, p.335-341. 17 ref.
Allergic sensitization to a non-bisphenol A epoxy of the cycloaliphatic class
This is the first report of sensitisation to a cycloaliphatic epoxy. Allergic contact dermatitis occurred in an electron microscopist after exposure to the cycloaliphatic epoxy, vinyl cyclohexane diepoxide. Cycloaliphatic epoxies are not based on the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), presently the epoxy of greatest commercial usage. Non-DGEBA epoxies are finding new applications in the semiconductor and aerospace industries and will likely gain in importance as a cause of occupational allergic dermatitis. Latex or polyvinyl chloride gloves did not protect the reported patient from precutaneous absorption and elicitation of allergic dermatitis.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1988, Vol.30, No.8, p.641-643. Illus. 16 ref.
De Guire L., Theriault G., Iturra H., Provencher S., Cyr D., Case B.W.
Increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin in workers in a telecommunications industry
In 1982 physicians at a hospital melanoma clinic in Montreal noticed that among their patients there had been 7 men working in a single telecommunications company. To estimate the risk of the development of malignant melanoma of the skin (MMS) with working in that industry a preliminary gross comparison with general population rates was carried out which indicates that there was an increased risk in this working group. A standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated based on the rates of MMS in the local population of the Greater Metropolitan Montreal Area for the years 1976-83. During that period, among workers in all plants for the company, 10 male cases of MMS were observed for an expected number of 3.7 (SIR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.31-5.02). The excess was significant among cases with less than 20yrs of employment. There was no apparent pattern of exposure based on job titles or departments.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1988, Vol.45, No.12, p.824-828. 33 ref.
Evaluation of work-related skin disease for purposes of compensation
Försäkringsmässig sambandsbedömning vid arbetsrelaterade hudsjukdomar [in Swedish]
In order to evaluate whether a skin disease is related to exposure in the work environment or not, detailed knowledge of noxious agents, clinical picture, disease history, and results from various tests is needed. In addition to the well-known disease contact dermatitis, an increasing number of other dermatoses have been related to work and environmental factors: atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, pustulosis, palmoplantar keratoderma, pompholyx, tinea, paronychia, rosacea, acne, urticaria and skin cancer. In this report these relationships are discussed and some guiding decisions by the Swedish National Social Insurance Board are presented.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 28p. 2 ref.
Mycoses of the skin, scalp and nails in occupational pathology
Les mycoses de la peau, du cuir chevelu et des ongles en pathologie professionnelle [in French]
Generalities on the dermatophytes which may infect the epidermis, hair and nails, and on yeasts of the genus Candida, which may infect the mucosae, skin and nails. Mycoses of smooth skin. Mycoses of hairy regions. Mycoses of the nails. Candidiasis. Diagnosis. Sampling and analysis. Collective and personal protection. Compensation in France (Tables of Occupational Diseases 46 and 77).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1988, No.33, p.43-47. 4 ref.
Gollhausen R., Enders F., Przybilla B., Burg G., Ring J.
Trends in allergic contact sensitization
A standard patch test series was tested for 7yrs (1977-1983) in a total of 11,962 patients. The annual frequency of positive reactions to the compounds tested was assessed for the total and for males and females separately. During the observation period, there was significant increases in positive reactions in the total group from 6.2% to 12.7% for nickel sulphate, from 5.3% to 7.0% for balsam of Peru and from 3.8% to 6.5% for potassium dichromate, reflecting significant changes in both sexes. The frequency of positive reactions to wool alcohols, formaldehyde, neomycin sulphate, paraben mix and gentamycin sulphate significantly increased, while that of positive reactions to clioquinol, mercuric chloride and turpentine peroxide significantly decreased in either males or females, sometimes leading to significant changes in the total group.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1988, Vol.18, No.3, p.147-154. Illus. 31 ref.
Cox N.H., Moss C., Forsyth A.
Allergy to non-toxoid constituents of vaccines and implications for patch testing
A report on 3 patients with persistent symptoms at vaccination sites. All were allergic to aluminium and 1 to thiomersal and neomycin also. Aluminium allergy causes false positive patch test reactions and methods are proposed for patch-testing patients with symptoms at vaccination sites in order to avoid this problem. the practical relevance of allergy to non-toxoid constituents of vaccines is discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1988, Vol.18, No.3, p.143-146. Illus. 17 ref.
Lee H.S., Goh C.L.
Occupational dermatosis among chrome platers
Fourteen (38%) of 37 chrome platers in 17 chrome electroplating factories surveyed had occupational contact dermatitis, chrome ulcers, or both. Seven had chrome ulcers, 6 had contact dermatitis and 1 had both. Another 16 (43%) workers had scars suggestive of previous chrome ulcers. Mucosal irritation was present in 57% of the workers. The most common was throat irritation (49%) followed by nasal irritation (41%). Skin ulceration appeared to be a more specific sign of occupational dermatosis in chrome platers than dermatitis when the prevalence rates were compared to controls. Of the 7 workers with chrome ulcers, only 1 was allergic to chromate. Of the 6 workers with dermatitis, 2 were allergic to chromate and 1 to nickel. Irritant factors are therefore important in the aetiology of contact dermatitis in these chrome platers.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1988, Vol.18, No.2, p.89-93. 12 ref.
Delayed and immediate-type hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine
A case with both contact urticaria and delayed-type contact allergy to chlorhexidine is presented. A review of the literature on hypersensitivity reactions of delayed and immediate type to this compound is given.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1988, Vol.18, No.2, p.84-88. Illus. 18 ref.
Goodfield M.J.D., Saihan E.M.
Fragrance sensitivity in coal miners
In a prospective study, the incidence of fragrance sensitivity in Nottinghamshire coal miners was examined. Results confirmed previous reports of an increased incidence of such sensitivity in miners (45%) when compared with both male (20%) and female (13%) non-miners. This increased incidence is not related to an increased use of perfumed cosmetics, but may be related to the use of a highly perfumed body lotion in subjects who already have a high incidence of irritant hand eczema. There was no significant increase in the rate of positive reactions to other applied allergens.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1988, Vol.18, No.2, p.81-83. 5 ref.
Nethercott J.R., Holness D.L., Page E.
Occupational contact dermatitis due to glutaraldehyde in health care workers
Allergic contact dermatitis to glutaraldehyde was found in 13 health-care workers with hand dermatitis. Concomitant sensitivity to other chemicals was noted in 10. The positive patch test response was only evident for every 2nd obsevation in 4. The eruption persisted for more than 6 months in 10 subjects. In 5, the skin disease forced the worker to leave his occupation.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1988, Vol.18, No.4, p.193-196. 15 ref.
Cavelier C., Foussereau J., Tomb R.
Contact allergy and dyes. Part 2
Allergie de contact et colorants - 2e partie [in French]
This data sheet is the continuation of data sheet ND 1686-132-88, published in CND No.132 (see CIS 89-000), and comprises a presentation of the last 7 groups of dyes, classified roughly according to the Colour Index: insoluble azo dye precursors, azo pigments, solvent dyes and disperse dyes, monoazo dyes with solubilising groups, disazo dyes and trisazo dyes.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1988, No.133, Note No.1703-133-88, p.615-647. Illus. 120 ref.
Cavelier C., Foussereau J., Tomb R.
Contact allergy and dyes. Part 1
Allergie de contact et colorants - 1ère partie [in French]
Attributing an allergy to a particular dye is a complex process for a number of reasons: there are tens of thousands of dyes; each dye is marketed under several different names; dyes often contain impurities. This is why this monograph intends to be both a reference document and a guide. After a reminder on the aetiology of allergic contact dermatitis, its clinical aspect, development, allergologic and differential diagnosis and the usefulness of chemical analyses, the dyes themselves are presented, classified roughly according to the Colour Index into 17 groups: nitro dyes, triphenylmethane derivatives, xanthenes, acridine derivatives, quinoline derivatives, azines, anthraquinones, indigoid dyes, phthalocyanine dyes, oxidation bases, insoluble azo dye precursors, and 6 classes of azo dyes.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1988, No.132, Note No.1686-132-88, p.421-443. Illus. 104 ref.
Bennett D.E., Mathias C.G.T., Susten A.S., Fannick N.L., Smith A.B.
Dermatitis from plastic tote boxes impregnated with an antistatic agent
An outbreak of dermatitis occurred among exployees of a microelectronics firm. In a cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation, the authors found that dermatitis of the hands or arms had occurred among 14 of 29 (48.3%) employees of the incoming inspection department where plastic tote boxes recently purchased from one manufacturer had been used, compared to only one case among 17 (5.9%) employees in another department which had not used these boxes. Affected workers could detect an oily film on the surfaces of these new boxes, but not on older ones. The authors identified the oily film to be a surface accumulation of bis-hydroxyethyl-tallow amine (BHETA), an antistatic agent with which the tote boxes had been impregnated. Subsequent toxicologic investigation established that BHETA could provoke both follicular and nonfollicular irritant dermatits, and was also a potential skin sensitiser. Antistatic agents should be considered as potential causes of dermatitis among employees who handle electrical parts transported in plastic boxes, particularly when affected employees can detect an oily film on the box surfaces.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1988, Vol.30, No.3, p.252-255. 2 ref.
McLaughlin J.K., Malker H.S.R., Blot W.J., Ericsson J.L.E., Gemne G., Fraumeni J.F.
Malignant melanoma in the printing industry - Brief report
To evaluate a recent report of malignant malanoma among printers, use was made of the Cancer-Environment Registry of Sweden, which links national cancer incidence and employment data. Employees in the newspaper printing industry had almost twice the incidence of melanoma than expected. Elevated risks were found not only among typographers and machine repairers, but also among journalists, editors, and business executives in the printing industry. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship and to identify specific exposures that may be responsible.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.2, p.301-304. 6 ref.
Information on work involving exposure to used motor oil
Merkblatt für den Umgang mit gebrauchtem Motorenöl [in German]
Poster indicating measures to be taken in order to prevent skin hazards due to exposure to used motor oil.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Zentralstelle für Unfallverhütung und Arbeitsmedizin, Lindenstr. 78-80, 5205 Sankt Augustin 2, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 1988. 1p.
Pecquet C., Leynadier F., Dry J.
Immediate hypersensitivity to latex
Hypersensibilité immédiate au latex [in French]
The incidence of immediate hypersensitivity to latex is probably underestimated, as it has minimal symptoms: moderate itching when wearing latex gloves, often atributed to another agent (talc powder). However, this kind of hypersensitivity has to be identified systematically, as it can cause anaphylactic reactions during dental, gynaecological and surgical interventions.
Médecine et hygiène, 30 Mar. 1988, Vol.46, No.1742, p.967-968. 11 ref.
Nava C., Campiglio R., Caravelli G., Galli D.A., Gambini M.A., Zerboni R., Beretta E.
Chromium and nickel salts: A cause of allergic contact dermatitis due to detergents
I sali di cromo e nichel come causa di dermatite allergica da contatto con detergenti [in Italian]
142 subjects (mainly women) were examined. They were all suffering from contact dermatitis, probably caused by domestic detergents. Allergic contact dermatitis was clinically diagnosed in 60% of the subjects; the remaining 40% had irritant contact dermatitis. 21% (46% of the sensitised subjects) were sensitised to nickel salts and 8.4% (18% of the sensitised subjects) were sensitised to chromium salts. Analysis of 34 commerical products by atomic absorption spectrophotometry confirmed the presence of these metals in nearly all specimens (33 out of 34). The quantity of nickel and chromium salts (as metals) varied considerably and in some cases was similar to the quantities found in common cements. Considering the type, site and severity of the skin lesions and the fact that so many patients were sensitised to these metals contained in domestic cleaning agents, it is concluded that housework is a risk factor for allergic skin diseases.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1987, Vol.78, No.5, p.405-512. 35 ref.
Hand eczema in atopic subjects
Handeksem hos atopiker [in Swedish]
Report on a dermatological follow-up study of 1,177 atopic subjects and 194 non-atopic controls. The role of atopy in different working conditions was studied in 445 hand eczema patients who had previously been treated at a department of occupational dermatology as well as in 274 hairdressers. The prevalence of hand eczema was 34% and 5%, respectively, in people with a history of atopic dermatitis and respiratory allergy and 4% in non-atopics. Hand eczema was also more prevalent in atopic hairdressers. 28% of the subjects in the "occupational" patient group had a history of atopic dermatitis. Hand eczema was significantly more common in people exposed to irritants. However, about 25% of the people with high-risk occupations never developed hand eczema. The most important hand eczema predictor was atopic hand dermatitis in childhood.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 83p. Illus. 88 ref.
García Pérez A., Conde-Salazar Gómez L., Giménez Camarasa J.M.
Textbook on occupational dermatoses
Tratado de dermatosis profesionales [in Spanish]
University-level textbook covering the medical, chemical and occupational hygiene aspects of occupational skin diseases.
Eudema Ediciones, Universidad Complutense Madrid, Fortuny 53.2, 28010 Madrid, Spain, 1987. 598p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Occupational dermatoses as predominant occupational diseases in the social and health services
Arbeitsdermatosen als vorherrschende Berufskrankheit im Gesundheits- und Sozialwesen [in German]
Skin diseases make up more than half of all occupational diseases in the social and health services of the GDR. 74% of them are caused by disinfectants containing formaldehyde. A slight decrease has been noticed in 1985 and 1986 due to preventive measures including the substitution of formaldehyde, use of protective gloves, information aiming at safe behaviour and voluntary fitness examinations for applicants in the field.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1987, Vol.33, No.12, p.617-619. Illus.
Occupational contact depigmentation (achromy, vitiligo)
Les dépigmentations (ou achromies ou vitiligos) de contact professionnelles [in French]
The molecules responsible for occupational depigmentation of the skin are principally phenols and phenol derivatives (hydroquinone, hydroquinone monobenzyl ether, hydroquinone monomethyl ether, para-t-butylphenol (PTB), etc). Cases reported in the literature are presented in a table according to the compounds responsible. The frequency of occupational achromies is given. Occupations where exposure is likely: photography, work with neoprene glues (especially in the auto industry), shoe repair, chemical manufacture, cabinetmaking, work with detergents containing PTB, jobs requiring the wearing of protective rubber gloves containing hydroquinone monobenzyl ether, and others. Other aspects discussed: clinical studies, diagnosis, pathogenesis, prevention, compensation in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1987, No.32, p.281-285. Illus. 54 ref.
Occupational and industrial dermatology
This book designed as a textbook for health professionals engaged in the recognition, management and treatment of work-related skin diseases. Contents: risk factors in occupational skin disease; irritant dermatitis; allergens; use and abuse of patch tests; industrial dermatosis (rational versus and irrational treatment); biological, physical and mechanical causes of occupational dermatosis; cutaneous cancers and environmental chemicals; personal protective equipment; patch testing in allergic contact dermatitis; dermatotoxicology; occupational dermatitis in various industries (hospitals, chemical industry, printing, construction, production of plastics and epoxy resins, agriculture, etc.). New edition of a textbook originally abstracted as CIS 82-1388.
Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., 35 East Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60601, USA; Wolfe Medical Publications, 2-16 Torrington Place, London WC1E 7LT, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1987. 475p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 55.50 (in the UK).
Bajnova A., Hristeva V., Madžunov N., Daneva Z.
Dermal effect of ethylenediamine in petrochemical production
Dermalno văzdejstvie na etilendiamina v neftohimično proizvodstvo [in Bulgarian]
Of 47 workers engaged in ethylenediamine production 39% reported subjective complaints of the skin. Allergic dermatitis (26%) prevailed over irritant (6.5%), and often led to a change of employment. Epicutaneous tests with ethylenediamine and diethylene triamine gave respectively 32 and 20% positives, with high latency. Ethylenediamine dermal absorption at concentrations in the working area around the MAC (2mg/m3) was shown by the methaemoglobinaemia found in 15 operators. The elevated methaemoglobin in blood could be used as an indirect test for workers exposed to ethylenediamine and other aliphatic amines.
Problemi na higienata, Aug. 1987, Vol.12, p.109-114. 11 ref.
Goh C.L., Ng S.K.
Contact dermatitis to Curcuma longa (turmeric)
First report of occupational contact dermatitis due to turmeric. The victim was a spice miller in Singapore. Although advised to change jobs, he continued in his trade, and suffered frequent relapses of dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1987, Vol.17, No.3, p.186. 2 ref.
Van der Willigen A.H., Van Joost T., Stolz E., Van der Hoek J.C.S.
Contact dermatitis to safflower
First report of allergic contact dermatitis due to safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). The victim was an inspector at a flower auction.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1987, Vol.17, No.3, p.184-186. Illus. 7 ref.
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