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Skin diseases - 1,481 entries found

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  • Skin diseases

1993

CIS 94-1928 Krüger E., Werth B.
Studies of pesticide contamination in root-crop farming
Untersuchungen zur Pestizidkontamination bei Hackfruchtpflegearbeiten in Landwirtschaftsbetrieben [in German]
Dermal exposure pads were attached to the skin of the chest, arms and legs of 61 farm workers spraying root crops with pesticides. The pesticide concentrations found on the pads of workers wearing protective clothing were low. However, concentrations as much as 77.2% in excess of the tolerable dermal dose were found when no protective clothing was worn. Of the 61 workers, 24 had health problems such as headache (23), vision disturbances (11) and dermatitis (2).
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Jan. 1993, Vol.28, No.1, p.9-12. 34 ref.

CIS 94-1241 Meding B.
Skin symptoms among workers in a spice factory
Workers in a Swedish spice factory (n=70), and in the office (n=23) of the same company, were investigated by questionnaire regarding skin symptoms. Later the subjects reporting skin symptoms were examined and investigated by patch and prick testing. Skin symptoms were reported by 50% of the factory workers. Pruritus and skin irritation, particularly from cinnamon powder were common. Patch test reactions to cinnamaldehyde were found in 11/25 factory workers. Irritant patch test reactions were seen from powders of cardamom, paprika and white pepper. On prick testing, 6/25 workers reacted to cinnamaldehyde. The results illustrate the difficulties of patch testing with spices and indicate the need for further research and validation of methods.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1993, Vol.29, No.4, p.202-205. 13 ref.

CIS 94-979 Holmes N., Pearce P., Simpson G.
Prevention of epoxy resin dermatitis: Failure of manufacturers to use available research information
Research information is often recommended as a solution for occupational disease and injury. This study investigated whether publicly available research information on the prevention of a well-documented occupational hazard was acted on by an important sector in industry. The hazard, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by epoxy resins in paints, is particularly significant for painters, who may have to leave their jobs as a consequence of the condition. No evidence was found, according toa priori criteria, that paint manufacturers/suppliers acted on known prevention measures for epoxy resin ACD that were within their control to implement. The findings suggest that availability of research information alone fails to solve health and safety problems. Recommendations for avenues of direct and indirect enforcement where voluntary implementation is absent in the painting industry are suggested.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.24, No.5, p.605-617. 44 ref.

CIS 94-974 Brouwer R., van Maarleveld K., Ravensberg L., Meuling W., de Kort W., van Hemmen J.J.
Skin contamination, airborne concentrations, and urinary metabolite excretion of propoxur during harvesting of flowers in greenhouses
In eight greenhouses used for carnation culture, workers engaged in harvesting (n=16) were monitored for dermal and respiratory exposure and urinary excretion of propoxur. Total estimated dermal and respiratory exposure during harvesting ranged from 0.2 to 46mg and from 3 to 278µg, respectively. To study the relationship between external and internal exposure to propoxur, respiratory and dermal exposure levels were compared with the total amount of 2-isopropoxyphenol (IPP), the major metabolite of propoxur, excreted in urine in 24hrs. The Pearson correlation coefficient between dermal exposure and the total amount of excreted IPP was 0.95. A correlation coefficient of 0.84 was found between respiratory exposure and the amount of IPP excreted. The latter association was probably caused by the covariation of respiratory and dermal exposure levels (r=0.85). Calculations indicated that dermal exposure could account for >80% of the amount of excreted IPP. On the basis of the amount of IPP excreted, there was no reason to suspect increased health risks for workers from exposure to propoxur during harvesting.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.24, No.5, p.593-603. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 94-948 Flyvholm M.A., Andersen P.
Identification of formaldehyde releasers and occurrence of formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers in registered chemical products
Substances referred to as formaldehyde releasers were identified through a review of the literature. Information on product categories and typical concentrations for chemical products containing formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers was obtained from the Danish Product Register Data Base (PROBAS). As of February 1992, 62,000 products were registered in PROBAS, 30,900 of these with information on composition and product category. Among the components of these products, 19 of the 22 identified formaldehyde releasers were found. The number of products registered with each formaldehyde releaser varied from 4 to 171, with cleaning agents, soaps, shampoos, paint/lacquers, and cutting fluids as the most frequent product categories. The most frequently registered formaldehyde releasers were bromonitropropanediol, bromonitrodioxane, and chloroallylhexaminium chloride. Formaldehyde itself was registered in 1,781 products, and was found in all product categories included in the study. It is concluded that products for industrial use as well as household products should be considered as sources of formaldehyde exposure. The use of unsystematic chemical names in literature is discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.24, No.5, p.533-552. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 94-259 Koh D.S.Q.
A study of occupational dermatoses in the electronics industry
This thesis presents the results of a literature survey on dermatological hazards in the electronics industry along with a questionnaire survey of workers in two electronics factories in the United Kingdom and Singapore. Work-related skin disorders were common: 94 (33%) of the UK workers and 482 (19%) of the Singapore workers had at least one previous episode of a work-related skin disorder. The majority of disorders were due to trauma of the skin (burn scars, abrasions) while cases of irritant or allergic contact dermatitis were infrequent. There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of acne.
Journal of Occupational Medicine - Singapore, Jan. 1993, Vol.5, No.1, p.v-x, 1-76. Illus. 130 ref.

CIS 94-209 Cheng W.N., Coenraads P.J., Hao Z.H., Lui G.F.
A health survey of workers in the pentachlorophenol section of a chemical manufacturing plant
During 1968 to 1985, 109 workers who had been engaged in the production of pentachlorophenol, using non-gamma isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) as the raw material, were surveyed. Endemic chloracne among them had been noted since 1974. The prevalence of chloracne was 73.4% (80/109) in total and 95.2% (20/21) in a trichlorobenzene (TCB) tank area where dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels were thousands of ppm. It seems that PCDDs and PCDFs have not previously been reported from thermal decomposition of BHC. Urinary porphyrins were significantly higher among exposed workers than among the controls but there was no significant difference between the workers with chloracne and those without. The conduction velocities of the median motor nerves were much slower among the workers in the TCB tank area where the highest PCDD contamination appeared. The mortality study cohort was relatively young. Based on the three deaths observed during the follow-up, no association could be drawn.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1993, Vol.24, No.1, p.81-92. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 94-206 XXIInd National Congress of Occupational Medicine - First European meeting - Topic 3: Occupational dermatitis of chemical origin
XXIIes Journées nationales de médecine du travail - Première rencontre européenne - Thème 3: Dermatoses professionnelles d'origine chimique [in French]
Papers and posters presented at the XXIInd National Congress of Occupational Medicine on occupational dermatitis of chemical origin (Nantes, France 2-5 June 1992) include: frequency of occupational dermatitis (OD) of chemical origin; airborne contact dermatitis (CD); OD due to metals and their salts; cement dermatitis; dermatitis; dermatitis due to rubber; skin allergy to gloves; contact urticaria of chemical origin; protein CD; CD due to plastic substances; CD due to coolants; printing; CD due to vegetables; pesticides; hairdressers; dermatitis due to antiseptics, aldehydes and detergents; dermatitis due to colophony; dermatitis due to epoxy resins: the Franco-Algerian experience; CD due to isothiazolinones; DC due to ethylene oxide; dermatitis in hospital personnel; in vitro antimutagenic activity of a skin-protection emulsion; sterilization of the hands.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.4, iv, 374p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-311 White G.P., Mathias C.G.T., Davin J.S.
Dermatitis in workers exposed to antimony in a melting process
An employee at a brazing-rod manufacturing plant developed a generalized eruption of follicular papules and pustules. His job tasks included breaking up antimony ingots and melting the pieces in a crucible; he was exposed to antimony metal dust and to antimony trioxide fumes. Two fellow employees who later performed the same job tasks developed similar eruptions. The clinical and workplace evaluations suggested that the fumes from melting antimony were the cause of the dermatoses, and that the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit is not adequate in preventing cutaneous effects of antimony exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.392-395. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 94-304 Kanerva L., Estlander T., Jolanki R., Henriks-Eckerman M.L.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by diethylenetriamine in carbonless copy paper
Carbonless copy paper, or 'no carbon required' (NCR) paper, has often been implicated as the cause of skin, respiratory, or general symptoms, but allergy has been verified in only a few cases. A 43-year-old machinist whose work involved the manufacture of NCR paper developed occupational dermatitis on the hands. On patch testing, both the NCR paper and 1 of the chemicals used to produce the microcapsules of the NCR paper, namely diethylenetriamine (DETA), provoked an allergic reaction. Analysis of the paper showed that it contained enough DETA to induce allergic contact dermatitis. People who handle NCR paper and develop symptoms of contact dermatitis should be patch tested with DETA.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1993, Vol.29, No.3, p.147-151. 31 ref.

CIS 94-281 Fullerton A., Gammelgaard B., Avnstorp C., Menné T.
Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement
The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulfate were used. The cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48h or applied repeatedly every 24h for 96h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulfate and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e. pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulfate (20%) on the skin surface for 96h. The content of water-soluble chromium in ordinary Portland cement may vary due to the alkali sulfate content of the cement.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1993, Vol.29, No.3, p.133-137. 11 ref.

CIS 94-197 Tarvainen K., Jolanki R., Forsman-Grönholm L., Estlander T., Pfäffli P., Juntunen J., Kanerva L.
Exposure, skin protection and occupational skin diseases in the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics industry
A total of 100 workers, 86 from the glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry, 11 from polystyrene production and 3 from polyester resin coating manufacture, were examined for occupational skin hazards. The workers had been exposed to many chemicals. Those working in the GRP industry had also been exposed to glass fibre and to dust produced by finishing work, 94% used protective gloves. 22 workers, all employed in the GRP industry, had contracted occupational skin disorders, 6 had allergic and 12 irritant contact dermatitis, 4 workers had an accidental injury caused by a peroxide catalyst, fire, hot air and constant mechanical friction. Allergic dermatoses were due to natural rubber (latex) (4 cases) in protective gloves, phenol-formaldehyde resin (1 case) and cobalt naphthenate (1 case). Irritant hand dermatoses (5 cases) were caused by the combined hazardous effect of unsaturated polyester or vinyl ester resins, organic solvents, glass fibre and dust. Other cases of irritant dermatoses (7 cases) were due to the dust, promoted by mechanical friction of clothes. Skin disorders in the GRP industry were common (26%) but the symptoms were mild.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1993, Vol.29, No.3, p.119-127. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 93-2066 Williams N.R., Cooper B.M.
Counselling of workers handling vaccinia virus
Vaccination with smallpox vaccine for workers handling vaccinia virus was universally recommended in the United Kingdom until 1990. Since 1990, occupational physicians and other doctors acting as supervisory medical officers have been advised to consider the need for vaccination on a case-by-case basis taking into account factors such as the virulence of the organism and the nature of the proposed work. This paper describes the practice in one organisation for the counselling of prospective vaccinia workers and covers the hazards and risks of the work, the main control measures and the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.43, No.3. p.125-127. 9 ref.

CIS 93-1881 Meding B., Torén K., Karlberg A.T., Hagberg S., Wass K.
Evaluation of skin symptoms among workers at a Swedish paper mill
Process and office workers at a Swedish paper mill (n=274) and dairy workers (controls, n=45) were investigated with questionnaires regarding skin symptoms. In the second part of the study, subjects reporting skin symptoms and a random sample of subjects without symptoms were examined and investigated with patch testing. Pruritus and skin irritation probably related to exposure to dust were found. The results do not indicate an increased prevalence of contact allergy. In two cases, positive patch test reactions to paper size (rosin) and a slimicide, mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), were noted.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.23, No.5, p.721-728. 19 ref.

CIS 93-2000
Worksafe Australia
Cement dermatitis
This booklet describes the major factors associated with cement dermatitis. Contents: the nature of dermatitis; risk from handling products containing cement and water (wet mortar, wet plaster, wet grout, wet concrete, uncured concrete masonry, wet cement); assessing the hazard and measurement of water-soluble chromate in cement; controlling the hazard (employer responsibilities, preventive measures, use of ferrous sulfate to lower the content of water-soluble chromate in cement, personal protective equipment, skin care).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1993. 16p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 93-1954 James R.C., Busch H., Tamburro C.H., Roberts S.M., Schell J.D., Harbison R.D.
Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and human disease
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to be of great environmental and occupational health interest. This review summarises the major clinical findings reported in individuals incurring the greatest PCB exposure - those persons working in the manufacturing or repair of electrical capacitors or transformers. The potential target organs addressed in the studies reviewed include the liver, lungs, skin, cardiovascular system, nervous system, certain endocrine systems, the blood/immune system, and the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. After careful analysis, the weight of evidence suggests that the only adverse health effects attributable to high, occupational PCB exposures are dermal. This review confirms and extends the observations of others, i.e., that the collective occupational experience with PCB fluids provides no evidence for adverse PCB effects on any other organ systems.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol. 35, No. 2, p.136-148. 58 ref.

CIS 93-1866 Bruynzeel D.P., de Boer E.M., Brouwer E.J., de Wolff F.A., de Haan P.
Dermatitis in bulb growers
A damaged skin forms a health hazard in flower-bulb growers as it enables higher permeation rates for pesticides than normal skin. An investigation was performed of the skin condition of 103 bulb growers and 49 controls. Contact dermatitis of the hands was of the same order (11 and 10%) in both groups. However, minor signs of dermatitis were seen more often in bulb growers (30% versus 8%, p<0.05). Most growers had contact with narcissus sap during the investigation. This irritant sap, as well as many other skin contacts with irritants such as hyacinth dust and pesticides, seemed to be responsible for many skin complaints. Contact sensitisation was suspected in 19 growers and 3 controls. Patch tests showed that contact sensitisation existed to pesticides in probably 10, and to flower-bulb extracts in 4 growers. Reactions to propachlor were not regarded as very reliable as the test concentration seemed to be marginally irritant. There were only a few allergic reactions to narcissus (3) and tulip (2) and none to hyacinth. This investigation showed that minor irritant contact dermatitis was frequent in bulb growers, and indicated that contact sensitisation to pesticides and bulbs seemed to be a less frequent but important cause of dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1993, Vol.29, No.1, p.11-15. 26 ref.

CIS 93-1865 Kanerva L., Estlander T., Jolanki R., Tarvainen K.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to acrylates during work with dental prostheses
Between 1974 and 1992, an orthodontist, 2 dental technicians and a dental worker developed occupational allergic contact dermatitis from working with dental prostheses. All patients had positive allergic patch test reactions to methyl methacrylate (MMA), the acrylate which is the most widely used in work with prostheses. All but the orthodontist also reacted to dimethacrylates, which are used in cross-linked dental prostheses. The last patient, investigated in 1992, had been exposed mainly to light-cured acrylics, which are similar in composition to dental composite resins. These acrylics, only recently introduced into prosthetic work, contain more potent acrylic sensitisers than MMA. Accordingly, dental personnel working with prostheses may face a higher risk of sensitisation than previously. To detect cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis, patients working with dental prostheses should be patch tested with MMA, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, dimethacrylates, epoxy acrylates and urethane acrylates.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1993, Vol.28, No.5, p.268-275. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 93-1864 Niklasson B., Björkner B., Sundberg K.
Contact allergy to a fatty acid ester component of cutting fluids
Six patients employed in the metalworking industry developed hand dermatitis after exposure to a vegetable-oil based cutting fluid. After thorough investigation, including patch testing with components in the cutting fluid as well as an oil and cutting fluid series, contact allergy was demonstrated to a fatty acid ester EM-550 in the cutting fluid.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1993, Vol.28, No.5, p.265-267. 7 ref.

CIS 93-1863 Rosen R.H., Freeman S.
Prognosis of occupational contact dermatitis in New South Wales, Australia
570 patients with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were seen between 1984 and 1990 at the Skin and Cancer Foundation in Sydney. 336 (59%) were followed up 1 to 5 years later. Roughly a third were healed, a third were improved without complete healing, a quarter had no change and one-twelfth of the patients had deteriorated. The overall improvement rate was in excess of 70%. Data derived from these patients demonstrated that changing the work duties of patients with OCD improved their outcome (p<0.01), whilst leaving the industry altogether resulted in a greater overall healing rate (p<0.01). No difference existed between the outcome of irritant contact dermatitis compared with allergic contact dermatitis. Atopics as expected had a worse prognosis. The outcome in the construction industry was significantly poorer than other industries. Patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis from chromate also had a dismal prognosis.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1993, Vol.29, No.2, p.88-93. 26 ref.

CIS 93-1543 Tarvainen K., Jolanski R., Estlander T.
Occupational contact allergy to unsaturated polyester resin cements
Six men contracted occupational allergic contact dermatitis from unsaturated polyester (UP) cements. 4 of the men were employed in car repair painting and the remaining 2 in mold manufacturing. The exposure time to UP cements ranged from 6 to 32 years before onset of skin symptoms. All patients had eczema on their hands; in addition, 4 had skin symptoms on airborne areas, i.e., wrists, neck and face. All 6 patients developed allergic reactions when patch tested with UP resin at 0.5-10% in petrolatum (pet.). None of the tested patients reacted to auxiliary or cross-linking chemicals of the cements. Diethylene glycol maleate (DGM) was purified and identified from the UP resin of a cement. 1 patient reacting to UP resin was also patch test positive to DGM and he produced an allergic reaction to DGM down to a concentration of 0.0032% pet. DGM wa found in both uncured and cured UP resin. None of the patients could continue their work with UP cements after their sensitisation.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1993, Vol.28, No.4, p.220-224. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 93-1542 Tomb R.R., Lepoittevin J-P., Durepaire F., Grosshans E.
Ectopic contact dermatitis from ethyl cyanoacrylate instant adhesives
Although allergic reactions to cyanoacrylates adhesives are extremely rare, they should not be considered impossible. The authors report on the case of a young hairdresser who developed an occupational allergic contact dermatitis to 2 "instant glues" used to attach false hair. The eczematous eruption involved the fingers and face slightly but mainly the eyelids. Patch test reactions were strongly positive to ethyl cyanoacrylate adhesives.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1993, Vol.28, No.4, p.206-208. 8 ref.

CIS 93-1620 Tandon R., Aarts B.
Chromium, nickel and cobalt contents of some Australian cements
The total chromium, nickel and cobalt concentrations of 8 Australian Portland cements ranged from 49 to 99µg/g, 5 to 54µg/g and ≤1 to 13µg/g, respectively. The water-soluble chromate concentrations of the cements ranged from 0.2 to 8.1µg/g, and the sodium sulfate-extractable chromates form 1.4 to 9.7µg/g. Results for water-soluble nickel (≤0.2µg/g) and cobalt (≤0.05µg/g) indicate that the metals are present only as water-insoluble compounds. The significance of the various data is considered from a dermatological point of view. Cement extracts for the analysis of water-soluble hexavalent chromium (chromates) are stable for at least 12 days. The optimum extraction time for hexavalent chromium in cement appears to be 1h. Almost 100% reduction of hexavalent chromium is possible after 1h using 100 x the stoichiometric value of iron (II) sulfate. The chromates can become gradually insolubilised when the solution from the water added is in direct contact with the cement, i.e., over a period of >60min to 7 days, even without the addition of iron (II) sulfate.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1993, Vol.28, No.4, p.201-205. 17 ref.

CIS 93-1555 Goh C.L., Ho S.F.
Contact dermatitis dielectric fluids in electrodischarge machining
An outbreak of irritant contact dermatitis is reported in the aerospace industry from electrodischarge machining (EDM). Twenty workers doing EDM developed irritant contact dermatitis from the dielectric fluid used in EDM, a form of precision metal-machining that is widely used in mould-making and precision engineering. Dielectric fluid contains hydrocarbons that are aromatic, paraffinic or naphthenic and are skin irritants. Irritant contact dermatitis from dielectric fluid has not been reported previously. EDM will become more widespread and occupational dermatitis from dielectric fluid is likely to become more prevalent in the future. This experience shows that irritant contact dermatitis from dielectric fluid can be prevented by simple preventive measures such as personal hygiene and health education.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1993, Vol.28, No.3, p.134-138. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 93-1205 Guerra L., Vincenzi C., Peluso A.M., Tosti A.
Prevalence and sources of occupational contact sensitization to acrylates in Italy
Acrylate-based products are widely used in the industrialised world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and sources of occupational contact sensitisation to acrylates in a selected population. Between January 1987 and April 1992, 82 patients suspected of occupational acrylic sensitisation were patch tested with the GIRDCA standard series and an extensive acrylate series. Over this five-year period, sensitisation to acrylates was detected in 13.4% of cases. Dental materials and anaerobic sealants were the most important sources of acrylate sensitisation. Among acrylic monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was the most frequent contact sensitiser in this study. Acrylate additives were also important sources of contact dermatitis. Although the clinical picture of airborne contact dermatitis due to acrylates has rarely been reported in the literature, it was commonly observed in patients included in the study.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1993, Vol.28, No.2, p.101-103. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 93-853 Ashworth J., Rycroft R.J.G., Waddy R.S., Irvine D.
Irritant contact dermatitis in warehouse employees
A detailed survey of skin complaints amongst 114 airline employees working in a new warehouse revealed 26 cases of skin problems which originated during the 2 and half year operation. A clinical survey of broadly the same population confirmed 14 cases from 98 employees as chronic irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The work involved the reception, unpackaging, inspection, repackaging and dispatch of aircraft parts. The source of the skin irritation was not to be found in the work itself. The idea that incoming aircraft parts from foreign countries might be "dirty" in some way, had caused a heightened perception of a risk of skin disease, and the frequency of hand washing had increased as a result. Over-frequent hand washing in a few employees had resulted in precisely what the warehouse staff had been trying to avoid.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.43, No.1, p.32-34. 3 ref.

CIS 93-583 Kanerva L., Komulainen M., Estlander T., Jolanki R.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from mercury
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from metallic mercury is rare. The authors present the only two patients with relevant occupational mercury allergy detected at their clinic since 1974. The first patient was a dental nurse who became sensitised to metallic mercury from amalgam when handling uncured amalgam without protective gloves. The second patient had previously been sensitised to mercury from topical medicaments and developed work-related dermatitis when a mercury thermometer was broken at her place of work. Both patients had a positive patch test reaction to metallic mercury.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1993, Vol.28, No.1, p.26-28. 26 ref.

1992

CIS 96-1090 Schaubschläger W.W., Rüsch-Gerdes S., Gödde M.
Infections by Mycobacterium marinum in occupational medicine
Arbeitsmedizinisch relevante Mycobacteriosen durch M. marinum [in German]
It is difficult to diagnose an infection with Mycobacterium marinum as this case study of a 59-year-old horticulturist reveals. Symptoms are aspecific. Isolation of the Mycobacterium marinum by routine methods is not feasible. Samples require incubation temperatures between 30-32°C, as opposed to the normal 37°C. In the case of the horticulturist, it took two years to identify the cause of the ulcers on his hand. In samples from tropical fish tanks, in which the horticulturist sustained minor hand injuries during work, the presence of Mycobacterium marinum was confirmed. Examination of all other employees of the nursery yielded no further cases of mycobacterium infection.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Aug. 1992 Vol.27, No.8, p.331-334. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 95-1754 Stein G.
Sensitization by chromates in leather
Chromatsensibilisierung durch Leder [in German]
Published epidemiologic studies on children and teenagers wearing ordinary leather shoes and adults wearing safety shoes show a connection between foot eczema and chromates in the shoes. Sensitization by chromates requires the presence of sweat in the shoe. Trivalent chromium is frequently used as a tanning agent. The use of safety shoes made of leather tanned with phytogenic agents is recommended. Summaries in English and French.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, May-June 1992, Vol.40, No.3, p.110-112. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 95-1784 Letzel S., Drexler H., Lehnert G.
Tar-induced precancerous growths and malignant tumours of the skin among employees of a tar refinery
Teer-induzierte Präkanzerosen und Malignome der Haut bei Beschäftigten einer Teer-Raffinerie [in German]
The frequency and type of precancerous and malignant skin tumours among 568 male employees of a German coal-tar refinery were determined. All persons participating in the study were recipients of compensation payments for occupational dermatoses. There were 28 cases of precancerous Bowen's disease, 152 cases of skin carcinoma and 77 cases of basal-cell epithelioma. The skin carcinoma incidence was about twice that of the general population; the incidence of basal-cell epithelioma was no higher. The locations and latency periods of the skin tumours are discussed. Summaries in English and French.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, May-June 1992, Vol.40, No.3, p.94-101. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 94-893 French Society of Occupational Medicine and Health - Meetings of 8 Oct. and 12 Nov. 1991
Société de médecine et d'hygiène du travail: Séances du 8 octobre et du 12 novembre 1991 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of 8 Oct. and 12 Nov. 1991 of the French Society of Occupational Medicine and Health: measurement of bronchial reactivity among personnel of a plant manufacturing orthopedic prostheses; cardio-vascular risk factors among truck drivers and drivers of public transport vehicles; study of bronchial hyperreactivity associated with hairdressers' dermatoses; exposure to isocyanates: comparative study of respiratory symptoms in enterprises; conjunctivitis, rhinitis and asthma due to occupational exposure to the medicinal plant Harpagophytum; HIV infection: epidemiological update, classification and trends; aptitude to work of HIV-positive physicians.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.4, p.281-295.

CIS 94-205 Catilina M.J., Pépin D., Raveyre J., Laime D., Catilina P.
A contribution to the study of baker's allergic eczema due to chromium
Contribution à l'étude des eczémas allergiques au chrome du boulanger [in French]
Contact allergic eczema in bakers is sufficiently strange for it to require its own allergens. These eczemas are most frequently due to chromium and chromium salts. Recent studies show that flour proteins are a factor in complicated allergy. Skin tests in the case of baker's eczema are difficult because of the various techniques and substances involved. The case is described in detail of a baker's apprentice suffering from a severe case of eczema due to the handling of sourdough bread dough, whereas another study reported in 1980 the case of an eczema exclusively associated with contact with flour. Tables indicating the amounts of chromium and nickel found in cereals, brans, flours and other material used in bakeries and recommendation of a set of specific allergens to be used in skin tests.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, vol.53, No.1, p.1-4. 12 ref.

CIS 94-188 Hogan D.J., Tanglertsampan C.
The less common occupational dermatoses
While contact dermatitis and nonmelanoma skin cancer are the most common occupational skin disorders in North America, there are many other occupational dermatoses that illustrate the wide range of pathological and adaptive responses of the skin to workplace exposure. Discussed are: acne, chemically induced leukoderma, nail diseases, contact-related burns, high pressure injection injuries, knuckle pads, contact urticaria, heat reactions, isomorphic (Koebner) reaction, photosensitivity, exogenous discoloration of the skin and infections.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1992. Vol.7, No.3, p.385-401. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 93-1677 Garberg P., Högberg J.
Nordic Expert Group for the Documentation of Exposure Limits. 103. Selenium
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation. 103. Selen [in Swedish]
Review and evaluation of the relevant literature. Selenium is encountered in copper refining (where it is recovered as a by-product), in the electronics, glass and rubber industries and in medicine. Selenium acid is toxic, and may enter the body through the skin and respiratory tract. Exposure may occur incase of accidental spills. Hydrogen selenide is more likely to be encountered under normal conditions (metallurgy), and is toxic on inhalation. Short-term exposure via the diet affects primarily the gastrointestinal tract, while chronic exposure produces nail malformations. Some selenium compounds induce skin allergies. Selenium sulfide is a carcinogen at high doses in rats and mice.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 26p. 104 ref.

CIS 93-1350 Salsi S., Barlier A.
Skin hazards due to ultraviolet radiation emitted by tungsten halogen lamps
Risques cutanés présentés par le rayonnement ultraviolet émis par les lampes tungstène halogène [in French]
This article (to be read in conjunction with CIS 93-302) identifies and quantifies long-term dermatological risks related to various models of tungsten halogen lamps of various power and it assesses, in terms of risks, the efficiency of protective glass shields mounted on these lamps. Results show that risks, when tungsten halogen lamps are used under abnormal conditions (i.e. for direct lighting without protective glass shields), are not negligible. Aside from accidents or dangerous incidents, chronic exposure to the ultraviolet radiations emitted by these lamps seems to be the most dangerous in the long-run. On the other hand, when used for direct lighting, these lamps apparently represent no particular health risk when equipped with protective glass shields.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.51, p.295-301. 7 ref.

CIS 93-1203 Foussereau J., Cavelier C., Zissu D.
Contact dermatitis from aldehyde antiseptics in the hospital environment
L'allergie de contact professionnelle aux antiseptiques aldéhydés en milieu hospitalier [in French]
A follow-up of 65 cases of occupational contact dermatitis due to antiseptic components used in hospitals (formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, glyoxal) is reviewed. The sensitising potential of each of these substances and the phenomena of cross-sensitisation were examined in animal experiments involving guinea-pigs. Results confirm that these substances have a strong sensitising potential. A non-exhaustive list of commonly-used antiseptics with active ingredients is used to demonstrate inadequate labelling practices in France.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.5, p.325-338. 18 ref.

CIS 93-1276 Lafontaine M.
Assessment of the dermal carcinogenicity potential of petroleum oils by way of the ultraviolet absorption of a DMSO extract
Estimation du potentiel cancérogène cutané des huiles minérales par la méthode DMSO-UV [in French]
A simple analytical test was developed to evaluate the dermal carcinogenicity of petroleum oils. The method is based on the measurement of the UV absorbance index of DMSO extract in the 260-350nm range. When the absorbance index is less than 200, the oil will be considered as non carcinogenic for the skin, regardless of its viscosity.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1992, Note No. 1901-149-92, p.525-529. 17 ref.

CIS 93-960 Foussereau J., Cavelier C.
Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis due to constituents of plastics
Les dermites de contact par irritation et par allergie aux constituants de matières plastiques [in French]
This information note deals with skin irritation and allergies due to the constituents of plastics (monomers, oligomers, starting materials hardeners, additives); fully polymerised plastics are not allergenic. Constituents are classified by type and frequency of skin damage: irritants (cyanoacrylates and allylic polyesters); frequently allergenic products (epoxies, acrylates and methacrylates); rarely allergenic products (some aminoplasts and phenoplasts, polyurethanes, unsaturated polyesters, vinyl plastics, cellulosic polyethers, other resins and additives). The impact of these products on the skin is more a function of their chemical properties than of the amounts occurring in a given formulation. The observed broad distribution of dermatoses reflects the diversity of plastics manufactured and the number of subjects involved in their production.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.50, p.263-291. Illus. ca.340 ref.

CIS 93-952 Kauffer E.
Seminar "Insulating mineral wools in construction - Health effects"
Journée d'étude: "Les laines minérales isolantes dans le bâtiment - Effets sur la santé" [in French]
Extended abstracts, illustrations and references of the eight contributions presented at an international seminar organised by the French National Research and Safety Institute at Vandœuvre, France, on 10 Dec. 1991. Titles: manufacture of insulating mineral wools; installing insulation; irritant dermatitis due to glass fibre; toxicity of mineral wools: experimental data; penetration, deposition, clearance and persistence of mineral fibres; long-term effects of artificial mineral fibres on health; exposure to artificial mineral wools in the installation of insulating materials; preventive measures in the use of insulating mineral wools in construction.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 1992. 122p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-917 Halbert A.R., Gebauer K.A., Wall L.M.
Prognosis of occupational chromate dermatitis
To elucidate further the natural history and prognosis of occupational chromate dermatitis, 120 affected patients, diagnosed between 1980 and 1989, were reviewed. 65% of the patients were construction workers with cement-induced chromate dermatitis. Workers at greatest risk of sensitisation were those mixing bagged cement at the work site. The median age at onset of symptoms was 34 years, with 48% having been exposed to chromate for 5 years or less. Only 37% presented to the dermatologist within 12 months of developing symptoms. 76% of patients had ongoing dermatitis at the time of review. Although 48% of the study population had completely changed their occupation to avoid chromate exposure, symptoms persisted in 69%. In view of the potential chronicity of chromate dermatitis and its associated social and occupational impairment, the addition of ferrous sulfate while mixing bagged cement at the work site is recommended. This simple technique targets the workers at greatest risk of becoming sensitised.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1992, Vol.27, No.4, p.214-219. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 93-1030 Grimsley L.F., Jacobs R.R., Perkins J.L.
Varicella-zoster virus susceptibility in day-care workers
The susceptibility of day-care workers to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was evaluated by determining antibody to VZV in 545 day-care workers using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of day-care workers susceptible to VZV was 4.8%, and the seronegativity among workers with a negative history of VZV infection was 13.6%. Susceptible workers identified by the serological screen should be sent home for 8-21 days after exposure if VZV infection occurs in the day care setting. All day-care workers of childbearing age should be given the option to be tested for immunity to VZV. Because reports indicate that adults from the tropics may have a higher susceptibility rate to VZV, it is recommended that all day-care workers from the tropics undergo serological screening.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 1992, Vol.7, No.3, p.191-194. 21 ref.

CIS 93-913 Schecter A., Ryan J.J.
Persistent brominated and chlorinated dioxin blood levels in a chemist 35 years after dioxin exposure
In this case study a chemist, after synthesising 10g of 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzodioxin (TBrDD), suffered from mild and transient chloracne of the neck and wrists. Later in the year (September 1956), after synthesising 16g of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), he suffered severe chloracne of the entire body, headaches, backache, and leg pain on exertion. His measured 2,3,7,8-TBrDD in 1991 was 625 parts per trillion (ppt) in whole blood lipid, 35 years after initial exposure and 18ppt TCDD, an elevated level in comparison with the mean 2,3,7,8-TCDD level of 5ppt in the US population. This is the first reported detection of a brominated dioxin in human tissue. The total halogenated dioxin body burden in September 1956 is estimated to have been between 13,005ppt and 146,726ppt. This uptake demonstrates an occupational hazard to chemists and chemical workers, and the usefulness of human tissue dioxin measurements to document absorption.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1992, Vol.34, No.7, p.702-707. 38 ref.

CIS 93-885 Berg M., Arnetz B.B., Lidén S., Eneroth P., Kallner A.
Techno-stress - A psychophysiological study of employees with VDU-associated skin complaints
Little is known about the causes of health complaints associated with work with video display units (VDUs). The symptoms are to a large degree similar to those of "multiple chemical sensitivity." We observed 47 white-collar employees with and without VDU-associated skin complaints during a regular workday and a day of leisure. VDU workers with skin symptoms had higher levels of the stress-sensitive hormones thyroxin and prolactin compared with employees without symptoms. They also had lower levels of the anabolic hormone testosterone during work. VDU workers with skin complaints also reported more occupational mental strain. A model is proposed in which physiological signals act as unconditioned stimuli and the VDU environment as the conditioned stimulus.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1992, Vol.34, No.7, p.698-701. 18 ref.

CIS 93-507 Castelain P.Y., Com J., Castelain M.
Occupational dermatitis in the aircraft industry: 35 years of progress
A comparison of the occupational dermatitis occurring in the same aircraft factory during two separate decades, 1955-1965 and 1981-1990, is presented. Subungual pulpitis is highly specific to this industry, because of the handling of resins and sealing agents. The number of cases dropped from 122 to 40, in accordance with progress in preventive medicine and technological changes in the factory. Irritant contact dermatitis nevertheless remained appreciable, while allergic contact dermatitis greatly decreased.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1992, Vol.27, No.5, p.311-316. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 93-584 Burden A.D., Stapleton M., Beck M.H.
Dithranol allergy: fact or fiction?
A case of a psoriatic patient allergic to dithranol and coal tar is described. It is suggested that dithranol 0.001% pet. is a suitable concentration to test for dithranol allergy, as higher concentrations may produce irritant reactions. The literature on dithranol allergy is reviewed and the frequent simultaneous reactions to dithranol and coal tar discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1992, Vol.27, No.5, p.291-293. 13 ref.

CIS 93-88 Lachapelle J.M., Frimat P., Tennstedt D., Ducombs G.
Occupational and environmental dermatology
Dermatologie professionnelle et de l'environnement [in French]
This review of dermatology is aimed at dermatologists and at occupational physicians. Contents: the biology of the skin, reactions of the skin to physical and chemical aggression; dermatoses due to physical and chemical agents; reactions of the skin to penetration by foreign matter; dermatoses due to airborne agents; skin cancer; dermatoses due to green plants; dermatoses due to living things other than green plants; changes in skin and hair; skin diseases, diabetes and venous diseases; self-inflicted skin conditions; dermatology and sports medicine; preventive measures; legislation; expert opinion and evaluation in dermatology. In appendices: test methods used in occupational dermatology; information on important allergens.
Masson, 120 Bd. Saint-Germain, 75280 Paris Cedex 06, France, 1992. 372p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-165 Gamsky T.E., McCurdy S.A., Wiggins P., Samuels S.J., Berman B., Shenker M.B.
Epidemiology of dermatitis among California farm workers
To estimate the prevalence of dermatitis and risk factors for skin disease in California farm workers, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among grape, citrus, and tomato workers. The prevalence of contact dermatitis was 2% and lichenified hand dermatitis was 13%. Grape workers were more likely to report rashes in the last 12 months than were tomato workers or citrus workers. Grape workers were more likely to have contact dermatitis and lichenified hand dermatitis than were citrus or tomato workers. Increasing hours per week in agriculture, male sex, and not wearing gloves were associated with more lichenified hand dermatitis. Skin disease in agricultural workers may be causally associated with crop-specific exposures and lack of protective equipment.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.304-310. 27 ref.

CIS 93-117 Pelmear P.L., Roos J.O., Maehle W.M.
Occupationally-induced scleroderma
Systemic sclerosis or scleroderma is an uncommon multisystem disease with a reported incidence of two to 12 cases per million people per year. The clinical and pathological features can be grouped into three main categories: those related to fibrosis, to vascular abnormalities, and to immunological abnormalities. Cutaneous features dominate the patients' appearance, and Raynaud's phenomenon is an early symptom. A possible association between scleroderma and workers exposed to hand-arm vibration and/or silica has been suggested by reports in the literature since the turn of the century. A further four patients with collagen disease are reported here. Three were occupationally exposed to both hand-arm vibration and silica, the fourth to hand-arm vibration alone. In conjunction with previously reported cases, this supports the hypothesis that collagen disease may be attributable to occupation in hypersusceptible persons.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.20-25. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 93-239 Damstra R.J., van Vloten W.A., van Ginkel C.J.W.
Allergic contact dermatitis from the preservative 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (1,2-BIT; Proxel®): A case report, its prevalence in those occupationally at risk and in the general dermatological population, and its relationship to allergy to its analogue Kathon® CG
Occupational contact allergy to 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (1,b-BIT, Proxel®) is analysed. This compound is widely used in industry as a preservative in water-based solutions such as pastes, paints and cutting oils. The optimal concentration for patch testing proved to be 0.4g/L (0.04%) in water. In 4 out of 17 patients (23%) at occupational risk (painters, paper-hangers), contact allergy to 1,2-BIT was found. Of 556 consecutive dermatological patients without clear occupational risk, 10 (1.8%) showed positive patch tests to 1,2-BIT; in 3 patients 1,2-BIT contact allergy was related to domestic paper-hanging. Although the chemical structure of 1,2-BIT shows some analogy with the preservative Kathon® CG true cross-sensitivity was found to be unlikely.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1992, Vol.27, No.2, p.105-109. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 92-1981 Castiglioni G., Carosso A., Manzoni S., Nebiolo F., Bugiani M.
Results of routine patch testing of 834 patients in Turin
834 consecutive patients (630 female), aged between 26 and 46 years, who were suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, were patch tested with the GIRDCA standard series during 1989-1990. The most frequent sensitisers observed included nickel sulfate, cobalt, Kathon CG, perfumes, potassium dichromate and balsam of Peru. The influence of individual factors such as sex, age and occupation on the patch test results, and the coexistence of 2 or more unrelated but statistically significant sensitivities were evaluated.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1992, Vol.37, No.3, p.182-185. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 92-1980 Estlander T., Keskinen H., Jolanki R., Kanerva L.
Occupational dermatitis from exposure to polyurethane chemicals
In addition to asthma, contact dermatitis may also develop from occupational contact with polyurethane (PU) chemicals. 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis from exposure to PU chemicals were diagnosed in 1974-1990. The present paper summarises the results and gives detailed descriptions of 3 such patients. The results suggest that when allergy to PU chemicals is suspected, patch tests should include, in addition to diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA), at least 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) 1.5-2% pet. They also suggest that test substances can be used for over a year, and that allergy to MDA may point to MDI exposure contained in PU chemicals.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1992, Vol.27, No.3, p.161-165. 17 ref.

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