Skin diseases - 1,481 entries found
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Glutaraldehyde - Occupations connected with an allergen
Glutardialdehyd - Berufsspektrum eines Allergens [in German]
Glutaraldehyde is used as a substitute for formaldehyde. It is added for example to cleaning agents and skin creams as a disinfectant. In patch tests with 1% glutaraldehyde in petroleum jelly applied to 2939 patients between November 1989 and July 1993, allergic reactions were observed in 170 cases. Nurses and assistants in doctor's offices were most frequently affected. The next most affected group was charwomen. Measures are needed to protect the groups most severely affected; otherwise an increase in allergic skin diseases cannot be avoided. The measures should include compliance with the exposure limit of 0.2ppm.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Jan.-Feb. 1995, Vol.43, No.1, p.30-31. 14 ref.
Barbaud A., Trechot P., Bertrand O., Schmutz J.L.
Occupational allergy to propacetamol
A brief report is presented of three cases of occupational contact dermatitis in nurses who prepared injections of Pro-Dafalgan (propacetamol dissolved in sodium citrate) and who did not have allergy to paracetamol. Patch tests showed strongly positive reactions. Health care workers are advised to wear gloves when handling propacetamol.
Lancet, 30 Sep. 1995, Vol.346, No.8979, p.902. 2 ref.
Hasselmann A., Kölmel F.
Occupational dermatoses among cleaning personnel
Berufsdermatosen des Reinigungspersonals [in German]
In the years between 1977 and 1992 the Dermatology Department of the University Hospital in Göttingen, Germany, recorded 64 cases of skin disease among cleaning personnel in institutions such as schools, old age homes, recreational centres, hospitals, etc. In 40 cases an allergic contact dermatitis and in 21 cases eczema was diagnosed. In patch tests nickel and formaldehyde were identified as the major allergens. Formaldehyde and other aldehydes were found in the cleaning agents and disinfectants used.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Mar. 1995, Vol.30, No.3, p.106, 108-112, 117-118, 120. 30 ref.
Bruze M., Björkner B., Lepoittevin J.P.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl cyanoacrylate
A case study of an apprentice cobbler with an occupational allergic contact dermatitis from an ethyl cyanoacrylate glue is reported. Initial patch testing with the cyanoacrylate glue dissolved in acetone using the Finn chamber (aluminium) technique yielded false-negative reactions. Positive test reactions were obtained with the same preparations using the Van der Bend chamber (polypropylene) technique. With petrolatum as the vehicle for the glue, there was no difference between the two techniques. The role of aluminium in the false-negative reactions is discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1995, Vol.32, No.3, p.156-159. 10 ref.
Susitaival P., Husman L., Hollmén A., Horsmanheimo M., Husman K., Hannuksela M.
Hand eczema in Finnish farmers. A questionnaire-based clinical study
In a questionnaire survey of 2005 Finnish farmers, 172 (8.6%) reported hand or forearm dermatoses. Skin tests revealed that the majority of the dermatoses were eczema and most were considered to be work-related. Cow allergy was found in 41 farmers. Immediate allergy to cow epithelium was encountered in 28 of these and delayed contact allergy to cow dander was found in 27. Results suggest that in addition to skin prick tests using commercial cow epithelium extract, patch tests using fresh cow dander should also be carried out, and both immediate and delayed responses should be read.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1995, Vol.32, No.3, p.150-155. 29 ref.
Fischer T., Bohlin S., Edling C., Rystedt I., Wieslander G.
Skin disease and contact sensitivity in house painters using water-based paints, glues and putties
A dermatological investigation of 202 Swedish construction painters included patch testing with ingredients of water-based paints, glues and putties. 48 painters had a history of eczema, of which 25 had a history of hand eczema. In 25 painters, factors in the work environment were estimated to contribute to the eczema, and in 11 of these their work was concluded to be the main cause of the disease. Allergic reactions to metals, preservatives, polymerizing agents, resins, solvents and film-forming agents are discussed. Findings indicate that construction painters do not face a high risk of skin disease.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1995, Vol.32, No.1, p.39-45. 60 ref.
Bruze M., Hradil E., Eriksohn I.L., Gruvberger B., Widström L.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from alkanolamineborates in metalworking fluids
Case reports of three workers with contact allergy to alkanolamineborates are presented. Tests revealed two types of reactivity patterns, indicating the existence of at least two separate sensitizers in these substances. Each alkanolamineborate consists of many substances, which differ in part between different alkanolamineborates; the sensitizers in these substances are not known. The study indicates that it is not possible to use just one particular alkanolamineborate for tracing contact allergy to alkanolamineborates in general.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1995, Vol.32, No.1, p.24-27. 4 ref.
Bergman A., Svedberg U., Nilsson E.
Contact urticaria with anaphylactic reactions caused by occupational exposure to iridium salt
Case study of a worker who developed respiratory tract symptoms and contact urticaria following occupational exposure to iridium chloride. An iridium chloride prick test showed a positive reaction and a scratch test produced anaphylactoid reactions. Unusually, a negative reaction was obtained with platinum salts. The results are interpreted as immediate-type hypersensitivity to iridium salt; the route of sensitization was probably through the airways. Further testing showed that iridium salt allergy could persist for at least 18 months after exposure ceases.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1995, Vol.32, No.1, p.14-17. 13 ref.
Work-related skin diseases
Dermatoses ocupacionais [in Portuguese]
This publication is an overview of the author's experience with work-related skin diseases. It provides comprehensive illustrated information about skin diseases due to chemicals and/or industrial processes, including cutting fluids, lubricants, wood, polymers, resins, metals, radiation and microorganisms. Signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures are described in detail.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1994. 223p. Illus. 234 ref.
Wieslander G., Norbäck D., Edling C.
Occupational exposure to water based paint and symptoms from the skin and eyes
Water-base paints contain organic solvents and many additives, some of them in small quantities. This complexity can lead to many new hazards in house painters, particularly of an allergic and irritative nature. This case-control study compares the health status of painters who have used water-base and oil-base paints, in order to find out if exposure to water-base paints increases the risks of mucous membrane and skin symptoms. It is shown that the introduction of water-base paints has actually improved the working environment of house painters, and that these paints cause less discomfort and airways irritation than the earlier solvent-based paints. Some dermal symptoms, however, might be due to exposure to components of water-base paints.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1994, Vol.51, No.3, p.181-186. 18 ref.
Wrangsjö K., Meding B.
Occupational contact allergy to rubber chemicals - A follow-up study
Of 109 patients in the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, who tested positively to rubber chemicals between 1978 and 1987, 94 were followed up 10 years later. In the interview 24% said they were cured, 55% said they had periodic symptoms and 21% said they had continuing symptoms. In clinical examinations of 80 of the patients that were followed up, 35 were found to be free from dermatitis. The majority of patients with occupational rubber allergy were not easily cured. Most of the patients worked in the hospital or laboratory. Workers in the metal industry and in the office were the next most affected groups.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Sep.-Oct. 1994, Vol.42, No.5, p.184-189. Illus. 29 ref.
Bonomini V., Stefoni S., Cianciolo G, Nanni Costa A., Ceccherini R., Palmi S.
The danger of immunological contact hypersensitization in the home and job environments
Rischio di ipersensibilizzazione immunologica da contatto nell'ambiente domestico e professionale [in Italian]
Modifications in the profiles of the main lymphocyte populations and subpopulations were studied in the peripheral blood of subjects exposed to the risk of contact dermatitis in an occupational environment (hairdressers' shops) and in the household. No significant difference was found between the group of 35 patients (19 females and 16 males) with acute phase contact dermatitis and a control group of healthy subjects.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.6, No.1, p.35-39. Illus. 14 ref.
Hjortsberg U., Ørbaek P., Arborelius M.J., Karlsson J.E.
Upper airway irritation and small airways hyperreactivity due to exposure to potassium aluminium tetrafluoride flux - An extended case report
Twenty-two workers, exposed to potassium aluminium tetrafluoride used as flux for soldering aluminium, were studied as clinical outpatients for symptoms of irritation of the nose, eye, skin and airways. Sixteen volunteered for spirometry with methacholine provocation test including a test for small airways function by volume of trapped gas (VTG). Symptoms of airways irritation diminished in all subjects after flux exposure ended. The FEV1 was within the normal range in 16 of 17 subjects before the methacholine provocation test. The FEV1 decreased by ≥20% in two out of 16 subjects after the 0.1% methacholine provocation and after inhalation of methacholine, eight out of 16 subjects (50%) had an abnormal increase of VTG indicating hyperreactivity in small airways. Potassium aluminium tetrafluoride flux seems to induce an increase of bronchial reactivity in small airways. A setting of an occupational standard is proposed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1994, Vol.51, No.10, p.706-709. 15 ref.
Guo Y.L., Wang B.J., Lee J.Y.Y., Chou S.Y.
Occupational hand dermatoses of hairdressers in Tainan City
Hairdressers from nine establishments randomly selected in Tainan City were studied by interview, medical examination and patch testing. Patch test agents included 41 substances with common allergens, shampoo preservatives, hair dyes, and permanent waving and bleaching agents. Eighty-three percent of the 98 hairdressers examined had occupational dermatosis and 32% had scissor-induced scars or wounds. Hairdressers in Tainan City had a high prevalence of dermatosis including traumatic wounds, and allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The rates of sensitivity to some of the common sensitizing agents were different from previous reports.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1994, Vol.51, No.10, p.689-692. Illus. 18 ref.
Menné T., Maibach H.I.
This manual comprises a series of papers on research into common varieties of hand eczema. Contents includes: definition, prevalence and classification of hand eczema; chemical skin burns; mechanical trauma and hand eczema; irritant contact dermatitis; contact allergens; risk factors for hand dermatitis in wet work; prediction of skin irritation by noninvasive bioengineering methods; general aspects of risk factors in hand eczema; epidemiological aspects; principles of occupational hand eczema; studies of eczema in hospital workers, hairdressers, fish processing workers, dental personnel, construction workers, caterers and farmers; eczema from metalworking fluids and from rubber gloves; prognosis; UV-light and X-ray treatment; selection of protective gloves.
CRC Press Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd. N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431, USA, 1994. xiii, 334p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 89.00.
Susitaival P., Husman L., Horsmanheimo M., Notkola V., Husman K.
Prevalence of hand dermatoses among Finnish farmers
A questionnaire survey was carried out in a 5% sample of the Finnish farming population between the ages of 18 and 64 years (n=10,847, 91% response rate) to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hand dermatosis. The one-year prevalence of self-reported hand and forearm dermatoses was 16% among women and 7% among men. The highest one-year prevalence of hand eczema was found for women on farms with more than nine dairy cows (20%). Atopy, female sex, and, among the women, age under 35 years, were the most important risk factors for the occurrence of hand dermatosis. Work-related risk factors were handling disinfectants daily, handling silage preservatives, milking cows and machine servicing. The results may be useful for the prevention of hand dermatoses in farming since they direct attention to actual occupational hazards, and may also aid vocational guidance for the atopic population.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1994, Vol.20, No.3, p.206-212. Illus. 33 ref.
Kanerva L., Estlander T., Jolanki R.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds
Case reports are presented of five patients with allergic patch test reactions caused by thiourea compounds. Sources of thiourea included diphenylthiourea in neoprene gloves and pesticides, and diethylthiourea in a knee brace. Since allergic contact dermatitis by thiourea compounds can be verified only by patch testing, patients with contact dermatitis who have been exposed to thiourea compounds (such as rubber, PVC plastic or adhesive, diazo paper, paints or glue remover, anticorrosive agents, fungicides or pesticides) should be patch tested with a series of thiourea compounds.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1994, Vol.31, No.4, p.242-248. 48 ref.
Goh C.L., Gan S.L.
Efficacies of a barrier cream and an afterwork emollient cream against cutting fluid dermatitis in metalworkers: A prospective study
The prevalence of cutting fluid dermatitis and changes in transepidermal water vapour loss (TEWL) were studied in groups of machinists who used either a barrier cream, an afterwork emollient cream or no cream controls at all over a six month period. All machinists handled cutting fluid (neat mineral oil) during their work. Barrier cream and afterwork emollient cream did not appear to have any significant effect against either cutting fluid dermatitis or TEWL changes. However, afterwork emollient cream appeared clinically to help reduce the prevalence of cutting fluid irritation.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1994, Vol.31, No.3, p.176-180. 16 ref.
Condé-Salazar L., Gonzalez de Domingo M.A., Guimaraens D.
Sensitization to epoxy resin systems in special flooring workers
A study was made of 15 male construction workers who specialized in the application of special floor coverings containing epoxy resins and derivatives. All the workers had work-related dermatoses as a result of sensitization to the resins. Speed of sensitization, severity of lesions and localization to the hands, face and legs were characteristic. Little could be determined about the types of resins used. Preventive measures are suggested.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1994, Vol.31, No.3, p.157-160. 3 ref.
Ueda A., Aoyama K., Manda F., Ueda T., Kawahara Y.
Delayed-type allergenicity of triforine (Saprol)
In a study of chrysanthemum growers exposed to triforine (1,4-bis (2,2,2-trichloro-1-formamidoethyl) piperazine), the highest rate of positive patch test reaction was seen to triforine among the seven pesticides and chrysanthemum extracts tested. A higher prevalence of work-related skin symptoms was seen in subjects with a positive patch test reaction to triforine than in those with negative reactions to all allergens tested. The study indicates that delayed-type allergy may be induced among chrysanthemum growers by triforine and other pesticides, as well as by chrysanthemum itself.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1994, Vol.31, No.3, p.140-145. 21 ref.
Skogstad M., Levy F.
Occupational irritant contact dermatitis and fungal infection in construction workers
A study was made of six construction workers who developed chronic skin diseases on their hands over a period of 15 years. Four developed Trichophyton rubrum infection, and the other two an irritant contact dermatitis. All of them carried out jobs which caused traumatization of the skin due to the presence of ethylene glycol and mineral oils during operation of pneumatic hammers in winter. Construction workers may be at risk of developing an occupational skin disease involving fungal infection.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1994. Vol.31, No.1, p.28-30. 6 ref.
Cold-impregnated aluminium. A new source of nickel exposure
A case of work-related allergic contact dermatitis in an engraver with nickel allergy is reported. Investigations revealed that the majority of aluminium sheets he was working with were positive to the dimethylglyoxime test, indicating that nickel was being released. It is concluded that cold-impregnated aluminium is a new source of nickel exposure probably previously unknown to dermatologists.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1994, Vol.31, No.1, p.22-24. 14 ref.
Houeto P., Chabaux C., Levillain P., Fournier P.E.
Cutaneous reactions due to pyridinecarboxaldehyde, thiophenecarboxaldehyde - Isomerism
Réactions cutanées aux pyridinecarbaldéhydes et thiophènecarbaldéhydes - Notion d'isomérie [in French]
A 27-year-old woman who underwent skin exposure to pyridinecarboxaldehyde and thiophenecarboxaldehyde at the workplace. In patch tests, 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde produced urticaria whereas 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde isomer induced eczema and no reaction was observed with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde. Patch tests made with thiophenecarboxaldehyde showed that the patient was sensitive to 3-thiophenecarboxaldehyde, which induced irritant erythema whereas there was no reaction with its isomer 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde. Thus, depending on the position of the carbonyl carbon on the pyridine (ortho, meta or para) or thiophene ring, different reactions can occur.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.467-469. Illus. 16 ref.
Goh C.L., Gan S.L.
The incidence of cutting fluid dermatitis among metalworkers in a metal fabrication factory: A prospective study
A study was made of 24 new machinists in contact with cutting fluids (neat mineral oils) and a group of non-exposed controls over a six-month period. The incidence of dermatitis among the machinists was high; more than one-third developed irritant contact dermatitis within three weeks of exposure. Most machinists appeared to develop tolerance after six weeks of exposure. Values of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) also increased rapidly initially, but remained fairly stable thereafter. None of the control group developed dermatitis and their TEWL values were lower throughout the study period.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1994, Vol.31, No.2, p.111-115. Illus. 10 ref.
Moreau A., Dompmartin A., Castel B., Remond B., Michel M., Leroy D.
Contact dermatitis from a textile flame retardant
A case study is presented of a painter with contact sensitivity to Flammentin ASN® following use of a protective cotton cap treated with this flame retardant. The painter presented with eczema of the forehead and face at the sites of cap contact. Patch tests with the treated cap and flame retardant were positive. The case is compared to other published reports.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1994, Vol.31, No.2, p.86-88. Illus. 16 ref.
van der Walle H.B.
Dermatitis in hairdressers. (II). Management and prevention
Factors contributing to dermatitis in hairdressers are discussed. These include: sensitizing and irritant capacities of some hair-cosmetic ingredients; unsafe packaging which causes contamination of the hands, work tables and instruments with hazardous chemicals; absence of protection with adequate gloves; ignorance of procedures for the safe handling of chemicals. A strategy is proposed based on improvement of the safety of ingredients and packaging, use of vinyl gloves and introduction of safe procedures. The value of pre-employment screening is discussed. Part I of this article is in press.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1994, Vol.30, No.5, p.265-270. 10 ref.
Maier H., Sennewald E.
Risk factors for developing epithelioma in parts of the head or neck
Risikofaktoren für Plattenepithelkarzinome im Kopf-Hals-Bereich [in German]
In three case-control studies conducted in the years 1988 to 1991 in Heidelberg, Germany, 369 patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the mouth, the throat and the larynx were matched with a control group of 1,476 persons without epithelioma. For the patients and the control group the occupation, cigarette and alcohol consumption and leisure time activities were determined. Chronic tobacco and alcohol consumption were closely related with the occurrence of epithelioma in the upper digestive tract. Skilled and unskilled workers were more numerous in the patient group than in the control group. Machine operators, persons living in homes with fossil-fuel heated stoves as well as workers exposed to coal tar, pitch, dyes and paints, asbestos, coolants and sawdust were found to be at high risk. Summaries in English, French, German and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Abteilung Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Jan.1994. 184p. Illus. 142 ref.
Crépy M.N., Conso F.
Occupational scleroderma-like disorders
Sclérodermie et facteurs professionnels (ou environnementaux) [in French]
Several environmental substances have been reported as contributing factors in progressive systemic sclerosis and in so-called scleroderma-like diseases. Contaminated rapeseed oil in Spain and administration of drug containing L-tryptophan were found responsible for the outbreak of two scleroderma-like epidemics. Paraffin and silicone implants, bleomycin and pentazocine were among the iatrogenic factors. Two occupational factors are already well-known: silica and vinyl chloride. Others are only suspected: solvents, and epoxy resins. Identification of these substances presents two main interests: environmental exposure can be limited and the pathogenesis of scleroderma being unknown, inducing factors may be used in experimental models for research.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.2, p.111-118. 49 ref.
Tortured hands - Occupational skin diseases in the hospital
Geplagte Hände - Berufsdermatosen im Krankenhaus [in German]
The symptoms of skin diseases diagnosed among hospital personnel are described. Of all the skin diseases affecting the hands of the hospital personnel, allergies account for 90%. Skin contact with disinfectants such as formaldehyde is the primary cause for the allergies. It is recommended to use alcohol-containing disinfectants as substitutes and allergen-free, disposable gloves for protection of the hands.
Krankenhaustechnik, Aug. 1994, Vol.20, No.8, p.32-35. Illus.
Duca P.G., Pelfini G., Ferguglia G., Settimi L., Peverelli C., Sevosi I., Terzaghi G.
Efficacy of barrier creams in preventing skin complaints in workers of a fabric dyeing and printing factory. Results of a random experiment
Efficacia dell'uso di creme-barriera nel prevenire affezioni dermatologiche in lavoratori delle tintostamperie - Risultati di una sperimentazione randomizzata [in Italian]
A total of 942 workers of 13 dyeing and printing factories in the area of Como, Northern Italy, were examined in order to detect skin complaints on the hands and forearms. Of these, 868 participated in a controlled and randomized experiment aimed at assessing the efficacy of using barrier creams under practical circumstances. 657 workers underwent all three control examinations arranged over about one year. In the randomized group for treatment with barrier creams the cumulative incidence of objective skin lesions was significantly lower than in the group in which no particular recommendation of use was made (44.5% versus 54.4% positive for objective examination in at least one of the three control examinations after recruitment). The use of a hydrocarbon-based cream was significantly more effective than that of a silicone cream.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1994, Vol.85, No.3, p.231-238. 22 ref.
Cevallos R., Assous M., Dournovo P., Nicolas P., Guillevin L.
Systemic sclerosis after cresol inhalation
Sclérodermie systémique après inhalation de crésol [in French]
A case of systemic sclerosis is reported in which the pathogen is probably inhaled cresol, a phenolic derivate of toluene, administered as a disinfectant in an unventilated office. In treatment, corticotherapy did not have any effect and improvement was only seen after factor XIII therapy.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.43-45. Illus. 23 ref.
Determination of the occupational nature of skin diseases
BK Haut in der Begutachtung [in German]
Text of papers presented and conclusions drawn at the Conference on the harmonization of expertise and compensation procedures for occupational skin diseases, held in Bamberg, Germany, 18-19 Nov. 1993. The proper assessment of the degree of disability and of the occupational nature of occupational diseases being an essential part of Appendix A of the German Ordinance on Occupational Diseases, it is incumbent upon insurance institutions to develop, in conjunction with industrial physicians, general principles and uniform rules for the sake of medical expertise. Summaries in English, German, French and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 1994. 127p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Rapid increase in latex allergies
Health hazards of some chemical substances used in medical care are outlined along with protective measures. Hazards discussed include: cytostatic drugs; anaesthetic gases; formaldehyde; eczema caused by working with water and chemicals; disinfectants. Protective gloves of natural rubber can cause contact urticaria and a rapid rise in latex allergies among health care personnel has been reported. Latex dust in the air can also cause asthma and other symptoms of allergy.
Forskning & Praktik, 1994, No.3, p.15-18. Illus. 3 ref.
Warts in butchers - A cause for concern?
Warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are common on the hands of workers in the meat industry; one particular viral type, HPV7, predominates. Studies have found no relation between the excess prevalence of warts among these workers and a number of factors and it was concluded that some constituent of meat may enhance the effect of HPV7. Other studies have indicated a relation between butchers' warts and an apparent increase in the occurrence of lung cancer found in those who handle fresh rather than chilled meat. Further clarification of these studies is required.
Lancet, 7 May 1994, Vol.343, No.8906, p.1114. 8 ref.
Contact allergens in chemical products
Kontaktallergener i kemiske produkter [in Danish]
The Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) was searched for information on 43 contact allergens in 18 product categories. Formaldehyde was present in products in all 18 categories; six other allergens were present in more than half. Some commonly registered amines are not included in standard patch tests, while one amine that figures in routine tests is rare in products on the market. Combination of interview data from eczema patients with product composition data from PROBAS helped identify formaldehyde-containing products as the source of their problem and led to solutions. Conversely, a widely used antioxidant, BHT, showed no sensitizing properties in 1336 eczema patients. Thus, product registers can be used to estimate exposure of patients to allergens.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, At-salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1994. 88p. Price: DKK 235.00.
Koh D., Lee H.S., Chia H.P., Phoon W.H.
Skin disorders among hand solderers in the electronics industry
Full-time solderers (n=150) and non-soldering administrative staff (n=52) were examined to determine the prevalence of work-related skin disorders. Prevalence rates of ever having a work-related rash since the start of work were 19.5% for workers using multicore flux and 10.3% for liquid flux users; prevalence rates for those wearing cotton gloves were lower than those for ungloved workers. Six solderers (all ungloved multicore flux users) had work-related dermatitis. Findings suggest that work-related skin disorders are fairly common among solderers and that the use of gloves and liquid flux reduces the risk of such disorders. Acne and elevated skin sebum levels were not found to be associated with soldering.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1994, Vol.44, No.1, p.24-28. 16 ref.
Irvine C., Pugh C.E., Hansen E.J., Rycroft R.J.G.
Cement dermatitis in underground workers during construction of the Channel Tunnel
A surveillance programme was set up to monitor and investigate underground cement workers and other workers with skin problems during construction of the Channel Tunnel. Of 1,138 men assessed during a 2-year period, 332 were diagnosed as having occupational dermatitis, past or present; 111 of the 466 grouters assessed had a history of the disease at some time. Overall, 96 of the 180 workers who were patch tested were found to be allergic to chromate. Most cases of occupational dermatitis improved with regular medical supervision, education and personal protective measures. The addition of ferrous sulfate has been shown to decrease the level of allergenic hexavalent chromate in cement.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1994, Vol.44, No.1, p.17-23. Illus. 24 ref.
van der Walle H.B., Brunsveld V.M.
Dermatitis in hairdressers. (I) The experience of the past 4 years
Recent small-scale investigations into the prevalence of dermatitis among hairdressers in the Netherlands have helped to give some indication of the magnitude of the problem. During the period 1989-1992, patch tests on a total of 103 hairdressers indicated that glyceryl thioglycolate (GTG), ammonium persulfate and nickel sulfate were responsible for the majority of the positive reactions. Positive reactions were also found for hair dyes and preservatives, cocamidopropyl betaine and sodium coco hydrolyzed animal protein. It is emphasized that contamination of hairdressing salons with GTG may explain the flare-ups in GTG-sensitized hairdressers who no longer use GTG solutions.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1994, Vol.30, No.4, p.217-221. 23 ref.
Bergqvist U., Wahlberg J.E.
Skin symptoms and disease during work with visual display terminals
A cross-sectional study of 353 routine office workers was carried out in order to investigate relationships between skin diseases, signs or reported symptoms and work at visual display terminals. There was a tendency for increased occurrence of eczema, nonspecific erythema and symptoms among VDT users compared to non-VDT users. Organizational conditions such as a perceived high work pace, or work load, and inability to take rest breaks were found to be associated with reported skin symptoms and nonspecific erythema. A low relative humidity was associated with a diagnosis of eczema.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1994, Vol.30, No.4, p.197-204. Illus. 19 ref.
Driscoll C.M.H., Whillock M.J., Pearson A.J., McKinkay A.F.
National Radiological Protection Board
A critique of recommended limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation with particular reference to skin cancer
This report reviews biological experimental data on the effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation and compares them with current international and foreign (non-British) national recommendations. Compliance with the current recommendations appears to be sufficient to protect most Caucasians against acute skin effects. However, the data are less conclusive when considering protection of the eyes. Epidemiological data suggest that 40 years of occupational exposure of the skin at the limit recommended by the International Non-Ionising Radiation Committee (INIRC) may increase the normally low risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer by a factor of 3.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 19p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Skin creams and skin protection in the engineering sector
This information sheet provides guidance on precautions to be taken to avoid the risk of skin diseases in employees exposed to substances that may adversely affect their skin. The level of protection offered by both pre-work and after-work creams is described along with other methods for reducing the risk of skin diseases. Guidance is also given on maintaining a healthy skin.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. 2p. 6 ref.
Wrangsjö K., Osterman K., van Hage-Hamsten M.
Glove-related skin symptoms among operating theatre and dental care unit personnel - (1) Interview investigation
An investigation of glove-related skin complaints was carried out among 233 hospital and dental care employees. 87 workers (37%) reported skin symptoms related to glove use. Four workers (2%) reported localized contact urticaria provoked by latex gloves, 23 (10%) hand eczema and 56 (24%) unclassified skin intolerance from gloves. A further four workers (2%) reported facial irritation from gloves. Glove-related skin symptoms were thus reported by more than one-third of the personnel while the reported glove-provoked urticaria constituted 5% of the intolerance reactions.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1994, Vol.30, No.2, p.102-107. 24 ref.
Meding B., Barregård L., Marcus K.
Hand eczema in car mechanics
In a questionnaire survey of car mechanics in Sweden, 15% reported hand eczema on some occasion in the previous 12 months, and 57% reported dry skin on the hands; those reporting eczema were examined and patch tested. The most common diagnoses were irritant contact dermatitis (55%) and allergic contact dermatitis (19%). Patch test results were positive in 33% of cases; the most frequent reactions were to thimerosal, nickel and colophony. It was concluded that car mechanics are at high risk for both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the hands.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1994, Vol.30, No.3, p.129-134. Illus. 18 ref.
Swennen B., et al.
Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to cobalt oxides, cobalt salts, and cobalt metal
A cross-sectional study was carried out among 82 workers in a cobalt (Co) refinery to assess whether exposure to pure Co dust (metal, oxides or salts) may lead to adverse health effects. The results were compared with those in a sex- and age-matched control group. The exposed workers complained more often of dyspnoea and wheezing and had significantly more skin lesions than control workers. No lung abnormalities were detected on the chest radiographs in both groups. The results suggest that exposure to high airborne concentrations of Co alone is not sufficient to cause pulmonary fibrosis. This finding is compatible with experimental studies indicating that interaction of other airborne pollutants with Co particles play a part in the pathogenesis of parenchymal lung lesions.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.50, No.9, p.835-842. 35 ref.
Nelemans P.J., Groenendal H., Kiemeney L.A.L.M., Rampen F.H.J., Ruiter D.J., Verbeek A.L.M.
Effect of intermittent exposure to sunlight on melanoma risk among indoor workers and sun-sensitive individuals
A population-based case-control study was performed in the Netherlands to examine the effect of sunlight exposure and melanoma. The study group comprised 141 patients with a histologically verified melanoma and 183 controls with other malignancies. Subjects were categorized as indoor or outdoor workers on the basis of occupational exposure to the sun. Pigmentation characteristics were summarized as one sun sensitivity score. The odds ratios associated with sunbathing, vacations spent in sunny countries and sunburns were higher among the indoor workers than among the outdoor workers. After stratification by the sun sensitivity score, the effect of sunbathing, participation in water sports (swimming excluded), vacations in sunny countries and a history of sunburn was largest for the sun-sensitive subjects. The results of this study support the hypothesis that intermittent exposure to sunlight is an important risk factor for melanoma.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Aug. 1993, Vol.101, No.3, p.252-255. 9 ref.
Fraser V., Spitznagel E., Medoff G., Dunagan W.C.
Results of a rubella screening program for hospital employees - A five-year review (1986-1990)
A US hospital employee health service rubella screening programme was evaluated over a five-year period from 1986-1990. A total of 6,115 new employees were screened for evidence of rubella immunity. Rubella serology was performed on 5,893 (96.4%) of the screened employees, while 222 (3.6%) had documentation of prior rubella vaccination or rubella infection. The absence of immunity was identified in 325 employees or 5.3% of all those screened. Logistical regression analysis demonstrated that five-year birth cohorts correlated significantly with serological status. Employees born in 1960-1964 were least likely to be seronegative, and employees born in 1970 or later were most likely to be seronegative. This study demonstrates a lower seronegativity rate than did previous studies. It identifies groups of employees likely to escape rubella screening and low vaccination rates. The increasing seronegativity among those born after 1964 correlates with increasing rates of rubella in the US.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Nov. 1993, Vol.138, No.9, p.756-764. Illus. 21 ref.
McConnell R., Anderson K., Russell W., Anderson K.E., Clapp R., Silbergeld E.K., Landrigan P.J.
Angiosarcoma, porphyria cutanea tarda, and probable chloracne in a worker exposed to waste oil contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.50, No.8, p.699-703. 31 ref. ###
Chia S.E., Phoon W.H.
Occupational dermatoses in Singapore - An analysis of five years' statistics
Statistics on occupational dermatoses for the period 1983 to 1987 were analysed. Of the 1,727 cases reported, 85.8% were contact dermatitis of which 59.5 were irritant and 26.3% allergic. The most common irritants were oils and coolants, solvents, cement and acids and alkalis. The most common allergens were chromium, epoxy resin, metals and metallic salts and rubber chemicals. The construction and electronics industries accounted for 36.3% of all cases. Changing trends in the most common causative agents are correlated with the growth of different industries.
Journal of Occupational Medicine - Singapore, July 1993, Vol.5, No.2, p.99-103. Illus. 9 ref.
Cavelier C., Foussereau J.
Occupational allergies to rubber
Les allergies professionnelles au caoutchouc [in French]
Contents of this bibliographic review and occupational allergo-dermatology data sheet on work-related allergies to rubber: introduction (signs of occupational allergy to rubber); allergic eczema to rubber (frequency and exposed occupations, clinical assessment and causative agents, clinical forms, allergens, tests, crossed allergy, chemical investigations, allergen research); allergic urticaria to rubber (frequency, exposed occupations and importance of atopy, place of allergic or immunologic urticaria in contact urticaria, clinical forms, allergy tests, immunologic nature of latex urticaria, diagnosis of latex urticaria, procedure in case of contact urticaria to latex gloves, other allergens of latex gloves); differential diagnosis of rubber allergies; treatment and prevention of rubber allergies and of relapses; information relating to commercial products, their composition, their tolerance; compensation in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1993, No.56, p.333-362. Illus. 145 ref.
Garnier R., Prince C., Reygagne A., Azoyan P., Dally S., Efthymiou M.L.
Contact dermatitis from dazomet: Seven cases
Dermite de contact au dazomet: 7 cas [in French]
Dazomet is used as a soil disinfectant which acts by hydrolytic release of methylisothiocyanate. In spite of its resulting high toxicity, cases of contact dermatitis and/or systemic poisoning have rarely been published. Seven cases of contact dermatitis from dazomet are reported here. Lesions were observed on hands and forearms (5 cases), feet and legs (6 cases), face (1 case), trunk (1 case) and buttocks (1 case); in all cases but one they were bullous. No case of systemic poisoning was identified in this series, but biological tests were performed in only two patients. Contact dermatitis from dazomet generally results from mishandling and can be easily prevented.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.649-651. 5 ref.
Krüger E., Werth B.
Studies of pesticide contamination in root-crop farming
Untersuchungen zur Pestizidkontamination bei Hackfruchtpflegearbeiten in Landwirtschaftsbetrieben [in German]
Dermal exposure pads were attached to the skin of the chest, arms and legs of 61 farm workers spraying root crops with pesticides. The pesticide concentrations found on the pads of workers wearing protective clothing were low. However, concentrations as much as 77.2% in excess of the tolerable dermal dose were found when no protective clothing was worn. Of the 61 workers, 24 had health problems such as headache (23), vision disturbances (11) and dermatitis (2).
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Jan. 1993, Vol.28, No.1, p.9-12. 34 ref.
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