Skin diseases - 1,481 entries found
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Kleine W., Sonnenberg S., Haas J.
Dermatological findings in occupational medical practice
Dermatologische Befunde in der betriebsärztlichen Praxis [in German]
Screening of 257,064 summaries of case histories from the files of industrial physicians in the Federal Republic of Germany yielded 8724 cases of skin diseases. The records covered the period from 1982 to 1987 and included all types of workers with the exception of seamen and miners. Data are presented on types of skin diseases, nationalities, age, sex and professions involved. An excessively high number of skin diseases was found among chemical workers.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1990, Vol.44, No.3, p.137-144. Illus. 15 ref.
Atlas of dermal lesions
This atlas contains a set of photomicrographs of dermal lesions considered to be representative of the most common changes that would be encountered in a dermal toxicity study. The photomicrographs were selected from prechronic skin paint studies conducted by the National Toxicity Program. A description of all the lesions is included together with an indication of the anatomical extent of the reaction and whether it is focal or diffuse in distribution.
United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA, 1990. 17p. Illus.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Occupational diseases of the skin
Information note on occupational skin diseases. Contents: structure and function of the skin; identification of skin diseases; health hazards likely to give rise to skin diseases (predisposition to skin diseases; chemical, physical and biological agents); prevention and control measures (barrier creams, skin cleansers, health assessment, education and training); first aid.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Nov. 1990. v, 22p. Illus. 19 ref.
This data sheet is a revision of the 1981 edition (CIS 82-208). Contents: anatomy and physiology of the skin; predisposing factors, individual susceptibility and allergies; causes of dermatitis (chemical agents, mechanical and physical causes, plant poisons, biological agents); prevention of dermatitis (engineering controls, housekeeping, protective clothing and equipment, personal cleanliness, barrier creams, pre-employment medical examinations, mecidal aid); synoptic list of chemical agents (primary irritants, sensitisers) with clinical manifestations and typical occupations.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1990. 8p. Illus. 3 ref.
Occupational dermatoses and allergy to metals in Polish construction workers manufacturing prefabricated building units
The incidence of dermatoses and allergy to metals (Cr, Co, Ni) was determined in 1,782 workers exposed to cement, waste fly ash and asbestos cement. They were all also exposed to reclaimed (used) mineral oils. Dermatitis was found in 23.6% of the subjects, and oil acne in 11.2%. Allergy to chromium was found in 23% of the subjects; the percentage of definitely positive patch test results was, however, 8.6%. Allergy to cobalt was found in 13.4% of the subjects examined. Allergy to nickel was found in 2.7% of the subjects. The risks of occurrence of occupational skin disease and allergy to metals in subjects exposed to ash were found to be lower than in subjects exposed to cement, and were similar to those in subjects exposed to asbestos cement. Overall chromium, cobalt and nickel contents in ash and asbestos were higher in cement. Soluble chromium compound content in ash was lower than in cement from European countries and similar to that in American cement.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1990, Vol.23, No.1, p.27-32. 8 ref.
Farli M., Gasperini M., Francalanci S., Gola M., Sertoli A.
Occupational contact dermatitis in 2 dental technicians
Two dental technicians, both with chronic eczema, reported worsening from the use of 2 products containing methyl methacrylate, employed in manufacturing acrylic prostheses. Patch tests in both patients gave positive reactions to methyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and products employed in manufacturing acrylic prostheses (2% and 5% pet.). On the basis of results subsequently obtained from patch tests carried out with pieces of glove interposed between the skin and the allergens (methyl methacrylate and products employed), we advised our patients still to use latex gloves during work. Follow-up after one year showed complete regression of the dermatitis in one case and considerable improvement in the other.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1990, Vol.22, No.5, p.282-287. 16 ref.
Jolanki R., Kanerva L., Estlander T., Takvainen K., Keskinen H., Henriks-Eckerman M.L.
Occupational dermatoses from epoxy resin compounds
This study comprises 40 patients with skin disorders from current or previous occupational exposure to epoxy resin compounds (ERC) during 1984-1988. ERCs were the 3rd most common cause (32 of 264 cases: 12.1%) of currently relevant allergic contact dermatitis: 23 cases from epoxy resins based on the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA-ERs), 5 from reactive diluents, 1 from amine hardeners (DETA), and 3 from epoxy acrylates. Two cases (0.8%) of irritant contact dermatitis were due to ERCs. Methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA, an epoxy hardener) caused 1 case of contact urticaria. Previously relevant occupational allergic contact dermatitis from DGEBA-ERs was detected in 5 cases. On patch testing, ERC allergens gave the following positive reactions: epoxy resin of the standard series in 35 cases (4.0% of 870 tested), epoxy reactive diluents in 10 (7.1% of 140), cycloaliphatic epoxy resins in 4 (11.1% of 36), epoxy acrylates in 4 (4.5% of 88), and amine compounds commonly used as epoxy hardeners in 17. Despite extensive patch test series, testing with patients' own ERCs remains important.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1990, Vol.23, No.3, p.172-183. Illus. 34 ref.
Work-related contact allergy to colophony - Identification of contact allergens in unmodified rosin
Yrkesbetingad kolofoniumallergi - Identifiering av kontaktallergena ämnen i omodifierat harts [in Swedish]
Exposure at work was found to be important for the prognosis of dermatitis in patients with known allergy to colophony. The allergenicity of gum rosin and tall oil rosin was studied. Abietic acid, the classic allergen, was found to be a prohapten. A method for isolation and identification of allergenic components was developed. Different contact allergens were identified. Oxidation products of resin acids were found to be allergenic. The allergenic activity of colophony was diminished by chemical reduction.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 33p. Illus. 128 ref.
De Zotti R., Larese F.
Occupational asthma due to cyanoacrylic glues
Asma da collanti cianoacrilici [in Italian]
Cyanoacrylate-based glues have been reported as producing dermatitis and bronchial asthma. The paper describes the case of a patient occupationally exposed to Loctite 406, who developed irritation of the skin and mucosae of the face and late bronchial asthma. Preventive measures for subjects exposed to cyanoacrylic instant glues are discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1990, Vol.81, No.2, p.142-146. Illus. 18 ref.
Flyvholm M.A., Menné T.
Sensitizing risk of butylated hydroxytoluene based on exposure and effect data
A national database on chemical products (the Danish Product Register (PROBAS)) was searched for products containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). As of March 1990, 440 products containing BHT were registered. The BHT content was below 50ppm in 66% of these products. Paints/lacquers (1- and 2-component) and hardeners for 2-component paints, glues, fillers, etc. make up the main categories. No positive reactions were seen in 1336 consecutive eczema patients patch tested with BHT. As BHT is widely used, one can consider it as a safe antioxidant in the normally used concentrations. The possibilities, limitations, and demands of product registration as exposure estimates are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1990, Vol.23, No.5, p.341-345. 14 ref.
Halkier-Sørensen L., Heickendorff L., Dalsgaard I., Thestrup-Pedersen K.
Skin symptoms among workers in the fish processing industry are caused by high molecular weight compounds
Scratch tests were performed with fish juice containing high and low molecular weight compounds obtained by ultrafiltration and with degradation compounds known to accumulate in fish stored on ice. 75 volunteers were tested. The peptide pattern in raw fish juice and its high and low molecular weight fractions were analysed and the concentration of protein in the various fractions was determined. Fish products were analysed for bacteria and algae and the concentration of degradation compounds was measured. Mainly high molecular weight compounds (polypeptides) of fish juice were found to be responsible for the skin symptoms.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1990, Vol.24, No.2, p.94-100. Illus. 18 ref.
O'Malley M.A., Carpenter A.V., Sweeney M.H., Fingerhut M.A., Marlow D.A., Halperin W.E., Mathias C.G.
Chloracne associated with employment in the production of pentachlorophenol
To evaluate the association between exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the occurrence of chloracne, the medical and personnel records for individuals employed in the manufacturing of PCP were studied. Forty-seven cases of chloracne were identified among 648 workers (7%) assigned to PCP production at a single plant between 1953 and 1978. No linear trend in the risk of chloracne was observed with the duration of employment. Workers with a documented episode of direct skin contact with PCP had a significantly increased risk of chloracne compared with workers who did not have such an episode. Results confirm that chloracne is associated with exposure to PCP contaminated with hexachlorinated, heptachlorinated, and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.17, No.4, p.411-421. 23 ref.
Sharma V.K., Kaur S.
Contact sensitization by pesticides in farmers
30 farmers with contact dermatitis and 20 controls were patch tested with a series of locally used pesticides. Allergic reactions to one or more pesticides were seen in 11 patients but none of the controls. Carbamates (maneb, carbofuran, carbaryl) were the most frequent sensitisers (7 patients), followed by organophosphorus compounds like: malathion and oxydemton methyl (4 patients); 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and fenvalerate (3 patients each); streptocycline (2 patients). Irritant reactions to captaf were seen in 4 patients, thiobencarb weedicide in 3, and organophosphorus compounds in 3. Pesticides should be patch tested in all farmers with contact dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1990, Vol.23, No.2, p.77-80. Illus. 17 ref.
de Groot A.C., Conemans J.M.H.
Contact allergy to furazolidone
A case of occupational contact allergy to furazolidone, used as an animal feed additive and as an antimicrobial drug in veterinary medicine, is described. The patient did not react to furazolidone 2% pet. Using PEG-400 and alcohol as patch test vehicles resulted in positive patch test reactions. No cross-reactions were observed to other nitrofuran derivatives (nitrofurazone, nitrofurantoin) or to furfural. The literature on contact allergy to nitrofurans is reviewed.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1990, Vol.22, No.4, p.202-205. 20 ref.
Berg M., Axelson O.
Evaluation of a questionnaire for facial skin complaints related to work at visual display units
A questionnaire about facial skin problems was answered by 3745 office employees, with the aim of discovering whether VDU work causes skin disease. From this group, 809 randomly selected persons were examined and interviewed by a dermatologist. There was a relatively good correspondence (87%) between the results from the interviews and the questionnaires, but the questionnaire results corresponded to current status in only 46% of the cases. There was a relatively wide variation in the correlation between 2 responses to the same questions. In conclusion, the self-administered questionnaire seems to give reasonably adequate answers regarding the occurrence of more clear-cut symptoms over a period of time, rather than answers regarding the presence of signs at a particular point in time.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1990, Vol.22, No.2, p.71-77. Illus. 14 ref.
Schiele R., Hanslik A., Weltle D.
Progressive systemic scleroderma and occupational exposure to quartz dust
Progressive systemische Sklerodermie und berufliche Quarzstaubexposition [in German]
Records of 13 professional organisations and 42 dermatological clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany yielded 10 scleroderma cases between 1974 and 1989 with likely occupational exposure to quartz dust. Questionnaires mailed to 750 members of a self-help group for persons with scleroderma were answered by 51 men and 165 women. Occupations with likely exposure to quartz dust were held by 16% of the men and 1% of the women. A causal relationship between scleroderma and occupational exposure to quartz dust could neither be confirmed nor excluded.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1990, Vol.25, No.6, p.252-258. Illus. 38 ref.
Seidenari S., Danese P., Nardo D., Hanzini B.M., Motolese A.
Contact sensitization among ceramics workers
139 workers from 3 ceramics factories underwent a dermatological and allergological examination, using standard and occupational patch test series, in order to evaluate the prevalence of dermatitis and contact sensitisation, to identify the most important sensitising substances in the ceramics industry, and to correlate the results with possible risk factors such as atopy. Hand dermatitis had affected 37% of the subjects examined. 27% of the workers were sensitised to 1 or more allergens. Of 52 subjects with dermatitis, 37% had allergic contact dermatitis and 63% irritant contact dermatitis. 18 subjects were found to be sensitised without showing any previous or present clinical symptoms. Atopy tended towards correlation with the overall incidence of dermatitis, though not with the prevalence of sensitisation.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1990, Vol.22, No.1, p.45-49. Illus. 5 ref.
Koh D., Foulds I.S., Aw T.C.
Dermatological hazards in the electronics industry
This article reviews dermatological hazards in connection with the main industrial processes in the electronics industry. They include exposure to irritants and allergens during common operations such as soldering, cleaning operations, materials handling, procedures for control of static electricity and low humidity in the work environment. In spite of the numerous dermatological hazards, the risk for work-related skin disorders among electronics workers appears to be low when compared with other industries. However, the vast size of the electronics workforce will contribute to large numbers of workers with occupational dermatoses. Occupational health personnel responsible for factories in the electronics industry should therefore be aware of the dermatological hazards present, and how these may lead to work-related dermatoses.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1990, Vol.22, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 45 ref.
Murray A., Kangro H.O., Heath R.B.
Screening hospital staff for antibodies to varicella-zoster virus
In hospitals there is a risk of cross-infection of staff by varicella-zoster virus (VZV). As vaccination of susceptible hospital staff with live varicella vaccines cannot be recommended at present, this letter to the editor recommends routine screening for VZV antibody status during the pre-employment health checks of new employees.
Lancet, 21 July 1990, Vol.336, No.8708, p.192. 2 ref.
Hautschutz [in German]
Protezione della pelle [in Italian]
Protection de la peau [in French]
This updated illustrated booklet (see CIS 76-1089) gives practical information on: causes of skin injuries produced by chemical or physical agents; mode of action of harmful substances; description of the diseases; technical and individual preventive measures.
Cahiers suisses de la sécurité du travail, Luzern, Switzerland, Mar. 1990, No.122. 20p. Illus.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
National strategy for the prevention of occupational skin disorders
This strategy provides a framework for the assessment and prevention of occupational skin disorders. Contents: background information on the chemical, physical and biological agents which may cause skin disorders; characteristics of contact dermatitis, skin cancer and skin infections; prevalence of skin disorders and occupations at risk; measures required to assess the problem and improve existing knowledge (data collection, research); preventive measures (provision of information, training, regulations and standards, model intervention projects for specific industries and occupations).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Mar. 1989. iii, 16p. 22 ref.
Acne: A summary of the occupational health concern
L'acné: Un résumé des risques sur le plan professionnel [in French]
This information note relates three different groups of chemicals to three types of occupational acne: oil acne, coal-tar acne, and chloracne. The occupational groups affected are listed by type. Prevention measures are outlined.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 4p. 8 ref.
Bruze M., Almgren G.
Occupational dermatoses in workers exposed to epoxy-impregnated fiberglass fabric
In a plant producing printed circuit boards 84 of 143 employees complained of dermatoses. Of these 79 were examined by patch tests with products from the work environment. In 35 (22%) evidence of occupational dermatoses was found. Contact allergy to bisphenol A diglycidyl ether was diagnosed in six persons.
Dermatosen, 1989, Vol.37, No.5, p.171-176. Illus. 18 ref.
Matsumoto Y., Kawabe M., Yasue T., Yuguchi M., Yoshida I.
Two cases of scleroderma associated with vibration syndrome
Shindō-shōgai ni gappei shita kyōhishō no 2 rei [in Japanese]
Case 1, a 49 year-old male who had been engaged in repair and reclamation of automobile tyres developed symptoms of vibration syndrome after some 30 years' use of a grinder and impact wrench. Two years thereafter, multiple sclerodermic lesions appeared over the trunk, upper extremities and thighs; these disappeared about 2 years later. His serum was positive for anti-centromere antibody. This case corresponded to generalised morphea. Case 2, a 53 year-old male, developed symptoms of vibration syndrome after 25 years' use of a jack hammer in a quarry. Thereafter, sclerodermic changes of the forearms, lower legs, face and abdomen occurred with an associated sclerodactyly. These findings, together with serum positivity for anti-RNP antibody and dilation of the lower portion of the oesophagus, led to a diagnosis of progressive systemic sclerosis. The vibration syndrome in the present cases might be related aetiologically to these forms of scleroderma.
Japanese Journal of Dermatology, Feb. 1989, Vol.99, No.2, p.155-161. Illus. 15 ref.
Contact allergy to ultraviolet curable acrylate products in paints and varnishes
Kontaktallergi för ultraviolett härdande akrylatprodukter i färger och lacker [in Swedish]
Investigation of the sensitising capacity of the various acrylic compounds commonly used in paints and coatings using the Guinea Pig Maximisation (GPM) test. The polyester acrylate tested was classified as a moderate sensitiser. Tests of di(meth)acrylates based on bisphenol A or epoxy resin showed that allergenicity apparently diminishes when the acrylates have three or more methylene groups in the molecular chain. Impurities in some acrylate products are highly allergenic. Among the urethane acrylates, the aliphatic compounds appear to be more potent sensitisers than the aromatic equivalents. Most multifunctional di- and triacrylic compounds proved to be potent sensitisers. The purity of the tested acrylic compounds was analysed by HPLC. Guidelines for measures to minimise skin hazards are suggested.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 39p. 18 ref.
Szliska C., Rakoski J.
Massagers and skin diseases
Masseurberuf und Hautgefährdung [in German]
The number of dermatoses among masseurs has increased rapidly in recent years. Patch tests have revealed allergies towards natural plant substances, such as cinnamaldehyde, used in massage lotions. Nine allergens were identified which are listed in a table. They are all substances occurring naturally in plants and trees.
Dermatosen, 1989, Vol.37, No.6, p.227.
Comparison of risk of occupational dermatoses and allergy to metals in workers employed in plants manufacturing prefabricated building products made of ordinary concrete, cellular concrete and asbestos cement
The frequency of dermatitis, oil acne and allergies to chromium, cobalt and nickel in persons exposed to cement, fly-ash and asbestos cement was studied. The metal content in these materials was assessed. The risk of dermatitis and allergy to metals, and especially to chromium, is higher in persons manufacturing prefabricated building products of cement than in those manufacturing them of fly-ash and asbestos cement, and the risk is similar in persons making products of fly-ash and asbestos cement.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1989, Vol.2, No.2, p.200-208. Illus. 20 ref.
Kubasiewicz M., Starzynski Z.
Case-referent study on skin cancer and its relation to occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. I. Study design
The authors present the first stage of a case-referent study conducted to confront a hypothesis suggesting the existence of an important causal relationship between the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and skin cancer. The investigated group consisted of patients suffering from skin cancer, while control groups comprised individuals from the general population, patients from hospital departments and dermatological outpatients clinics. The present paper deals with the characteristics of cases and their referents, ways of selecting examinees, a method of data collecting, the work of interviewers and the information concerning localisation and histopathological forms of diagnosed skin cancers.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.12, No.3, p.222-228. Illus. 11 ref.
Take N., Kiryu H.
Semi-malignant pitch acanthoma on the hand of a coke oven worker
Kōkusu-ro sagyōsha no te-no-kō ni shōjita picchi akantōma no ichirei [in Japanese]
A 75-year-old male had worked mainly as a coke oven worker for 24 years. 15 years after his retirement, he noticed a small, rapidly growing nodule on the dorsal aspect of his right hand. Histological examination showed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with horn-pearl formation. A pack of atypical cells was observed within the lesion, suggesting an early malignant change. As tar or pitch remains within the skin in spite of careful cleansing, exposed workers have a relatively high risk of developing skin cancer. The present case shows that such malignant change can occur after many years and emphasises the necessity of long-term follow-up, perhaps throughout the lifetime of such workers.
Journal of UOEH, June 1989, Vol.11, No.2, p.189-192. Illus. 6 ref.
Halkier-Sørensen L., Thestrup-Pedersen K.
Skin irritancy from fish is related to its postmortem age
Scratch tests with different fish products were performed in 145 volunteers. All fish products were capable of causing irritant skin reactions. Itching and erythema were the predominant symptoms and severe itch reactions occurred more often than severe erythema. The symptoms were, in general, mild to moderate compared to histamine. The post-mortem age of the fish was found to be of great importance in the frequency and severity of the symptoms. Only the protein fraction of fish products caused symptoms. Results were in accordance with the subjective complaints and clinical findings among workers in the fish processing industry.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1989, Vol.21, No.3, p.172-178. 8 ref.
Ormerod A.D., Wakeel R.A., Mann T.A.N., Main R.A., Aldrige R.D.
Polyamine sensitization in offshore workers handling drilling muds
Oil-based mud, a complex mixture containing amines in emulsifiers, is used in offshore drilling operations. It is a skin irritant that occasionally gives rise to allergic contact sensitivity. In patch testing patients with allergy to drilling mud we have identified polyamine (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine) sensitivity in 5 patients. All 5 patients were also allergic to emulsifiers. These emulsifiers are cross-linked fatty acid amido-amines, in which unreacted amine groups are thought to cross-sensitise with these constituent polyamines. Cross-reactivity between ethylenediamine, diethyleneamine and triethylenetetramine was found in 9 subjects.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1989, Vol.21, No.5, p.326-329. 3 ref.
Hansen K.S., Petersen H.O.
Protein contact dermatitis in slaughterhouse workers
Protein contact dermatitis, described as "gut eczema" or "fat eczema" by slaughterhouse workers, was first described around 1980. It presents as an itching, vesicular eczema on the hands and fingers, a few hours after contact with animal material, especially gut material. In a cross-sectional study of 144 slaughterhouse workers, a cumulative prevalence of current and anamnestic cases of protein contact dermatitis of 22% was found, with the highest prevalence in workers eviscerating and cleansing gut. The scratch patch test was the only skin test showing positive results in workers with protein contact dermatitis, positive reactions being found, however, in less than half the cases.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1989, Vol.21, No.4, p.221-224. 6 ref.
Pryce D.W., White J., English J.S.C., Rycroft R.J.G.
Soluble oil dermatitis: A review
Cutting fluid technology has rapidly developed, presenting dermatologists and occupational physicians with a changing pattern of skin disease. The use of soluble oils has increased, and has been followed by an increase in the incidence of eczematous dermatitis. This is usually an endemic, chronic, irritant contact dermatitis, but thorough patch testing can also reveal allergic contact dermatitis. In conditions of heavy exposure, the prevalence of dermatitis can be as high as 30%. Research into resistance factors in those who do not develop dermatitis, and susceptibility factors in those who do, may elucidate basic mechanisms of irritancy. Efforts must continue to be directed at prevention because, once established, soluble oil dermatitis can be slow to resolve, even after specialist treatment and change of job. Prevention can be directed at the machine operative, the soluble oil, and the machine.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1989, Vol.39, No.3, p.93-98. 44 ref.
Pryce D.W., Irvine D., English J.S.C., Rycroft R.J.G.
Soluble oil dermatitis: A follow-up study
A pilot follow-up study of patients with soluble oil dermatitis was designed to investigate the effects on prognosis of aetiology and of stopping working with soluble oils. A questionnaire was sent to 121 machine operators who had been diagnosed over a 5-year period. Life table analysis of the 100 replies (83%) revealed a poor prognosis both for those who had continued to work with soluble oils and for those who had stopped. Both groups were divided into 4 subgroups with different combinations of aetiological components: allergic and endogenous, non-allergic and endogenous, allergic and non-endogenous, non-allergic and non-endogenous. No significant difference in outcome emerged in either the discontinued contact group or the continued contact group between any aetiological subgroups. The implications of this study for the management of soluble oil dermatitis are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1989, Vol.21, No.1, p.28-35. 12 ref.
Cox N.H., Moss C., Hannon M.F.
Compound allergy to a skin marker for patch testing: A chromatographic analysis
A patient was demonstrated to have contact allergy to a solution used to mark sites of application of patch tests, during investigation of allergy to gold and nickel. Negative results were obtained when patch testing was performed using the individual constituents of the marker solution (gentian violet, dihydroxyacetone and acetone). Chromatographic analysis of various combinations of these chemicals did not identify a chemical derivative which might have caused this reaction.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1989, Vol.21, No.1, p.12-15. 18 ref.
Sharma S.C., Kaur S.
Airborne contact dermatitis from Compositae plants in northern India
60 patients (45 male and 15 female) with suspected airborne contact dermatitis from Compositae (Asteraceae) plants and 20 age-matched controls (15 male and 5 female) were investigated. Patch tests were performed with ethanolic plant extracts of 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Dahlia pinnata and Tagetes indica, all prevalent in northern India. 55 (92%) patients showed positive patch tests, with 35 (64%) demonstrating positive tests to extracts of only 1 of the 4 plants tested. No positive patch tests were seen in the controls. Parthenium hysterophorus (78%) was the most frequent plant causing a reaction, followed by Chrysanthemum morifolium (42%), Dahlia pinnata (18%) and Tagetes indica (7%).
Contact Dermatitis, July 1989, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-5. 23 ref.
Cavelier C., Foussereau J., Gille P., Zissu D.
Allergy to nickel or cobalt: Tolerance to nickel and cobalt samples in man and in the guinea pig allergic or sensitized to these metals
The aim of this study was to evaluate, in animals and humans sensitive to nickel or cobalt, the tolerance to manufactured metal samples of nickel and cobalt of a defined metallographic structure, plated or not with a layer of chrome or copper/chrome of a determined thickness. Under the defined experimental conditions, a guinea pig sensitised to one metal (nickel or cobalt) was intolerant to both metals (nickel and cobalt). A plating of chrome or copper/chrome did not act as a protection. In the human, it was not the same: the tolerance to metal samples was determined by the specific sensitivity. A plating of chrome or copper/chrome did not act as protection.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1989, Vol.21, No.2, p.72-78. 14 ref.
Follow-up of workers from the prefabricated concrete industry after the addition of ferrous sulphate to Danish cement
Ferrous sulfate has been added to cement manufactured in Denmark, reducing the water soluble chromate content to not more than 2ppm, since September 1981. A comparison is made between the medical and employment status of a cohort of workers engaged in the manufacture of prefabricated concrete bulding components in 1981 and in 1987. Workers who had allergic cement eczema in 1981 appeared to show no improvement 6yrs after the reduction of chromate in the cement. Improvement was seen, however, in the eczema of those workers with irritant cement eczema. The 1987 study showed that topical steroid treatment was required by more chromate-sensitised workers than by workers not sensitised to chromate. This difference was statistically significant. The worse medical prognosis of the chromate-sensitised workers could in part be due to the fact that some of these had secondary contact sensitivity to cobalt and rubber chemicals.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1989, Vol.20, No.5, p.365-371. Illus. 28 ref.
Larmi E., Lahti A., Hannuksela M.
Immediate contact reactions to benzoic acid and the sodium salt of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid - Comparison of various skin sites
Benzoic acid (BA) and the sodium salt of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (NaPCA) were tested in 13 healthy persons to obtain information about the irritant properties of NaPCA and the reactivity of various skin sites. BA at 16, 8, and 4mM pet., and NaPCA at 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25% in water, were applied to the forehead, cheek, neck and upper back. Erythema reactions were observed visually, and the changes in the skin blood flow were monitored with a laser-Doppler flowmeter. BA at 16mM increased blood flow on the cheek of 12 test subjects, and on the neck, forehead and upper back of 6 subjects, but 8 and 4mM BA elicited reactions only on the cheek. NaPCA caused reactions of the upper back of 3 test subjects only, but not on other test sites.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1989, Vol.20, No.1, p.38-40. Illus. 6 ref.
Hostynek J.J., Patrick E., Younger B., Maibach H.I.
Hypochlorite sensitivity in man
Observation of an individual with immediate-type reaction following exaggerated dermal exposure to hypochlorite-containing cleaning products prompted review of similar hypersensitivity reactions attributed to hypochlorite or other highly reactive chemicals. This review confirms isolated instances of hypochlorite sensitivity of the immediate type from inhalation or topical challenge of sensitised individuals. It is possible that excessive and prolonged exposure to hypochlorite may irritate and damage the skin. This potentially gives rise to altered proteins which in rare cases may cause hypersensitivity. This reaction is common to other reactive small molecules with a strong irritant action.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1989. Vol.20, No.1, p.32-37. 36 ref.
De Boer E.M., Van Ketel W.G., Bruynzeel D.P.
Dermatoses in metal workers - I. Irritant contact dermatitis
In an epidemiological study of 286 metalworkers exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF), the prevalence of skin problems was investigated. Minor changes such as dry, rough skin with slight erythema were seen in 31%, and major changes, such as more serious and widespread dermatitis, were observed in 27% of all workers. By far the most cases were of irritant origin; in only 2.8% was a contact sensitisation established. Exposure to water-based MWF caused irritant contact dermatitis more often than exposure to neat oils. No influence was found of the presence of atopy on the occurrence of dermatitis. Other factors that may result in irritation of the skin are discussed as well as measures to be taken to minimise insult of the skin.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1989, Vol.20, No.3, p.212-218. 22 ref.
Kanerva L., Estlander T., Jolanki R.
Allergic contact dermatitis from dental composite resins due to aromatic epoxy acrylates and aliphatic acrylates
Seven patients were occupationally sensitised to dental composite resin products (DCR): 6 dental nurses and 1 dentist. All had a positive patch test to their DCR. Two independent types of allergy were seen: (a) aromatic epoxy acrylate and/or (b) aliphatic acrylates. Four out of 5 patients reacted to BIS-GMA, the most widely used aromatic epoxy acrylate in DCR, but not the dentist. She and 2 dental nurses were allergic to aliphatic acrylates, including triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA) and triethylene diglycol diacrylate (TREGDA). Four patients were allergic to epoxy resin (ER) (containing mainly MW 340), possibly an impurity in some DCR. Two patients were also allergic to methyl methacrylate (MMA): the dentist had been exposed to MMA but the nurse's exposure was uncertain. One patient was also allergic to rubber gloves, 2 to rubber chemicals but not their gloves, and 5 to disinfectants used. Diagnosis was delayed as long as 13yrs in spite of previous patch testing. Dermatologists need to use the patient's own DCR and the (meth)acrylate series for patch testing. Dental personnel need to know about the risks of DCR, and use no-touch techniques and protective gloves.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1989, Vol.20, No.3, p.201-211. Illus. 40 ref.
Occupational dermatoses at a film laboratory - Follow-up after modernization
The occurrence and causes of occupational dermatoses at a film laboratory following modernisation was studied. In 1983 the film laboratory moved to new premises built to reduce exposure to hazardous chemicals. The study was carried out during 1983-1986 with repeated interviews and dermatological examinations of all employees (78 subjects) and patch testing those with a history of or with current chemical exposure or dermatitis (65 subjects). Of 54 chemically exposed subjects, 34 (63%) had a history of occupational dermatoses, and 12 (22%) suffered from contact allergy to film chemicals. Current probable occupational dermatoses were observed in 13 subjects - of whom 8 had hand eczema. No new case of occupational skin disease occurred during the investigation period except for 1 case of ulceration from an acid splash. Petrolatum mixtures of colour developing agents, metol and hydroquinone were found most suitable for patch testing since these chemicals are unstable and/or cause irritation in aqueous solutions. It is concluded that occurrence and severity of occupational dermatoses had been reduced by the technical measures taken to reduce chemical exposure.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1989, Vol.20, No.3, p.191-200. Illus. 16 ref.
Sakakibara S., Kawabe Y., Mizuno N.
Photoallergic contact dermatitis due to mineral oil
Report on a 39 year-old metal polishing mechanic with a history of acute-on-chronic eczematous eruption on sun-exposed skin for the previous 2yrs. It improved in winter. He had been using an insoluble oil, CRT 20, as a cutting oil for 20yrs. The cutting oil itself and mineral oil, which was one of its ingredients, showed positive reactions on photopatch testing. This is the first report of photoallergic contact dermatitis due to mineral oil.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1989, Vol.20, No.4, p.291-294. Illus. 4 ref.
De Boer E.M., Van Ketel W.G., Bruynzeel D.P.
Dermatoses in metal workers - (II) Allergic contact dermatitis
In an epidemiological study of 286 metalworkers exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF) the prevalence of contact sensitisation was investigated. In 40 employees with dermatitis, patch tests were performed with a routine series, a series of common components of MWF, and a series of preservatives the employees worked with. Contact sensitisation was established in 8 persons (2.8% of all workers), of whom 4 were allergic to biocides and/or corrosion inhibitors. Difficulties in interpretation of the relevance of positive reactions are discussed. Attention is paid to the use of biocides in MWF, their various types and their sensitising capacities. Measures to reduce the induction of contact sensitisation to preservatives in water-based fluids are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1989, Vol.20, No.4, p.280-286. 38 ref.
Thestrup-Pedersen K., Larsen C.G., Rønnevig J.
The immunology of contact dermatitis - A review with special reference to the pathophysiology of eczema
This review summarises current knowledge of the pathophysiological events which lie behind the development of contact dermatitis. The clinical distinction between allergic and irritant eczema is discussed. New observations suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying allergic and irritant eczema may be similar.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1989, Vol.20, No.2, p.81-92. 133 ref.
Wiggins P., McCurdy S.A., Zeidenberg W.
Epistaxis due to glutaraldehyde exposure
Unusual case of recurrent epistaxis associated with other symptoms of upper respiratory tract irritation and skin rash in a hospital employee using glutaraldehyde for sterilisation of endoscopy equipment. A visit to the workplace revealed inadequate personal protective measures and inadequate local ventilation. High-risk work practices contributing to the hazard included soaking of endoscopy equipment in uncovered basins, manual pouring of concentrated glutaraldehyde solutions without the use of paper protective measures, and the use of paper masks, which provide inadequate protection from solvent vapours. The patient's symptoms resolved with the implementation of personal protective measures and engineering controls.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.31, No.10, p.854-856. 21 ref.
Allergic contact dermatitis from glutaraldehyde exposure
A hospital maintenance employee developed an airborne contact dermatitis when cleaning respiratory therapy equipment. Patch-testing determined that she was allergic to glutaraldehyde, an ingredient in a popular commercial germicidal product. The increasing concern over acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other infectious diseases has resulted in more intensive cleaning, sterilising, and disposal procedures in health care facilities. This, in turn, may lead to an increased risk of contact dermatitis among health care workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.31, No.10, p.852-853. Illus. 8 ref.
Kambič V., Radšel Z., Gale N.
Alterations in the laryngeal mucosa after exposure to asbestos
The laryngeal mucosa of 195 workers in an asbestos cement factory (Salonit Anhovo, Yugoslavia) and in a control group was examined. The factory manufactures asbestos cement products containing about 13% asbestos (8% amosite, 12% crocidolite, and 80% chrysotile) of different provenance. Alterations in the laryngeal mucosa were more frequent in the factory workers than in the control group. The changes, mostly consistent with chronic laryngitis, were closely related to the degree of workplace pollution and less so to the duration of employment. Ten workers exhibiting the most severe clinical changes underwent biopsy, the results of which showed histomorphological changes characteristic of hyperplastic chronic laryngitis. Four tissue specimens were examined also by scanning electron microscopy and in 3 of them asbestos fibres were found on the epithelial surface. No case of laryngeal carcinoma was identified. On the basis of our results it is thought that asbestos related changes of the larynx should receive more attention and that the use of the term "laryngeal asbestosis" is justified. The clinical picture is non-specific but in view of their frequency such changes should be considered a consequence of exposure to asbestos.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.46, No.10, p.717-723. Illus. 19 ref.
Pifer J.W., Friedlander B.R., Kintz R.T., Stockdale D.K.
Absence of toxic effects in silver reclamation workers
Recent reports have alleged that silver presents a toxic hazard to exposed workers. To define the potential risks of long-term exposure to silver better, a cross-sectional investigation was conducted of 27 Caucasian males occupationally exposed to primarily insoluble silver compounds and 27 matched referents. Physical examination and electron microscopy of skin biopsies revealed no cases of generalised argyria. Measurements of facial discoloration, judged from colour photographs by panels of laymen and physicians, showed no significant difference between the two groups. Although 29% of the silver workers and none of the referents exhibited ocular silver deposition, optometric and contrast sensitivity test results revealed no significant deficits in visual performance. The kidney and respiratory findings were essentially normal in both populations. Despite the increased presence of silver in the blood, faeces, and hair of the recovery workers versus the referents, there was no evidence that chronic silver exposure adversely affected the health of these employees.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1989, Vol. 15, No.3, p.210-221. 42 ref.
Low molecular weight chemicals, hypersensitivity, and direct toxicity: the acid anhydrides
The acid anhydrides are a group of reactive chemicals used widely in alkyd and epoxy resins. The major hazards to health are mucosal and skin irritation and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. Most cases of occupational asthma caused by acid anhydrides appear to be immunologically mediated. Immunological mechanisms are proposed to explain an influenza-like syndrome and pulmonary haemorrhage, but direct toxicity may also be important in the aetiology of these conditions.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1989, Vol.46, No.4, p.222-232. Illus. 112 ref.
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