Skin diseases - 1,481 entries found
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Estlander T., Keskinen H., Jolanki R., Kanerva L.
Occupational dermatitis from exposure to polyurethane chemicals
In addition to asthma, contact dermatitis may also develop from occupational contact with polyurethane (PU) chemicals. 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis from exposure to PU chemicals were diagnosed in 1974-1990. The present paper summarises the results and gives detailed descriptions of 3 such patients. The results suggest that when allergy to PU chemicals is suspected, patch tests should include, in addition to diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA), at least 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) 1.5-2% pet. They also suggest that test substances can be used for over a year, and that allergy to MDA may point to MDI exposure contained in PU chemicals.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1992, Vol.27, No.3, p.161-165. 17 ref.
Leira H.L., Tiltnes A., Svendsen K., Vetlesen L.
Irritant cutaneous reactions to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)
Several workers in a small electrotechnical company in Norway experienced irritant reactions of the skin after a few days of working with the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Due to concern about the health risk of commonly-used organic solvents, the company had chosen to use NMP when one of its products had to be treated with a solvent. After 2 days of work with NMP, 10 of the 12 involved workers displayed acute irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. According to published reports, NMP is not considered to be particularly irritant to the skin. The Safety Data Sheet of a Norwegian sales firm contained no information on cutaneous hazards, but the Safety Data Sheet of an American producer of NMP stated the risk of severe dermatitis upon prolonged contact. NMP seems to be more irritant to the human skin than reported thus far.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1992, Vol.27, No.3, p.148-150. 9 ref.
Galanou I., Pécoud A.
Allergy to laboratory animals: Test interpretation versus diagnosis
Allergie aux animaux de laboratoire: considérations diagnostiques [in French]
Allergy to laboratory animals occurs in 10-30% of subjects professionally exposed to rats, mice or rabbits. Results of diagnostic tests (skin tests, specific IgE in serum) performed with different allergens (epithelium, urine, serum) were analysed. Skin tests using commercial extracts were not consistently positive, in vitro tests tended to give more frequent positive results than did traditional RAST, and in general, it was sufficient for the identification of IgE to use animal epithelium (urine and serum are less useful). The Pharmacia CAP system gave positive results more frequently than traditional RAST. The positive results found in healthy subjects reinforce the need for a careful case history in interpreting allergological diagnostic tests.
Médecine et hygične, 2 Sep. 1992, Vol.50, No.1944, p.2121-2122, 2125-2126.
Kanerva L., Estlander T., Jolanki R., Henriks-Eckerman M.L.
Contact dermatitis from telefax paper
A non-atopic female secretary developed hand dermatitis after one year of full-time work with telefax paper. Her dermatitis improved on sick leave and vacation and relapsed at work. Patch testing showed allergic reactions to several fragrances, balsam of Peru, colophony and neomycin. In three patch test sessions, her own telefax papers gave a doubtful reaction which persisted for four days, but it could not be determined whether the reactions were allergic or irritant. The colophony content of the telefax paper was about 1%, and it was possible that colophony in the telefax paper was responsible for the weak patch test reactions. Accordingly, the contact dermatitis would have been allergic. The patient has now been relocated, does not handle telefax paper, and is symptomless. It was concluded that the patient had an occupational hand contact dermatitis induced by telefax paper and possibly caused by colophony allergy.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1992, Vol.27, No.1, p.12-15. 22 ref.
House R.A., Jakubovic H., Wong L., Holness D.L.
Work-related toxic epidermal necrolysis?
A case of toxic epidermal necrolysis is described in an employee of a company that carries out plastic extrusion using various resins, including cellulose acetate, co-polyester, polyvinyl chloride, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, and polyethylene. Air sampling during normal operating conditions indicated only trace amounts of hydrogen chloride and the plasticiser diethylphthalate. However, pyrolysis products of resin plugs could include compounds such as formaldehyde, acrylonitrile, and chlorinated hydrocarbons that have been associated with previous case reports of either erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis. The development of toxic epidermal necrolysis in this worker was directly preceded by exposure to a vapour from a machine used to dry cellulose acetate. The problems in determining work relatedness and advising about return to work are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1992, Vol.34, No.2, p.135-139. 36 ref.
A prospective study of the development of hand eczema in an automobile manufacturing industry
To try do define individual predictive risk factors for the development of hand eczema and to determine the prevalence of hand eczema within 1 year in an automobile manufacturing industry, 1564 new employees were investigated during one year of employment. The employees were personally interviewed and examined before their employment. Written questionnaires were used at 3 and 12 months to obtain information on type of work, exposure, protection and hand dermatitis. All patients developing hand eczema were examined, patch tested and followed to determine the course and consequence of their eczema. The risk turned out to be only 4% on average, but significantly higher in females (6%). Certain sections within the factory such as wet work and work in the paint shop with high exposure to organic solvents carried significantly higher risks. Individual risk factors for the development of hand eczema were previous hand eczema, atopic dermatitis, but also wool intolerance and hay fever as isolated phenomena. Most cases of hand eczema were mild, of the irritant contact type and only one employee developed an allergic contact dermatitis due to the working environment. This study is the first large-scale prospective investigation of occupational hand eczema in employees in the automobile manufacturing industry.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1992, Vol.26, No.5, p.341-345. 16 ref.
Vilaplana J., Romaguera C., Grimalt F.
Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium
There are various references to sensitisation to beryllium in the literature. Applying patch testing for sensitivity to beryllium chloride to patients with suspected sensitisation to metals, 3 cases of sensitisation to beryllium were found. Of these 3 cases, one was the result of occupational exposure to beryllium during the manufacture of dental prostheses, one was not occupational and one was of unknown origin.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1992, Vol.26, No.5, p.295-298. 16 ref.
Stubb S., Heikkilä H., Reitamo S., Förström L.
Contact allergy to tioconazole
In 15 months, allergic patch test reactions to tioconazole in 14 patients were detected; 9 of the 14 patients were allergic to additional imidazole derivatives used as antifungal agents. The positive patch test reactions to tioconazole may have been caused either by simultaneous sensitisation or more probably by cross-reactivity between the various commercially used imidazole derivatives with a similar chemical structure. The abundant use of tioconazole in concentrated (up to 28%) topical formulations in Finland could be the major cause of the apparent increase in allergic reactions.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1992, Vol.26, No.3, p.155-158. 3 ref.
Wilkinson S.M., Heagerty A.H.M., English J.S.C.
Hand dermatitis in the pottery industry
Irritant hand dermatitis has long been recognised in the pottery industry. Among workers handling glaze, sensitisation to chromate was common and allergy to other metals and to biocides also occurred. Allergy to oil additives was found in mould makers. Whilst irritant hand dermatitis does occur, allergy to metals and biocides should be looked for in workers handling glazes, and allergy to oil additives in mould makers.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1992, Vol.26, No.2, p.91-94. 11 ref.
Foulds I.S., Koh D.
Allergic contact dermatitis from resin hardeners during the manufacture of thermosetting coating paints
Five production operators from 2 factories manufacturing thermosetting coating paint developed work-related skin disorders within 12 months of the introduction of a new powdered paint product. All 5 workers were found to have allergic contact dermatitis from 2 epoxy resin hardeners, both of which were commercial preparations of triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC). Two of the workers had concomitant sensitisation to epoxy resin in the standard series and several of the epoxy resin preparations at the workplace. TGIC has been reported as a contact sensitiser both in persons producting the chemical and among end-users to TGIC-containing products. These 5 reported cases document allergic contact dermatitis from commercial TGIC among exposed workers during an intermediate process of powdered paint manufacture. The possibility of substituting this epoxy resin hardener with less sensitising alternatives should be explored.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1992, Vol.26, No.2, p.87-90. Illus. 4 ref.
Koh D., et al.
Dermatologic complaints among visual display unit operators and office workers
This brief communication is in reply to a previous report which found no support for the hypothesis that visual display units cause skin diseases. Results of surveys of skin complaints among office workers and school staff are summarized and suggest that there is no over-representation of dermatologic symptoms among the office employees compared with school staff. The influence of the choice of control group on the interpretation of results is stressed.
American Journal of Contact Dermatitis, 1991, Vol.2, p.136-137. 2 ref.
Neuberger M., Landvoigt W., Derntl F.
Blood levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in chemical workers after chloracne and in comparison groups
A study was made of workers involved in the production of chlorophenoxy herbicides. Nine production workers with a history of chloracne from exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in 1971-1973 had a median level of 340pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) per gram blood lipid in 1990. This was significantly higher than blood levels in four controls without chloracne and no known exposure from the same plant and in 17 external controls. Results demonstrate that chloracne may be considered as a reliable indicator of heavy dioxin exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1991, Vol.63, No.5, p.325-327. 13 ref.
Pierini F., Piccoli B., Moroni P.
Dermatitis in VDT operators - A literature review
Dermatiti in operatori a VDT - Rassegna della letteratura [in Italian]
This paper reports on studies on the relationship between work with VDTs and dermatitis in operators. From the first observation in 1979, numerous studies have been carried out to try and explain the reason why some forms of dermatitis like rosacea, eczema seborrhoeica and erythema appeared more frequently in VDT operators than in the general population. Various authors think that low indoor air humidity associated with a strong electrostatic field may be essential factors in the occurrence of dermatitis. Laboratory experiments have shown that the presence of a strong electrostatic field does not seem to be important in itself. Similarly, it is agreed that X, UV-A or UV-B radiations do not play any causative role in dermatitis. Further investigations are required to assess the influence of indoor climatic factors and the presence of irritant substances in the air of the working environment.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1991, Vol.82, No.5, p.451-457. 19 ref.
Hashimoto D.M., Kelsey K.T., Seitz T., Feldman H.A., Yakes B., Christiani D.C.
The presence of urinary cellular sediment and albuminuria in newspaper pressworkers exposed to solvents
A cross-sectional study of 215 newspaper pressroom workers (76% of the total eligigle) was conducted to investigate the relationship between organic solvent exposure and increased urinary cellular sediment. Thirty-two compositors were surveyed as referents. Industrial hygiene measurements showed low-level airborne exposure to organic solvents and minimal airborne exposure to glycol ethers. There was a high prevalence of solvent-related dermatitis, indicating significant dermal exposure to these substances. Pressworkers were exposed to solvent mixtures associated with dose-related increases in leukocyturia alone or in urinary cellular sediment. The presence of urinary cellular sediment was associated with increasing frequency of use of five organic solvent mixtures. The increase in urinary cellular sediment may be due to the effects of solvents on the kidney. Sixteen percent of pressmen and no compositors were found to have primarily low-grade albuminuria. Workers with urinary cellular sediment were significantly more likely to have detectable albuminuria, which was more likely to occur with increased frequency of use of four solvent mixtures.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.516-526. Illus. 49 ref.
Sinks T., O'Malley M., Hartle R., Hales T.R., Ruhe R.
An epidemic of dermatitis at a large construction site
In 1986, an epidemic of dermatitis occurred among more than 5,600 construction site workers in the United States. To identify its cause, the medical facility nurses' log was used to characterise the outbreak by person, place, and time. A strong association was found between dermatitis and the handling of fire-retardant lumber and plywood. Carpenters experienced the greatest risk. Those working only with fire-retardant lumber had a rate of dermatitis four times that of carpenters working exclusively with untreated wood. Carpenters who occasionally worked with fire-retardant lumber and plywood were at moderate risk. Although laboratory tests showed that phosphate compounds could be leached with water from the fire-retardant wood, an extract of these phosphates did not irritate the skin of laboratory animals. The specific chemical agent in the fire-retardant lumber which caused the epidemic was not identified. In view of the observed association, construction workers should handle this material with caution, especially in high temperatures and humidity.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.462-467. 12 ref.
Generalised scleroderma and inhalation of mixed dusts containing free silica
Sclérodermie généralisée et inhalation de poussičres mixtes contenant de la silice libre [in French]
This information note and literature survey reviews the nature of scleroderma, its respiratory manifestations and suspected causes. Epidemiological data are examined in detail, comparing persons exposed to silica with the general population. The existence of a relation between silicosis and scleroderma and between scleroderma and silica dusts without an intermediate pneumoconiosis stage is discussed. Finally, the medico-legal aspect is examined, with a view to including the condition in the schedule of compensable occupational diseases in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1991, No.46, p.101-106. Illus. 44 ref.
Allergens responsible for eczemas at work - Classification by occupational activity
Allergčnes responsables d'eczémas en milieu de travail - Classement par activités professionnelles [in French]
This data sheet, without being exhaustive, provides an annotated list of the principal allergens which may be responsible for eczemas during occupational activities. It is intended as a first guide in the aetiological study made by an occupational physician faced with the occurrence of an eczema at the workplace.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.45, p.27-36. Illus. 43 ref.
Todaro A., Nava C.
Allergic disease due to squaric acid dibutyl-ester - Description of two cases in a working environment
La patologia allergica da dibutil-estere dell'acido squarico - Descrizione di due casi in ambiente lavorativo [in Italian]
Case study of an episode of contact dermatitis in four pharmaceutical industry workers. Symptoms regressed after cessation of exposure. Each worker underwent clinical investigations with specific patch tests for the products handled. In two subjects there were positive skin reactions to squaric acid dibutyl-ester, a substance with powerful allergenic action and consequently rarely used on the market. Following elimination of the compound from the production cycle, no further cases of dermal symptoms were reported among the operators.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1991, Vol.82, No.3, p.276-279. 8 ref.
Kubasiewicz M., Starzyński Z., Szymczak W.
Case-referent study on skin cancer and its relation to occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - II. Study results
The study was performed on a group of 376 males suffering from skin cancer and on 2 control groups, 752 males each, matched according to age. Referents were randomly sampled from the general population as well as from hospital wards and dermatological out-patient clinics. The analysis of occupational exposure to different products containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced data which indicated an increased risk of skin cancer in persons exposed to mineral oil (odds ratio = 1.46; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.05). In the case of exposure to sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons other than mineral oils, no significant increase in skin cancer risk was noted.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1991, Vol.4, No.2, p.141-147. Illus. 14 ref.
Kanerva L., Laine R., Jolanki R., Tarvainen K., Estlander T., Helander I.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by nitroglycerin
Four cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by nitroglycerinee from explosives are described, and one case of sensitisation caused by transdermal nitroplaster. On patch testing, dynamite and/or the explosive components nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate and dinitrotoluene gave allergic reactions. The following concentrations and vehicles are suggested for patch testing: nitroglycerine 0.5-2% pet., dinitrotoluene and ethylene glycol dinitrate 0.1-0.5% pet. Persons exposed to nitroglycerine at work should try to avoid skin contact by using protective gloves. It is advisable that those who have become allergic to nitroglycerine should wear disposable protective gloves when handling explosives.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1991, Vol.24, No.5, p.356-362. Illus. 35 ref.
Budde U., Schwanitz H.J.
Contact dermatitis among hairdressing apprentices in Lower Saxony
Kontaktdermatiden bei Auszubildenden des Friseurhandwerks in Niedersachsen [in German]
In June and July of 1989, 4008 hairdressing apprentices (M,F) in Lower Saxony (Germany) participated in a questionnaire survey on the prevalence of contact dermatitis. Over 70% reported skin problems and nearly 30% encountered severe skin problems since inception of their apprentices (M,F)hip. Twenty percent had to give up this profession due to a skin disease. Eleven percent suffered from skin problems prior to becoming an apprentice. Protective gloves were worn by 79% only during hair dying operations.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Mar.-Apr. 1991, Vol.39, No.2, p.41-48. Illus. 54 ref.
Abrams K., Hogan D.J., Maibach H.I.
Pesticide-related dermatoses in agricultural workers
Literature survey on occupational skin diseases in farm workers due to contact with pesticides. A general overview of the field conditions of exposure is presented, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations. The bulk of the paper summarises the latest scientific data concerning specific chemicals under the following broad categories: pesticides derived from plants; inorganic and organo-metal pesticides; solvents; fumigants; chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides; organophosphates; carbamates; rodenticides; herbicides; fungicides; slimicides; antibiotics; miticides; plant-growth inhibitors; insect repellents. The special dangers of working with livestock is addressed, including zoonotic infections. Patch testing, the accepted diagnostic tool for contact dermatitis, is explained.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.3, p.463-492. 190 ref.
Occupational skin diseases from epoxy compounds - Epoxy resin compounds, epoxy acrylates and 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride
This thesis is based on a survey of the literature and on investigations carried out between 1974 and 1990. Of a total of 3,731 patients examined for suspected occupational skin disease 142 (7.7%) had conditions caused by epoxy compounds (mostly, epoxy paints and their raw materials, epoxy resin compounds used in electrical insulation and epoxy glues). The study also found that contact allergy to epoxy hardeners and reactive diluents was common. It is concluded that all compounds containing an epoxy group, epoxy acrylates or polyamine hardeners include a sensitisation risk, the highest risk being associated with the handling of products in the liquid form. The thesis also reprints 10 articles on the subject that appeared in the scientific literature between 1986 and 1991.
Acta dermato-venereologica, 1991, (Suppl. 159), 162p. 189 ref.
Zhang X.M., Niklasson B., Li S.Y.
Patch testing in cases of eczema and dermatitis in Beijing, China
Of 124 patients with eczema and dermatitis patch tested by the European standard series of allergens in the period from April to October 1989, 59 cases showed sensitivity to 1 or more allergens. Potassium dichromate, nickel sulfate and cobalt chloride were the 3 major sensitisers, with a frequency of 17.9%, 13.8% and 10.6%, respectively. The office and factory workers showed a higher incidence of positive reactions than the student group. The environment of the office and the factory seems to be the potential source of exacerbating factors of eczematous skin disease.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1991, Vol.25, No.4, p.224-229. Illus. 21 ref.
Contact allergens in registered chemical products
A national database on chemical products (the Danish Product Register (PROBAS)) was searched for products containing selected contact allergens. As of June 1990, a total of 47,400 products were registered in PROBAS. A list of 43 allergens was established, based on the European standard patch test series (substances classified "may cause sensitisation by skin contact"), text books on contact dermatitis, and clinical experience. The number of products in which each of these allergens was registered varied from 30 to more than 1300. Formaldehyde was registered in all product categories included in the study. Benzyl alcohol, stearic acid, epoxy compounds, diethylenetriamine and butylated hydroxytoluene were registered in more than half of the product categories. Paints/lacquers and hardeners for 2-component products (paints, glues, fillers, etc), cleaning agents, binders, adhesives/glues and toiletries made up the most frequently registered product categories for the allergens listed. The possibilities and limitations of database information on chemical products are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1991, Vol.25, No.1, p.49-56. Illus 15 ref.
Allergic contact dermatitis from 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan
A 30 year-old pharmacist suffered from acute allergic contact dermatitis due to 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-C1). Contact allergy towards this reagent and 2 of its reaction products was proven by patch tests. As NBD-C1 has not been reported as an allergen before, the characteristics of this chemical and its use as an analytical reagent are briefly surveyed. Similarities to dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) are pointed out.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1991, Vol.25, No.2, p.121-124. Illus. 14 ref.
Risk factors for cement eczema
Risk factors for cement eczema were studied among workers employed in the Danish construction industry. Two cohorts exposed to cement containing different concentrations of water-soluble chromate were examined. A statistically significant decrease in the number of workers with allergic cement eczema was found in the cohort exposed to cement with the lower water-soluble chromate concentration. A 3rd cohort exposed to cement was followed to evaluate individual risk factors. The degree of exposure to wet cement seems to have a certain, although not statistically significant, effect on the risk of developing irritant cement eczema. Individual preventive measures, such as the use of gloves and creams, did not seem to reduce the development of irritant cement eczema.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1991, Vol.25, No.2, p.81-88. Illus. 20 ref.
de la Cuadra J., Grau-Massanés M.
Occupational contact dermatitis from rhodium and cobalt
The report of a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from rhodium sulfate and cobalt chloride in a 29 year-old woman working in a goldsmith's workshop is presented. The relevance and source of sensitisation to these metals in this patient is described, and the literature on the subject reviewed.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1991, Vol.25, No.3, p.182-184. 5 ref.
Vilaplana J., Romaguera C., Grimalt F., Cornellana F.
New trends in the use of metals in jewellery
Owing to the constant increase in the number of cases of nickel sensitisation seen in most allergy departments of dermatology and to the fact that sensitisation to nickel is almost always through contact with jewellery and imitation jewellery, an update was carried out on the metal alloys principally used in the manufacture of such jewellery (earrings, bracelets, necklaces, rings, watch straps, etc.). The conclusions of this review demonstrate that nickel is irreplaceable in the majority of the alloys because of its excellent technical properties and low price and, as a result, the percentage of sensitisations to this allergen will not only maintain their present high level but will probably increase in the future.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1991, Vol.25, No.3, p.145-148. 11 ref.
Yakes B., Kelsey K.T., Seitz T., Hashimoto D., Feldman H.A., Christiani D.C.
Occupational skin disease in newspaper pressroom workers
Studies of printing industry tradespeople have reported an increased problem of dermatologic abnormalities, including contact dermatitis and dermatitis attributed to solvent exposure. The reported cross-sectional health survey of dermatological conditions was conducted in a follow-up of perceived skin abnormalities among newspaper pressroom workers. 215 pressroom workers and 34 compositors at a large northeastern US newspaper printing facility were surveyed. Printing pressroom workers reported skin condition symptoms at a significantly higher rate than did the compositor referent group. Pressroom workers also were found to be at a significantly elevated risk of developing dermatitis after self-reported exposure to certain commonly used solvents. This emphasises the need for proper work practices, product substitution where possible, and appropriate protective glove use by newspaper pressroom workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.711-717. 15 ref.
Reygagne A., Garnier R., Efthymiou M.L., Gervais P.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to glyceryl monothioglycolate. Persistence of the allergen in hair several weeks after permanent wave application
Eczéma au monothioglycolate de glycérol chez une coiffeuse. Persistance de l'allergčne dans les cheveux plusieurs semaines aprčs l'application d'une permanente [in French]
Glyceryl thioglycolate (GTG) used in acid permanent-wave solutions appears to be much more sensitising than ammonium thioglycolate, the main component of traditional permanent-wave products. A case of allergic contact dermatitis due to GTG is reported in a 43-year old hairdresser whose symptoms were strictly work-related. She only cut hair and had no direct contact with cosmetic products. Patch testing was positive for GTG only. Positive reactions were also obtained with hair treated with the solution and cut immediately or several weeks after the application of the preparation. This shows that GTG may be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers and emphasises the long persistence of the allergen in hair, makint its removal especially difficult.
Journal de toxicologie clinique et expérimentale, May-June 1991, Vol.11, No.3-4, p.183-187. 9 ref.
Wall L.M., Gebauer K.A.
A follow-up study of occupational skin disease in Western Australia
From a total of 993 previously reported cases of occupational skin disease (OSD), 954 (96%) were contacted and 711 (75%) examined. The review time (i.e. period from original diagnosis of OSD until review) varied from a minimum of 6 months to a maximum of over 8 yrs. Over 60% of cases were reviewed more than 2yrs after the original diagnosis was made. More than 50% were still suffering from OSD or consequences related thereto. Clearance was less likely in those who remained in their original, or similar, occupational environment. However, of those who changed their job due to OSD, many suffered aggravation of the dermatitis from factors in the new work environment. Over 10% of cases had evolved into a persistent postoccupational dermatitis without obvious cause. This condition is responsible for considerable impairment and is of medicolegal importance due to confusion as to its relationship to the original occupational factors.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1991, Vol.24, No.4, p.241-243. 12 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Health surveillance of occupational skin disease
This guidance note provides advice on the surveillance of those at risk from irritants, sensitisers and other non-infective skin damaging agents, excluding ionising and non-ionising radiation. Contents: occurrence of occupational dermatoses; mechanisms of damage and individual susceptibility; definition and diagnosis of contact dermatitis; irritants and chronic irritant contact dermatitis; sensitisers and allergic contact dermatitis; other non-infective hazardous agents; risk assessment and precautions in the workplace; health surveillance and legal requirements; clinical investigation and diagnosis; management of individual cases. An appendix provides a list of some occupational contact irritants and sensitisers.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Jan. 1991. 11p. 27 ref.
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)
Fluorescent lighting and malignant melanoma
Topics: artificial lighting; directive; fluorescent tubes; IRPA; melanoma; skin cancer; ultraviolet radiation.
Health Physics, Jan. 1990, Vol.58, No.1, p.111-112. 30 ref.
Skin diseases: Causes, symptoms and prevention
Enfermedades de la piel - Causas, síntomas y prevención [in Spanish]
Information booklet aimed at workers. It covers the symptoms of dermatosis and preventive measures, as related to various causal factors: cement, organochlorides, chromic acid, pitch, lubricants, nickel compounds and formaldehyde. Glossary.
ISSSTE, Av.Juárez No.134, 4o piso, Col. Tabacalera, C.P. 06030, México, D.F., Mexico, 1990 (?). 23p. Illus. 4 ref.
Zaragoza Fernández A., Sobrino Torréns R., Fornés Ubeda V.
Dermatología profesional [in Spanish]
Discussion of occupational dermatitis, in particular contact dermatitis. Contents: predisposing and contributing factors, epidemiology, pathogenic and sensitisation mechanisms, symptomatology; diagnostic examinations, including skin tests; contact dermatitis in atopic individuals and photosensitisation dermatitis; general and specific preventive measures, such as barrier creams and protective gloves and clothing; most commonly encountered hazardous chemical products and occupations.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1990, Vol.37, No.149, p.72-83. 3 ref.
Conde-Salazar L., Guimaraens Juanena D., Romaguera Sagrera C.
Protection and prevention measures for occupational skin diseases
Medidas de protección y prevención de las dermatosis profesionales [in Spanish]
Collective and personal protective measures for occupational skin diseases are reviewed. The importance of identifying the hazards related to different production processes and work stations is noted. Preventive measures can be summarised as follows: information and training; skin hygiene; protective clothing, including footwear, gloves and barrier creams; industrial hygiene, including ventilation; machine maintenance.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Oct.-Dec. 1990, Vol.37, No.150, p.30-39. 21 ref.
Conde-Salazar L., González M.A., Guimaraens D., Galán D.
Occupational dermatosis in health care personnel
Dermatosis profesionales en el personal sanitario [in Spanish]
Skin disorders are surveyed in health care workers. Classification is according to aetiological agent: biological (fungi, bacteria, viruses and parasites); physical (X-rays); environmental (low humidity, airborne substances); chemical agents (irritants and allergens). Health-care areas with a high risk of sensitisation dermatitis, e.g. dentistry, surgery, veterinary medicine and the pharmaceutical industry, are studied in detail.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr.-June 1990, Vol.37, No.148, p.3-12. 48 ref.
Koh D., Goh C.L., Jeyaratnam J., Kee W.C., Ong C.N.
Dermatological symptoms among visual display operators using plasma display and cathode ray tube screens
A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of dermatological complaints in 672 full-time operators of plasma display (PD) screens and cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors in Singapore. The overall one year period prevalence rate for dermatological complaints was 12%. 36 (13%) of PD operators and 46 (11%) of CRT operators had skin complaints. Results indicate that the prevalence and nature of dermatological symptoms among operators using either type of VDU monitor are similar. A personal history of atopy was strongly associated with the likehood of having skin complaints.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, Sep. 1990, Vol.19, No.5, p.617-620. 15 ref.
Delaporte M.F., Estryn-Behar M., Brucker G., Peigne E., Pelletier A.
Skin pathology and professional practice in hospitals
Pathologie dermatologique et exercice professionnel en milieu hospitalier [in French]
The prevalence of dermatoses among female hospital staff (doctors excluded) was evaluated during medical examinations in 13 large Parisian hospitals in 1986. Of the 1,505 women, 14% had had dermatoses likely to be of occupational origin during the previous 12 months, while 18% were diagnosed with a dermatosis at the time of the examination (8% likely to be of occupational origin). The conditions were: eczema, irritative dermatitis, urticaria and pruritus. The main identified risk factors were: short length of service, manipulation of hazardous products during work (e.g. formaldehyde), cleaning work, work in maternity and paediatric wards, and work in air-conditioned rooms with insufficient relative humidity. Prevention methods are described.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.2, p.83-88. 25 ref.
Epidemiology of hand eczema in an industrial city
A questionnaire was sent to 20,000 individuals aged 20-65 years, randomly selected from the population register of Gothenburg, Sweden. Persons reporting hand eczema were invited to examinations including patch tests. The one-year period prevalence was about 11% and the point prevalence 5.4%. Hand eczema was twice as common among females as among males. Irritant contact dermatitis was most common, followed by atopic hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis. The most common contact allergens were nickel, cobalt, fragrances, Peru balsam and colophony. The only occupational group with an especially high period prevalence was that of service workers, with the highest prevalence among cleaners. Physicians had been consulted by 69% of the respondents, and 21% had been on sick leave at least once. The most important predictive factor for hand eczema was a history of childhood eczema. Such histories were more common among younger persons; this indicates an increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis, from which one may predict a rising prevalence of hand eczema. This monograph was also published in Acta Dermato-Venereologica, Suppl. 153.
Department of Dermatology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden, 1990. 43p. Illus. 49 ref. Bound with reprints of 8, 7, 11, 13 and 11p. Total: 97p. (all with bibl.ref.).
Handling of vaccine virus. Is it necessary to immunise the laboratory personnel concerned?
Manipulation du virus de la vaccine. Faut-il immuniser les personnels de laboratoire concernés? [in French]
Numerous investigations on vaccines currently use the cowpox virus as a recombination vector. The risk of accidental contamination during the handling of this virus has raised the question of the advantage of immunisation by Jennerian vaccination of the laboratory personnel concerned. This medico-technical information note sets out the conclusions presented by the official authorities to industrial physicians in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.389-390.
Allergens potentially responsible for occupational eczema
Allergčnes divers pouvant ętre responsables d'eczémas en milieu de travail [in French]
This data sheet provides condensed information on the following occupational allergens: aziridine (ethylenimine), 4-tert-butylpyrocatechol, chloroacetamide, 2-chloroacetophenone, o-chlorobenzylidene-malonitrile, methyl dichlorobenzenesulfonate, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, dodicin, formaldehyde, triglydicyl isocyanurate, Kathon CG, 2-chloro-N-(hydroxymethyl)-acetamide, phenylindole, propanidid, propolis, phenol-formaldehyde polymers, Skane M-8, 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile, tetryl, methyl p-toluenesulfonate, trinitrotoluene.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1990, No.43, p.233-238. Illus. 51 ref.
Rosenberg N., Gervais P.
Persulfates and sulfites
Persulfates et sulfites [in French]
A general review of alkaline persulfates, used as oxidants, and sulfites, used as reducing agents. These substances are all irritants, and probably sensitisers, of the skin and respiratory tract. Contents: sources, physico-chemical properties, use, physiopathology, pathology, prevention and compensation in France.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, Pathologie du travail, 1990. 2p. 13 ref.
Sunlight and skin cancer - The occupational health concern
This information note summarises the effects of sunlight on skin (in particular, the risk of skin cancer). Risk factors and jobs where workers are at risk are listed. Precautions to prevent hazardous exposure to sunlight are outlined.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 7p. 8 ref. Price: CAD 3.00 (Canada).; USD 3.50 (USA).; USD 4.00 (elsewhere).
Skin penetration: Hazardous chemicals at work
This book, based on a project funded by the Commission of the European Communities, contains information on more than 300 industrial chemicals that may be absorbed through the skin in hazardous quantities. Detailed reviews are given on the chemicals that cause the most significant toxic hazards upon skin contact. Relevant data are evaluated in separate chapters devoted to individual classes of chemicals. Approaches to determine skin penetration and the resulting health hazards are discussed and presented in a uniform format in separate chapters devoted to individual classes of chemicals. Approaches to determine skin penetration and the resulting health hazards are discussed.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., 4 John Street, London WC1N 2ET, United Kingdom, 1990. ix, 187p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Bolla I., Gariboldi L.M., Gabrielli M., Baldo D., Romanelli A., Tuberti E., Magnani F.
Nasal diseases due to occupational exposure to chromium in the electroplating industry - Cytomorphological aspects
Rinopatia da esposizione professionale a cromo nell'industria galvanica - Aspetti citomorfologici [in Italian]
26 workers were studied (9 chrome-platers exposed to chromium dioxide and 17 workers exposed to metallic chromium dust) in order to investigate the macroscopic and cytological changes of the nasal mucosa due to exposure to water-soluble hexavalent chromium or to metallic chromium dust in the electroplating industry and the role of different valencies in the onset of nasal disease. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that hexavalent chromium, which is a strong oxidiser, induces more noticeable toxic effects on tissues and mucous membranes than do other compounds. The correlation between the degree of local toxic effects and the chemical state of chromium was demonstrated in both the macro- and the microscopic investigations and in particular in the cytological examinations: cases of atypia were found only in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium. Evidence of atypia raises the question of whether hexavalent chromium may act as a carcinogenic agent on the rhinosinusal mucosa. For this reason, the introduction of cytological nasal examination in health surveillance programmes for this category of workers acquires considerable importance. Sample collection from the nasal mucosa by brushing is the method of choice since it is simple, non-invasive and gives good diagnostic results.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Vol.81, No.5, p.390-398. Illus. 20 ref.
Costellati L., Guglielmin A.M., Vistoli O., Carboni G.P., Rambaldi R.
Allergic contact dermatitis - Evaluation of patch tests in animal fodder plant workers
Dermatiti allergiche da contatto - Valutazione della positivitŕ ai test epicutanei nei lavoratori di un mangimificio [in Italian]
Patch tests were performed on 43 workers employed in an animal fodder plant, a typical dust-laden environment. The aim of the study was to establish and assess the incidence of preclinical sensitisation to the substances used, some of which are well known allergens, and identify which of these were mostly responsible. On the whole, the tests did not reveal any major reaction to the allergens used, nor polysensitisation. However, an unexpected number of cases was sensitised to phenothiazine, a substance that had not been used for the preceding two years. This observation is of interest since phenothiazine is scarcely allergenic and skin eruptions occur only after photosensitisation.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1990, Vol.81, No.4, p.296-300. 9 ref.
Skin irritating forms
Hautreizende Formulare [in German]
In response to an inquiry into the causes of eruptions between the fingers and in the throat by an office employee working with carbonless paper, known skin irritating chemicals used in the paper are named. These include formaldehyde, polychlorinated biphenyls, zinc and nickel salts. In order to avoid health problems, such as burning eyes, throat irritation and dermatitis, it is recommended to ventilate offices well when working with such paper and not to store it at the workplace. It is also recommended that printers should be used instead of carbonless paper.
Öko-Test-Magazin, Feb. 1990, No.2, p.78.
Occupational dermatoses from photographic chemicals - With special reference to contact allergy and lichenoid reaction to colour developing agents
Yrkeshudsjukdomar av filmkemikalier - Särskilt kontaktallergi och lichenoid reaktion av färgframkallningsämnen [in Swedish]
Synthesis of research results published in various places. Several chemicals used for developing film may cause skin disease, and colour developing agents can cause contact dermatitis and lichenoid reactions. The occurrence of occupational dermatoses was studied at 2 large film laboratories. Half the chemically exposed workers had experienced work-related dermatoses. Modernisation of one of the laboratories had been carried out and all employees underwent yearly examinations from 1983 to 1986. The frequency of current dermatoses was low, contrary to the situation at the obsolescent laboratory. Clinical picture, histopathology and course was studied. The sensitising potential of colour developing agents (CD-2, CD-3, CD-4) and persulfate bleach accelerator (PBA-1) was studied in animal experiments; they were classified as extremely potent allergens. The colour developing agents cross-reacted.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 26p. Illus. 73 ref.
Kleine W., Sonnenberg S., Haas J.
Dermatological findings in occupational medical practice
Dermatologische Befunde in der betriebsärztlichen Praxis [in German]
Screening of 257,064 summaries of case histories from the files of industrial physicians in the Federal Republic of Germany yielded 8724 cases of skin diseases. The records covered the period from 1982 to 1987 and included all types of workers with the exception of seamen and miners. Data are presented on types of skin diseases, nationalities, age, sex and professions involved. An excessively high number of skin diseases was found among chemical workers.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1990, Vol.44, No.3, p.137-144. Illus. 15 ref.
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