Skin diseases - 1,481 entries found
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Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and airborne contact dermatitis from 5 fungicides in a vineyard worker - Cross-reactions between fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group?
In February 1995, a case of a vineyard worker with occupational contact dermatitis due to sensitization to mancozeb and perhaps metiram was reported. Patch testing showed strong allergic reactions to two of the commercially available preparations used. Further patch tests showed allergic reactions to mancozeb (0.5 and 1% pet.), a weak reaction to metiram (1% pet.), as well as to four other fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group (maneb, nabam, propineb and zineb), which had never been used in the vineyard.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1996, Vol.34, No.5, p.324-329. 36 ref.
Fischer T., Bjarnason B.
Sensitizing and irritant properties of 3 environmental classes of diesel oil and their indicator dyes
Three dyes (Solvent Yellow 124 and Solvent Blue 79 or Solvent Blue 98) were added to diesel oils in Sweden for identification of their particular uses in late 1993. Thirty-six men reporting skin disease supposedly caused by dyes had irritant reactions, irritant contact dermatitis or exacerbation of other skin disease. Tests on 15 individuals from this group and 20 healthy volunteers failed to demonstrate contact allergy or contact urticaria to the dyes or dyed diesel oil. Patch tests with dyes in pet. did not cause irritation. Tests of irritant properties of the diesel oils showed that: a) the old type of oil, with high viscosity, high content of aromatic compounds and moderately high sulfur content, caused little irritation, and b) newer, lighter qualities of diesel oil, with low concentrations of aromatic compounds and low sulfur content, which cause less pollution to the environment when burnt, were significantly more irritant to the skin and probably a cause of the skin problems.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1996, Vol.34, No.5, p.309-315. Illus. 18 ref.
Hannuksela M., Bruynzeel D.P., Czarnetzki B.M., Thestrup-Pedersen K., White I.R.
Research on skin-related health problems in working life - An international evaluation
This report evaluates the work of eight research groups carrying out research into dermatological problems in working life. Aspects evaluated include the quality and significance of published results, competence of the research group, feasibility and significance of research plans, and the applicability of the results achieved and to be expected. Recommendations are put forward for each group.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Swedish Council for Work Life Research, 171 84 Solna, Stockholm, Sweden, 1996. 50p.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in Lodz: 1990-1994
Among 1,619 patients examined between 1990 and 1994 at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz, Poland, occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) was confirmed in 332 cases. OACD was most frequent among health service workers, metal-working and machine-building workers and in the building industry. The most frequent cause was contact with metals, in particular chromates, cobalt and nickel. Other sources of sensitivity were disinfecting agents (formaldehyde), resins, rubber and fragrances. Data indicate an overall increase in OACD cases compared with the period 1972-1987.
Occupational Medicine, June 1996, Vol.46, No.3, p.205-208. 8 ref.
Gamble J.F., Lerman S.E., Holder W.R., Nicolich M.J., Yarborough C.M.
Physician-based case-control study of non-melanoma skin cancer in Baytown, Texas
A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 174 patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 59 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 72 with both and 229 controls. Data were collected on work history and risk factors including eye colour, skin type, history of sunburn and smoking. The most important risk factors common to all skin cancer categories were a family history of skin cancer and time spent outdoors. Employment in the petroleum industry showed a slight association with BCC+SCC, but not for BCC or SCC alone. Further study is needed to determine whether this association is causal or due to chance, bias or confounding.
Occupational Medicine, June 1996, Vol.46, No.3, p.186-196. 30 ref.
Straube M., Uter W., Schwanitz H.J.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from thiolactic acid contained in 'ester-free' permanent-waving solutions
A short case report is presented of a hairdresser with a history of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and recent worsening of pre-existing irritant hand dermatitis following skin contact with a permanent-waving solution containing ammonium thiolactate and ammonium thioglycolate. Patch testing with hairdressing chemicals indicated occupational allergic dermatitis caused by thiolactic acid.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1996, Vol. 34, No.3, p.229-230. 5 ref.
Filipe P., Almeida R.S.L.S., Rodrigo F.G.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from cephalosporins
A short case report is presented of a nurse with a 6-month history of itchy erythematous patches on the exposed skin of the forehead, perioral area, forearms and hands following preparation of cephalosporin solutions. Patch testing indicated occupational allergic dermatitis caused by exposure to 1st, 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1996, Vol.34, No.3, p.226. 3 ref.
Schena D., Barba A., Costa G.
Occupational contact urticaria due to cisplatin
A short case report is presented of a nurse who experienced urticaria on the face, chest, upper limbs and feet 30min after preparing cisplatin infusion solution. Open tests with both ammonium tetrachloroplatinate and ammonium hexachloroplatinate were positive, as was a handling test. A case of immunologic contact urticaria was diagnosed.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1996, Vol.34, No.3, p.220-221. 8 ref.
Medig B., Åhman M., Karlberg A.T.
Skin symptoms and contact allergy in woodwork teachers
To estimate the occurrence of skin symptoms and the prevalence of contact allergy to occupational allergens, 84 male woodwork teachers in Sweden were interviewed, clinically examined and patch tested. A high one-year prevalence (19%) of generally mild hand eczema was observed. Contact allergy was diagnosed to several allergens in the working environment, including benzisothiazolin-3-one (a preservative used in paints), nickel, formaldehyde, and colophony. A clear relationship between patch test reactions to colophony and to coniferous woods, especially pine, was found. Exposure to wood dust caused dermatitis in a colophony-sensitized teacher.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1996, Vol.34, No.3, p.185-190. 30 ref.
Salt dermatitis in the aquarium industry
Three short case reports are presented of aquarium shop workers with irritant contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to dried sea salt crusts. Preventive measures include tight fitting lids on tanks, workplace hygiene, and protective gloves of sufficient length.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1996, Vol.34, No.1, p.59-60. Illus. 3 ref.
Goh C.L., Gan S.L.
Change in cement manufacturing process, a cause for decline in chromate allergy?
The concentrations of hexavalent chromate (CrVI) in the constituents of four brands of cement and in manufactured cement samples were determined. Results indicated that increasing the concentration of slag (free from CrVI) over clinker (high in CrVI) proportionally reduced the CrVI concentration of the cement; this reduction is due to the dilutional effect of slag over clinker. It is suggested that the general decline in the prevalence of chromate allergy in recent years in Singapore is due to a change in the constituents of cement, resulting in lower concentrations of hexavalent chromate.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1996, Vol.34, No.1, p.51-54. 19 ref.
Roto P., Sainio H., Reunala T., Laippala P.
Addition of ferrous sulfate to cement and risk of chromium dermatitis among construction workers
In a study of construction workers and concrete element prefabrication workers in Finland in 1986-1987, a 4% prevalence of chromium allergy was found among the 105 workers with hand dermatitis. From 1987, ferrous sulfate was added to cement in Finland to reduce the water-soluble chromium content. Data from the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases from 1978 to 1992 showed that the occurrence of occupational dermatitis associated with chromium allergy among these workers had clearly diminished since 1987; the occurrence of irritant contact dermatitis remained stable from 1978 to 1992. The addition of ferrous sulfate to cement may reduce the risk of chromium-induced dermatitis among construction workers.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1996, Vol.34, No.1, p.43-50. 16 ref.
Shah M., Lewis F.M., Gawkrodger D.J.
Prognosis of occupational hand dermatitis in metalworkers
Patch testing of 64 metalworkers with hand dermatitis revealed 37 subjects with one or more positive allergic reactions; biocides (used as cutting oil constituents) were the most common group of allergens. Of the 51 subjects who responded to a postal questionnaire between 1 and 5 years after patch testing, 82% still had hand dermatitis; there was no difference in outcome between those who continued to work with metals and oils, and those who had changed their occupation. Hand dermatitis in metalworkers carries a poor prognosis, with most workers remaining symptomatic even after exposure has ceased.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1996, Vol.34, No.1, p.27-30. 15 ref.
Mancuso G., Reggiani M., Berdondini R.M.
Occupational dermatitis in shoemakers
In a study of occupational dermatitis at five shoe factories in Italy, 246 workers were examined and patch tested using standard and occupational patch test series. The prevalence of occupational dermatitis was 14.6% (36 workers). 20 workers had irritant contact dermatitis, attributed to contact with solvents contained in adhesives and varnishes. 16 workers had allergic contact dermatitis, caused mainly by contact with adhesives, and with rubber and skins. Other skin complaints included hyperkeratosis of the fingertips, and pruritus sine materia. Some jobs were more frequently associated with skin complaints.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1996, Vol.34, No.1, p.17-22. 19 ref.
van der Valk P.G.M., Maibach H.I.
The irritant contact dermatitis syndrome
Contents of this manual: clinical overview of irritant dermatitis; epidemiology and high risk occupations; irritants (caustic substances, alcohols, detergents, cleansers, disinfectants, irritant plants, organic solvents, oils, cutting fluids, lubricants, cement, man-made vitreous fibres, plastic materials, food); physical factors (hydration injury to human skin, mechanical causes, repeated, low-grade frictional trauma); special syndromes; skin sensitivity; mechanisms of irritant contact dermatitis; bioengineering studies; prediction of skin irritation of substances; therapy and prevention.
CRC Press Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA, 1996. xiii, 393p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 79.00.
Rustemeyer T., Frosch P.J.
Occupational skin diseases in dental laboratory technicians. (I) Clinical picture and causative factors
In a questionnaire survey of 173 dental technicians, 29% reported work-related skin symptoms. Among the 55 technicians who were examined, allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 63.6%, and irritant contact dermatitis in 23.6%. Most of the allergens identified were found in plastic materials, in particular, acrylates and methacrylates. A computer data base of dental materials was developed with information on product ingredients. The main irritant factors included wet work, contact with plaster, mechanical friction and thermal changes. Strategies for prevention should focus on reduction of irritant factors and safer use of (meth)acrylates.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1996, Vol.34, No.2, p.125-133. 39 ref.
Contact allergy to colophony and hand eczema: A follow-up study of patients with previously diagnosed contact allergy to colophony
A follow-up study of 83 individuals in whom contact allergy to colophony had been diagnosed 9-13 years earlier showed that at least 30% had current hand eczema. 72% still showed positive results on patch-testing with colophony, and more than 50% had additional positive reactions to other allergens. 12 subjects reported occupational exposure to wood, paint, lacquers, soaps or soldering flux; 24 reported intense exposure to paper. Factors influencing the prognosis of hand eczema in individuals with contact allergy to colophony include intervention, onset location of dermatitis, patch test results, sex, occupational exposure to colophony and atopy.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1996, Vol.34, No.2, p.93-100. 30 ref.
Occupational IgE-mediated protein contact dermatitis from pork in a slaughterman
A non-atopic 24-year-old man had previously had no skin symptoms. Having worked for one month in a slaughterhouse, where he was exposed to animal (pig) flesh and epithelium, he developed redness and itching of the hands, and later, severe exfoliative hand dermatitis which cleared when away from work but relapsed within days back at work. Patch testing and scoring were performed on his back. A modified European standard series gave a positive reaction to chromate but was otherwise negative. Patch testing with pork meat and fat and prick tests with 24 common environmental allergens, including epithelia and natural rubber latex, were both negative, as were prick tests with flour, pork meat and pork fat; a 15-min use test with pork meat on the skin was also negative, but the Magic Lite immunochemiluminometric assay for the detection of specific IgE antibody with both pork meat and pork epithelium clearly indicated IgE-mediated allergy. Contact urticaria caused by pork meat has seldom been reported, but may not be so rare.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1996, Vol.34, No.4, p.301-302. 8 ref.
Galindo P.A., Melero R., García R., Feo F., Gómez E., Fernández F.
Contact urticaria from chironomids
A 35-year-old man, with a previous history of propifenazone allergy, worked in a chemist's (drugstore), but as a hobby, kept fish in an aquarium at home. He fed these fish with dried Chironomus plumosus and frozen Chironomus spp red midge larvae. He gave a six-year history of contact urticaria 15min after handling such fish food: conjunctivitis and eyelid oedema could also occur. The urticaria resolved spontaneously in 1-2h and from then on he handled the frozen chironomus spp with latex gloves without any problems. Specific IgE for Chironomus thummi was strongly positive at 56.1kU/L; total IgE was normal (86.5kU/L). There were strong positive reactions to prick tests with both frozen and dried Chrionomus extracts. No such positive reactions were obtained in 10 healthy and 10 atopic subjects, although a rub test with both kinds of fish food showed local urticaria after 15min. This is the second known case of Chironomus allergy to be reported from Spain.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1996, Vol.34, No.4, p.297. 5 ref.
Heino T., Haapa K., Manelius F.
Contact sensitization to organosilane solution in glass filament production
Following recent reports of sensitization to silanes used as bonding agents between glass and resin in the coating of glass filaments, 61 workers in a glass fibre factory were exposed to a new coating mixture which contained polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, acetic acid and organosilane solution. At the same time, six other coating solutions were also in use. Eight workers developed an itchy erythematous papular dermatitis on parts of the body directly in contact with coating solutions. All had dermatitis on the hands, wrists and forearms, and, in addition, three on the face and the neck. All eight patients were patch tested with the standard series, a series of plastics and glues, and 20 substances in the coatings. Six out of eight patients tested were positive to one or more substances and, in all of these, occupational allergic contact dermatitis was confirmed. Five reacted to epoxy resin and two to formaldehyde, present in one coating solution as preservative. Organosilane solution is an important source of contact sensitization in the production of glass filaments.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1996, Vol.34, No.4, p.294. Illus. 2 ref.
The occurrence and course of skin symptoms on the hands among female cleaners
Skin symptoms on the hands were studied in questionnaire-based studies conducted in 1989 and 1991 among female cleaning personnel employed at Danish nursing homes, schools and offices. A total of 1,166 participated in 1989, and 1,011 of them participated in 1991. The average age was 45 years and the average length of seniority was 10 years. One-fifth of the cleaners reported problems with cleaning agents. A total of 81% had wet hands for more than one-quarter of their working hours and 43% reported having at least one out of four skin symptoms during a one-year period. Among them, 70% reported improvement during weekends and holidays. A positive correlation was found between hours per week spent with wet hands and skin symptoms. During the follow up period, the risk of developing skin symptoms was higher among the women who remained cleaners than among those who left their cleaning jobs. Accordingly, the prognosis was better in the group that left their cleaning jobs. Retirement occurred more often among cleaners with skin symptoms than among the others. There is a future need to develop new work organization and cleaning methods to reduce the time spent with wet hands.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1996, Vol.34, No.4, p.284-291. Illus. 20 ref.
Lips R., Rast H., Elsner P.
Outcome of job change in patients with occupational chromate dermatitis
Patients with allergic contact dermatitis due to dichromate are reputed to have a bad prognosis. Under the Swiss Law on Accident Insurance, the Swiss National Accident Insurance Organization may issue a declaration of medical incapacity (DMI) in cases of severe occupational dichromate dermatitis. With such a DMI, an employee is not allowed to perform any further work bringing him into contact with dichromate or cement. In this study, medical records from 88 construction workers with such DMIs between 1986 and 1989 were reviewed. Follow-up was performed by standardized questionnaire: 63 patients (72%) recovered in the first few years after DMI. The majority of these patients had changed industry and strictly avoided all contact with cement or chromium salts and a few had retired early. The outcome of the study was favourable in comparison with studies from other countries without the DMI mechanism. Strict allergen avoidance, enforced by authorities, and financial support in the case of job change are crucial in improving the prognosis in occupational dichromate dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1996, Vol.34, No.4, p.268-271. Illus. 9 ref.
Majoie I.M.L., Von Blomberg B.M.E., Bruynzeel D.P.
Development of hand eczema in junior hairdressers - An 8-year follow-up study
The development of hand eczema was evaluated in an eight-year follow-up study carried out in 51 junior hairdressers. Predisposing factors were investigated. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire to which there was a 74% response. None of the junior hairdressers presented with hand eczema at the start of the survey. After eight years, however, 51% had developed hand eczema. No significant difference in prevalence of hand eczema was found between practising and non-practising hairdressers (58% versus 33%). Development of hand eczema was not related to atopic constitution or nickel sensitivity. Dry skin type was associated with increased risk of developing hand eczema.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1996, Vol.34, No.4, p.243-247. 30 ref.
This catalogue presents details of research projects on allergies funded by the Work Environment Fund in 1995. A summary of each project, the duration, the budget and publications of persons responsible for the research are provided. It describes 17 research projects on respiratory tract allergies and 15 on skin allergies.
Arbetsmiljöfonden, The Swedish Work Environment Fund. Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, 1995. 36p. Index.
Oftedal G., Vistnes A.I., Rygge K.
Skin symptoms after the reduction of electric fields from visual display units
Topics: CRT display terminals; dermatological effects; electric fields; epidemiologic study; length of exposure; magnetic fields; microclimate; Norway; screens; social aspects.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1995, Vol.21, No.5, p.335-344. Illus. 19 ref.
Allergy to Asteraceae (Compositae) in the horticultural region of Erfurt
Allergie auf Asteraceae (Compositae) im Gartenbaugebiet Erfurt [in German]
All cases of skin diseases caused by contact with plants recorded in Erfurt, Germany, between 1973 and 1992 were re-evaluated. Included in the evaluation were all 86 cases of occupational dermatoses among horticulturists in Erfurt during that period. Of all plants involved in skin allergies, chrysanthemums cause the highest number of skin allergies. Horticulturists were affected most. It is assumed that a high exposure to allergens occurs when cuttings are taken for propagation of the chrysanthemums and when the plants are disbudded to obtain large flowers. The allergens are contained in the leaf and stem cells of the chrysanthemums and are lipid soluble so that they can easily penetrate into the skin.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Nov.-Dec.1995, Vol.43, No.6, p.257-261. Illus. 15 ref.
Kieć-Swierczyńska M., Szymczak W.
The effect of the working environment on occupational skin disease development in workers processing rockwool
A total of 259 workers manufacturing insulation matting of rockwool and phenol-formaldehyde resin were examined. All subjects and a control group of 529 workers were patch-tested. Dermatitis was found in roughly every fourth subject examined, oil acne in every tenth. The development of dermatitis is attributed to the irritating effects of rockwool and the sensitizing action of phenol-formaldehyde resin and metals present in the working environment. Regarding the latter, the risk of nickel allergy appears to be six times higher, and that of cobalt allergy five times higher, in people exposed to rockwool as opposed to controls.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1995, Vol.8, No.1, p.17-22. 13 ref.
Fitzgerald D.A., Heagerty A.H.M., English J.S.C.
Cold urticaria as an occupational dermatosis
A 45-year-old female pottery worker presented with a six-month history of intermittent swelling and itching of the hands. This generally occurred during the course of her work as a lithographer, which consisted of manually immersing transfers in a cold solution and applying them to pieces of finished pottery. She had no history of skin disease. Examination was initially unremarkable, but application of an ice cube wrapped in a polyethylene bag to the forearm for two minutes resulted in a pronounced urticaria weal, which persisted for approximately 30min and was accompanied by intense pruritus. Cold urticaria should be considered as a skin disease of potentially occupational origin.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1995, Vol.32, No.4, p.238. 7 ref.
Susitaival P., Hannuksela M.
The 12-year prognosis of hand dermatosis in 896 Finnish farmers
896 Finnish farmers (309 men and 587 women), representing 77% of those reporting hand or forearm dermatosis in a questionnaire survey in 1979, were asked again about their dermatosis and current work in 1991. More than 50% of the study population had left farming since 1979. In 1991, 26% of men and 21% of women had a current dermatosis on the hands or forearms, and altogether, 44% of men and 39% of women reported a hand dermatosis within the preceding 12 months. Significant determinants of persistent hand dermatosis, in a logistic regression model, were continuation of farm work, history of skin atopy, symptoms of metal allergy, and age under 45 years. Handling cattle, e.g. milking, was considered an exacerbating factor of the dermatosis by 37% of those who had milked cattle at some time in their lives. In this group, 75% of hand dermatoses had healed in those who had ceased milking work. The results indicate that ceasing or changing work improves the prognosis of hand dermatosis in farming.
Contact Dermatitis, 1995, No.32, p.233-237. 28 ref.
Maurer S., Seubert A., Seubert S., Fuchs T.
Contact dermatitis from textiles
Kontaktallergie auf Textilien [in German]
Between April 1992 and April 1994, 26 patients with contact dermatitis were subjected to patch tests with selected textile chemicals. Of the 26 patients, 21 were women aged 23-81 and five were men aged 22-58. In nine cases, positive reactions to one or more textile dyes were observed. Dark dyes, primarily various kinds of disperse blue, were involved. Three of the patients tested positively to textile finishes. Of 18 patients additionally tested with acetone-soaked samples of their clothing or shoes, five reacted positively. Allergic reactions to textiles in general are rare but should not be overlooked when diagnosing the causes of contact dermatitis.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Mar.-Apr. 1995, Vol. 43, No.2, p.63-68. Illus. 26 ref.
Percival L., Tucker S.B., Lamm S.H., Key M.M., Wilds B., Grumski K.S.
A case study of dermatitis based on a collaborative approach between occupational physicians and industrial hygienists
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1995, Vol.56, No.2, p.184-188. Illus. 13 ref. ###
Sun C.C., Guo Y.L., Lin R.S.
Occupational hand dermatitis in a tertiary referral dermatology clinic in Taipei
In order to identify the important industries and causal agents for occupational hand dermatitis (OHD), patients seen in the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the National Taiwan University Medical Center were interviewed and examined. Patch testing was carried out, using the European standard series and suspected allergens on patients suspected of having allergic skin diseases. OHD was diagnosed according to medical history, work exposure, physical examination and patch test findings. Of the 448 patients with hand dermatitis seen between 1987 and 1993, 36% were diagnosed as having OHD. Electronics, hairdressing, and the medical, chemical and construction industries were the most prominent sectors associated with OHD. In the patients with OHD, 58.5% had irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and 41.5% allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Dorsal fingers, nail folds and dorsal hands were most frequently involved in patients with ACD; dorsal fingers, volar fingers and fingertips were most frequently involved with those with ICD. Patients with atopic history and palm involvement were more likely to have ICD, and those with nail fold involvement more likely to have ACD. In patients with ACD, the most important allergens were dichromate, nickel, cobalt, fragrance mix, epoxy resin, thiuram mix, and p-phenylenediamine.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1995, Vol.33, No.6, p.414-418. 14 ref.
Parslew R., King C.M., Evans S.
Primary sensitization to a single accidental exposure to a flame retardant and subsequent allergic contact dermatitis
Case report of a worker who suffered blistering of the skin after contact with a flame retardant containing 2,3-dibromocresylglycidyl ether. Corticosteroid treatment was effective. Patch testing verified sensitization to this compound. Primary sensitization resulting from a single exposure has been reported for several other substances, but not for this compound.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1995, Vol.33, No.4, p.286. Illus. 3 ref.
Congé-Salazar L., Guimaraens D., Villegas C., Romero A., Gonzalez M.A.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in construction workers
The patch test results of 449 construction workers who came as patients to the Occupational Dermatology Service of the Instituto Nacional de Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo in Madrid between 1989 and 1993 are reported. Of these, 90.8% were patch tested because they had cutaneous lesions or a clinical history suggestive of occupational dermatitis. Of those patch tested 65.5% (268) showed one or more reactions connected with their work. Chromate at 41.1% was the main allergen, followed by cobalt: 20.5%, nickel: 10%, and epoxy resin: 7.5%. 25.9% (106) of patients showed sensitization to rubber components, the majority at 23.7% to thiuram mix, with TETD being the main allergen.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1995, Vol.33, No.4, p.226-230. Illus. 29 ref.
Coral dermatitis in the aquarium industry
Case report of an aquarium shop worker with a history of hay fever and contact allergy to prawns who developed dermatitis after contact with coral while changing a tank. Previous reports of skin reactions to corals had been of divers in the natural habitat of these organisms.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1995, Vol.33, No.3, p.207-208. Illus. 7 ref.
Stingeni L., Lapomarda V., Lisi P.
Occupational hand dermatitis in hospital environments
A group of 1,301 employees (658 females and 643 males; mean age 39.3yrs) of a hospital in Perugia, Italy answered a self-administered questionnaire. The subjects with anamnestic hand dermatitis and/or atopic mucosal reactions were clinically examined and submitted to skin tests (patch and/or prick tests). Contact dermatitis of the hands and/or forearms occurred in 21.2% and was significantly more frequent in women, subjects under 31 years of age, workers in internal medicine and surgery, cleaners and nurses. In the majority of cases (94.9%), the lesions were irritant in origin and mainly related to disinfectants (especially, chlorhexidine gluconate and glutaraldehyde) and gloves (latex proteins and starch glove powder, rather than accelerators and additives of rubber). Finally, atopy seemed to favour the onset of hand dermatitis. The importance of these results for preventive measures of contact dermatitis in hospital employees is discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1995, Vol.33, No.3, p.172-176. Illus. 12 ref.
Mürer J.L., Poulsen O.M., Roed-Petersen J., Tüchsen F.
Skin problems among Danish dental technicians - A cross-sectional study
A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 192 dental technicians at work was performed with an expanded version of a survey questionnaire used 10 years previously. The cumulative prevalence of skin problems on the hands was 53%. The one-year prevalence was 43%. The point prevalence was 36%. These figures were much higher than the figures reported for the general population, and they did not differ from those obtained in the study 10 years previously. The point prevalence of skin problems on the hands among individuals handling acrylates was 38% higher than among those who never worked with acrylates. No difference in the occurrence of skin problems was observed between individuals using gloves and those who did not use gloves while handling acrylates. The prevalence difference of skin problems on the fingertips was 7.3% between individuals handling acrylates daily or several times per week and individuals handling acrylates less frequently.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1995, Vol.33, No.1. p.42-47. Illus. 26 ref.
Bruynzeel D.P., Tafelkruijer J., Wilks M.F.
Contact dermatitis due to a new fungicide used in the tulip bulb industry
An outbreak of contact dermatitis in a tulip bulb processing company is described. Shortly after the introduction of a new pesticide, the fungicide fluazinam, employees started to complain of dermatitis of the arms and the face. Eight employees were investigated and showed positive patch tests to fluazinam. The dermatitis disappeared quickly when they stopped work, but returned as soon as they restarted. Subsequent investigations showed that the fungicide had not been used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Fluazinam was shown to be a strong sensitizer under these circumstances.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1995, Vol.33, No.1, p.8-11. Illus. 6 ref.
Moen B.E., Hollund B.E., Torp S.
A descriptive study of health problems on car mechanics' hands
In a questionnaire survey of 172 car mechanics, 14% reported white finger (Raynaud's phenomenon), 24% reported paraesthesias in the hands or arms, 41% reported dry skin on the hands, 46% reported hand eczema, and 28% had experienced more than 20 cuts on the hands during the previous year. Hand eczema, white finger and cuts on the hands were all associated with employment for less than 14 years as a car mechanic. Further surveillance of the working environment of car mechanics is required.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1995, Vol.45, No.6, p.318-322. Illus. 14 ref.
Warts in aquarium industry workers
Case studies of two marine aquarium shop workers with common warts on the hands are described. Both workers handled aquarium gravel and sharp-edged coral skeletons, and the hands were frequently wet with cuts and abrasions. Possible causes of the warts in these workers and workers in other industries are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1995, Vol.33, No.5, p.348-349. Illus. 10 ref.
Katsarou A., Koufou B., Takou K., Kalogeromitros D., Papanayiotou G., Vareltzidis A.
Patch test results in hairdressers with contact dermatitis in Greece (1985-1994)
Hairdressers referred to a contact dermatitis clinic were patch tested with the European standard series and with a hairdressers' series. One or more positive reactions to hairdressers' allergens were seen in 50 (47%) of the 106 patients. 32 (30%) were reactive only to non-hairdressers' allergens, and 24 (23%) were negative to all allergens tested. The predominantly young female hairdressers studied had a high frequency of nickel sensitivity compared to other females at the clinic. Of the hairdressers' allergens, the most positive patch test reactions were to p-phenylenediamine and ammonium persulfate.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1995, Vol.33, No.5, p.347-348. 12 ref.
El-Rab M.O.G., Al-Sheikh O.A.
Is the European standard series suitable for patch testing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia?
Patch testing was carried out on 240 dermatitis patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 136 (57%) showed one or more positive results; positive reactions were found for 21 of the 22 items in the test series. Sensitization was most common to nickel sulfate, potassium dichromate, and cobalt chloride; less than 1% of patients reacted to benzocaine and none to primin. The European standard series is suitable for patch testing dermatitis patients in this region, with the exception of benzocaine and primin. The addition of three allergens that could be of local relevance is discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1995, Vol.33, No.5, p.310-314. Illus. 37 ref.
Kanerva L., Estlander T., Jolanki R., Tarvainen K.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria caused by polyfunctional aziridine hardener
Two case studies of allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to a polyfunctional aziridine (PFA) hardener are described. Positive allergic patch test reactions to the PFA hardener and negative reactions with other chemicals in the product (acrylates, propyleneimine and dimethylethanolamine) indicated that PFA caused the allergic contact dermatitis. Skin prick tests on one of the subjects indicated contact urticaria. For patch testing, 0.5% PFA hardener in pet. is recommended; skin prick tests may be of help in detecting contact urticaria.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1995, Vol.33, No.5, p.304-309. Illus. 22 ref.
Koo D., Goldman L., Baron R.
Irritant dermatitis among workers cleaning up a pesticide spill - California 1991
Among a group of 42 county jail inmates who removed dead fish from a river following a spill of metam sodium, 27 had dermatitis involving the feet and ankles. Dermatitis was associated with lower extremity water contact; attack rate increased with time spent in the water. Workers who changed to dry clothing after the clean-up did not report dermatitis. The river concentration of methylisothiocyanate (the decomposition product of metam sodium and a known skin irritant) measured 20-40ppb at the time of exposure. It is suggested that prolonged wetness, occlusive boots, friction and heat contributed to the irritation at this low concentration.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1995, Vol.27, No.4, p.545-553. Illus. 17 ref.
A guide to occupational skin disease
This guide provides information on the causes, diagnosis and management of the following occupational skin diseases: contact dermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, contact urticaria, occupational infections, dermatoses due to physical agents and miscellaneous occupational dermatoses.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Oct. 1995. 18p. 16 ref.
Tarvainen K., Jolanki R., Estlander T., Tupasela O., Pfäffli P., Kanerva L.
Immunologic contact urticaria due to airborne methylhexahydrophthalic and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydrides
Phthalic anhydrides used as hardeners for epoxy resins are known to cause respiratory irritancy and allergy. Skin allergy has on rare occasions been reported. Two workers developed urticaria on uncovered skin after 2 months airborne exposure to methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride. Later, the patients also developed conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sore throat or asthma. Both patients' immediate allergy to these anhydrides was proved by different tests. On prick testing, both patients also reacted to phthalic anhydride. The patients had developed airborne contact urticaria, in addition to respiratory allergy, due to phthalic anhydrides.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1995, Vol.32, No.4, p.204-209. Illus. 24 ref.
Hafner J., Rüegger M., Kralicek P., Elsner P.
Airborne irritant contact dermatitis from metal dust adhering to semisynthetic working suits
Two workers at an aircraft factory were employed in a plasma spraying unit. Soon after they were equipped with new semisynthetic working suits, they started to complain of pruritic eruptions following heavy exposure to metal dust. Clinical findings consisted of discrete macular and papular lesions on the ventral and medial thighs. Atopy score, IgE level and a standard series of prick tests ruled out atopic disposition. Patch tests revealed no reactions. A diagnosis of occupational airborne irritant contact dermatitis from metal dust was therefore made. To elucidate the role of the working suit, extensive physical investigations of the physical properties of the textile were performed. Microscopic pictures at low magnification showed more dust particles on the semisynthetic working suit, compared with the former pure cotton suit. When use of the semisynthetic overall was discontinued, the patients reported no recurrence. The two reported cases show that the physical properties of the textiles of working suits can be of interest and should be considered in the management of dust-induced irritant contact dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1995, Vol.32, No.5, p.285-288. Illus. 6 ref.
Färm G., Karlberg A.T., Lidén C.
Are opera-house artistes afflicted with contact allergy to colophony and cosmetics?
The frequency of cosmetics intolerance and contact allergy to colophony was investigated among 116 singers and dancers and 16 make-up artists. Individuals were interviewed, examined and patch tested with a standard series and with materials from the opera house. Common skin lesions were found in one third of participants and more than 50% had a history of intolerance to cosmetics. Colophony gave positive patch test reactions in only 3 subjects. The prevalence of positive patch test reactions to fragrance mix and Peru balsam was about the same as among dermatitis patients generally. Contact allergy to colophony did not seem to be a problem regarding cosmetics.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1995, Vol.32, No.5, p.273-280. 30 ref.
Gawkrodger D.J., Healy J., Howe A.M.
The prevention of nickel contact dermatitis: A review of the use of binding agents and barrier creams
Chelating agents and other substances can be used to bind nickel or reduce its penetration through the skin and hence to reduce the symptoms of nickel sensitivity. Topical usage is mostly described but chelating agents are also used systemically. The most effective ligand for nickel has been proved to be 5-chloro-7-iodoquinolin-8-ol (clioquinol). Although normally regarded as safe, its usage in some situations may be limited by concerns about its toxicity. Other ligands with demonstrable effect include EDTA, diphenylglyoxime and dimethylglyoxime. Cation exchange resins can effectively bind nickel and work through the skin. Corticosteroids and cyclosporin work in nickel dermatitis by suppressing the immunological reaction rather than through an effect on nickel. Studies of the oral administration of ligands have given conflicting results. Further work is required to develop the existing agents and to look at the use of novel combinations.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1995, Vol.32, No.5, p.257-265. Illus. 54 ref.
Holness D.L., Tarlo S.M., Sussman G., Nethercott J.R.
Exposure characteristics and cutaneous problems in operating room staff
The objectives of this exploratory study performed in operating room personnel were to characterize the exposure and determine the prevalence of cutaneous symptoms and findings and to examine relationships between exposure characteristics and cutaneous outcomes. A questionnaire and standardized hand examination were used to assess the exposure and cutaneous status. 184 operating room staff were assessed. Current skin problems were reported by 26%. Hand examination revealed that 9% had findings consistent with eczema and 10% changes of moderate dryness. A variety of preventive practices were being used by those with symptoms or findings. The use of preventive strategies varied between different groups. It is concluded that these workers might benefit from more education regarding cutaneous hazards, preventive strategies and the importance of appropriate investigation of these problems.
Contact Dermatitis, June 1995, Vol.32, No.6, p.352-358. 22 ref.
Glutaraldehyde - Occupations connected with an allergen
Glutardialdehyd - Berufsspektrum eines Allergens [in German]
Glutaraldehyde is used as a substitute for formaldehyde. It is added for example to cleaning agents and skin creams as a disinfectant. In patch tests with 1% glutaraldehyde in petroleum jelly applied to 2939 patients between November 1989 and July 1993, allergic reactions were observed in 170 cases. Nurses and assistants in doctor's offices were most frequently affected. The next most affected group was charwomen. Measures are needed to protect the groups most severely affected; otherwise an increase in allergic skin diseases cannot be avoided. The measures should include compliance with the exposure limit of 0.2ppm.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Jan.-Feb. 1995, Vol.43, No.1, p.30-31. 14 ref.
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