Diseases of the eye and vision damage - 225 entries found
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- Diseases of the eye and vision damage
Gabel V.P., Birngruber R.
A comparative study of threshold laser lesions in the retinae of human volunteers and rabbits
A series of 61 lesions were produced in 5 human eyes using an argon laser emitting at the two wavelengths 488 and 514nm. 200 laser lesions were produced in 5 eyes of chinchilla rabbits using the same laser coagulator. The ED50 in the human subjects was approximately 44mW and in rabbits 12mW. The power incident on the cornea necessary to obtain threshold coagulation was about 4 times less in rabbits than in humans.
Health Physics, Feb. 1981, Vol.40, No.2, p.238-240. Illus. 9 ref.
Lydahl E., Philipson B., Levin M., Glansholm A., Knave B., Tengroth B.
Infrared radiation and cataract. Occupational health survey and epidemiologic study of exposed industrial workers
Infraröd strĺlning och grĺ starr - Yrkeshygienisk kartläggning och epidemiologisk studie av exponerade industriarbetare [in Swedish]
Eye examinations were carried out on 207 iron and steel industry workers with long-term employment at work stations exposed to infrared radiation. The results of these examinations were compared with those obtained for age-matched control subjects in the same industries but not exposed to infrared radiation. The infrared doses associated with hot forging were higher than those experienced in steel production. An increased frequency of cortical cuneiform opacities was observed in exposed workers over 60 years of age. This effect is age-related and may be due only to age or to a cumulative effect of age and exposure. Exposure to infrared radiation in iron and steel industry workers has not induced eye changes that caused reduced vision.
Arbetarskyddsverket, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1981. 67p. 24 ref.
Raitta C., Teir H., Tolonen M., Nurminen M., Helpiö E., Malmström S.
Impaired color discrimination among viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide.
A colour discrimination test was administered in 62 exposed men and 40 controls. CS2 exposure did not relate to specific pattern defects in colour discrimination, but impairments occurred significantly more often in the exposed group. The damage appears to be due to impairment in the receptiveness of the ganglion cells or demyelination of the optic nerve fibres.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1981, Vol.23, No.3, p.189-192. Illus. 10 ref.
A review of the literature on health hazards of video display terminals
The literature documenting the levels of ionising and non-ionising radiation emitted from video display terminals, the potential for cataract formation and other vision problems and symptoms reported by operators, and the factors contributing to the reported symptoms and solutions suggested for documented problems, is reviewed.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Oct. 1980. 18p. 18 ref.
Cataracts following use of cathode ray tube displays (in: VDUs and ill-health - The evidence)
The political and technical aspects of this question are discussed in Part 3 of this document. A questionnaire investigation indicated a pronounced cumulative and exponential effect of non-ionising radiation when VDU operators working full shifts for 2 or 3 years were compared with those working for shorter periods. The main symptoms were headache and pain in the eyes, fatigue, overall tiredness, dizziness, muscle pain, heart pain, irregular heart beat, breathlessness, memory loss, miscarriage. Part 2 reproduces a paper presented to M.M. Zaret to the International Symposium of Electromagnetic Waves and Biology, "Cataracts following use of cathode ray tube displays", which describes a methodology for investigating incidents, discusses some of the major obstacles encountered, provides an opinion on the existence of a radiation hazard associated with word-processing technology, and offers a method of epidemiological investigation with minimal risk to VDU operators.
Australian Postal and Telecommunications Union, P.O. Box 208, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia, 1980. 49p. 130 ref.
Bittersohl G., Krause-Liebscher I.
Results of retina examinations in workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Ergebnisse retinofotografischer Untersuchungen bei Schwefelkohlenstoff-exponierten Werktätigen [in German]
Results of examinations of 260 workers in the viscose rayon industry to detemine possible vascular changes in the retina. No change was found in workers with less than 15 years' exposure, but 23.8% of these workers had disorders of the retina due to exposure to CS2. There is a correlation between the prevalence of pathological findings and exposure index, but no dose-effect relation could be found from analysis of workplace air.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Apr. 1980, Vol.26, No.4, p.260-262. 59 ref.
Pitts D.G., Cullen A.P., Dayhaw-Barker P.
Determination of ocular threshold levels for infrared radiation cataractogenesis.
A 5,000W xenon high pressure lamp was used to expose 100 pigmented rabbit eyes and 10 monkey eyes to both infrared (IR) radiation and the full optical spectrum of the source. The primary ocular lesion was an anterior epithelial sub-capsular opacity (whitish dots developing beneath and in contact with the iris). No lenticular opacities were induced by direct exposure. Ocular damage from IR exposure was related to the rate of delivery of the radiation. IR irradiance up to 3.9W.cm-2 resulted in thresholds for the rabbit eye of 5,000J.cm2 for the cornea, 3,500J.cm-2 for the iris, and 3,750J.cm-2 for the lens, while irradiance above 4.0W.cm-2 gave rabbit ocular thresholds of 1,250J.cm-2 for the cornea, 1,250J.cm-2 for the iris and 2,250J.cm-2 for the lens. Exposures with the full optical spectrum showed that the visible and the ultraviolet radiation were additive for damage to the lens. The monkey ocular thresholds were a factor of 6 above the respective rabbit threshold. Reflective metal coatings to control the IR, and absorptive filters to control other radiations are recommended forms of protection.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, June 1980. 55p. Illus. 48 ref.
Hartmann E., Scheffzyk-Hagl A., Lachenmayr B.
Lighting and working conditions for workers with poor sight
Gestaltung von Arbeitsplätzen für leicht Sehbehinderte [in German]
Literature survey on visual performance in relation to lighting parameters, followed by a description of the apparatus and methods used to test 127 workers with reduced vision. The results cover: visual performance in relation to luminance, contrast and colour of light. The efficacy of some visual aids (e.g. magnifying glasses) is studied, and recommendations are made for the design and layout of a workplace for persons with reduced vision.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 17 02 02, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. 266p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: DM.29.50.
Secondary colour vision deficiency and work
Dyschromatopsies secondaires et travail. [in French]
MD thesis. Contents: general information on colour vision (physiology of colour vision, concept of colorimetry, ways and means of investigation to detect and classify deficiencies); definition of acquired or secondary colour vision deficiency: description of some types of particular interest to the occupational physician, i.e. those due to poisoning of exogenous origin (optic nerve disorders due to toxic agents), or general or metabolic disorders (diabetes) and their importance in industry, especially in transport and in certain occupations where clear distinction of colours is essential. Necessity for efficient vocational guidance and screening; role of the plant physician in the detection and surveillance of colour vision deficiency.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Broussais - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1980. 113p. 75 ref.
Colour and work - Colour surroundings - Dyschromatopsia - Occupational capability
Couleur et travail - Ambiance colorée - Dyschromatopsies - Aptitudes professionnelles. [in French]
MD thesis: physical, physiological and psychological aspects of colour vision; importance of colours for staff morale, accident prevention and fatigue; workplace lighting; medical aspects (colour vision deficiency, screening tests for this condition in occupational medicine); effects of colour vision deficiency on work performance and ability in jobs involving important safety factors; problems arising from dissimulating or simulating colour vision deficiency; importance of role of plant physician in certifying aptitude for work.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Lariboisičre - Saint-Louis, Paris, France, 1980. 240p. 64 ref.
Offret H., Philbert M.
Occupational eye disorders
Pathologie ophtalmologique d'origine professionnelle [in French]
This roundup of the state of the art covers: major occupationally-induced visual function syndromes (visual fatigue, glare, photophobia); eye injury (bruises, wounds, burns and lesions due to physical agents); disease of the external layers of the eye, the causes of which are grouped by toxic (mineral, vegetable, chemical) and allergic aetiology (microbial, chemical, vegetable); contagious occupational diseases which affect the eyes; preventive medicine; collective and personal protection.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France. 8p. 11 ref.
The effect of welding fumes on ocular readaptation time.
Objective measurements of ocular readaptation time (ORT) were obtained from the recovery time for optokinetic nystagmus after a bright flash of light. Welding electrodes of different types and chemical compositions were used. Fumes from basic electrodes, containing high amounts of calcium and fluorides, and sometimes copper, markedly increased ORT. Fumes from rutile electrodes, with only small amounts of these substances, did not increase it. ORT was not affected by the copper content of the electrodes. Fluorides in the fumes produced by basic electrodes appear to be rsponsible for prolonging ORT.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1980, Vol.6, No.2, p.135-145. Illus. 14 ref.
Colour coding and the colour defective.
Uses of colours to code information in industry (hazards include wrong colour identification of gas cylinders, fire extinguishers, pipelines) and transport; meanings of colours in the British Colour Council safety colour code; new U.K. regulations on 4 safety colours and safety signs; effect of diabetes on colour vision. Tables show: colour confusions made, colours completely missed, and common errors made by workers with colour vision deficiencies.
Occupational Safety and Health, May 1980, p.7-10 and 39-40. Illus.
Pollak V.A., Romanchuk K.G.
The risk of retina damage from high intensity light sources.
The optical hazards of continuous and pulsed man-made sources is discussed. The probability of injury increases as the radiant power absorbed by the retina is larger and the size of the retinal image of the source is smaller. A method of estimating the temperature increase of the immediately affected area of the retina is presented. The time constants involved are briefly considered. Threshold values for a variety of conditions can be established, below which little risk of retinal damage should exist. A case study of a welding accident showed good agreement between the theoretical results and clinical findings.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1980, Vol.41, No.5, p.322-327. Illus. 11 ref.
Reinhardt K., Huke K., Schunk W., Heuer I.
Infrared radiation exposure in ceramics bakers
Zur Infrarotstrahlenexposition bei Keramikbrennern [in German]
The appearance of heat-ray cataract in a ceramics baker prompted a study of radiation exposure. Intensities were comparable with those experienced by glass blowers. At a baking temperature of 1050°C radiation intensity is relatively high in the harmful wave length region, but the total radiation dose is considerably shorter. The risk of heat-ray cataract is considered much lower than in glass blowers. Since the main source of exposure is opening the kilns, the need for safety measures during this operation is stressed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Nov. 1979, Vol.25, No.11, p.806-807. 12 ref.
Schmöger E., Heuer I., Reinhardt K., Huke K.
Heat-ray cataract in pottery kilnmen
Zum Auftreten eines Feuerstars bei Keramikbrennern [in German]
A typical heat-ray cataract was observed in a pottery kilnman, but there was no evidence of lens damage in the other workers. Infrared radiation exposure was greatest when the kilns were opened. The heat-ray cataract hazard is smaller in ceramics workers than in glass burners.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, 1979, Vol.34, No.34, p.1634-1636. Illus. 13 ref.
Rose R.C., Parker R.L.
Erythema and conjunctivitis - Outbreak caused by inadvertent exposure to ultraviolet light.
Over a period of 4 months, 58 episodes of erythema (on the face, neck, arms or hands) and conjuntivitis or both occurred in 33 hospital nurses. A germicidal bulb was mistakenly being used as a desk lamp. Removal of the lamp from the nursing station controlled the outbreak.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 14 Sep. 1979, Vol.242, No.11, p.1155-1156. Illus. 6 ref.
Bilateral retrobulbar neuritis due to insecticides
Névrite rétrobulbaire bilatérrale due ŕ un insecticide. [in French]
Translation of an article in Postgraduate Medical Journal, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1968, Vol.44, No.3, p.341-342. This is a case report in a subject exposed to an insecticide containing dieldrin and pentachlorophenol, for 8h daily for 4 consecutive days, without respiratory protection. The only symptom was marked loss of visual acuity.
Traduction INRS 5-79, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1979. 5p. 3 ref.
Borel A.M., Lumbroso.
Ametropia and fitness for work
Amétropies et aptitudes aux postes de travail. [in French]
The chief visual defects and means of correcting them (glasses, contact lenses) are reviewed, and the situation of the ametropic worker in the construction industry and civil engineering is examined: the optical correction means prescribed are often not used on the worksite; good visual performance is necessary above all for machinery and crane drivers, plumbers, welders, milling machine operators, tile-layers and fitters; a dusty environment is very uncomfortable for workers with corrected ametropia; eye protection against radiation and flying particles is necessary. Work at heights is problematic for uncorrected ametropics. For the physician, the prescription of corrective measures must take the technical and financial problems involved into account.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, July-Aug. 1979, No.4, p.213-220. Illus. 23 ref.
Colour bars of an occupational kind - Job problems of visual defectives: How can they be helped?
This article considers the occupational problems of inherited and acquired defetive colour vision (protanopia, protanomalous defects, deuteranopia, deuteranomaly, tritanopia), which affects 1 in 12 or 8% of males; main occupations involving correct colour judgment (train and truck drivers, airline pilots, doctors, nurses, farmers, metal workers, post office sorters, beauticians, etc.); accidents due to mistaken colour identification; acquired deterioration of colour vision (age, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, chronic liver disease, glaucoma, cataract, optic nerve degeneration, abuse of smoking and alcohol, "tobacco amblyopia"); U.K. percentages of defective colour vision types; colour vision testing (selection of coloured wires, colour vision lanterns, Farnsworth "tritan plate" (illustrated) for screening tritanopes and tritanomalous subjects).
Occupational Safety and Health, Feb. 1979, p.10-12. Illus. 5 ref.
Work at visual display units: Who needs special glasses for work at cathode ray terminals?
Arbete vid bildskärm: Vem behöver särskilda terminalglasögon? [in Swedish]
The survey used as a basis for drafting Directives No.136 of the Swedish National Board for Occupational Safety and Health concerning the prevention of visual disturbances in cathode ray terminal work (CIS 79-554) showed that 54.8% of CRT display terminal operators complained of these disturbances. This article gives advice on the recruitment of CRT operators, with early screening for refractory disorders and complete eye examination. Adaptation of prescription lenses presupposes the precise determination of the distance between the eyes and the distance between the lense and the pupil. When adapting the frame, the angle of vision should be taken into account, because selecting the wrong angle would result in prismatic deformation of the image, usually causing headache. The advantages and disadvantages of multifocal and progressive lenses are considered, and the importance of close collaboration between the ophthalmologist, the optician and the health and safety officer.
Arbetsmiljö, 22 Jan. 1979, No.1, p.15-20. Illus. 13 ref.
Definition and types of colour blindness; the commonest and perhaps one of the most hazardous forms, dichromacy (inability to distinguish between red and green, or between 2 other primary colours) occurs in approx 8% men, 0.5% women. Importance of colours and lighting in workplace situations. Optical aids have very limited uses. Industrial sectors and situations from which those handicapped by defective colour vision should be debarred. Use of shapes and symbols to replace colours on buttons and for warning signs and lights. Importance of pre-employment vision testing. Possibilities of adaptation.
Safety Management, Jan. 1978, Vol.4, No.1, p.15-17. 1 ref.
Ultra-violet radiation: an environmental hazard.
Case study of 3 laboratory workers complaining of eye pain (at first confused with exposure to ammonia vapour, but a 12h time lag before onset of pain ruled this out), diagnosed as conjunctivitis due to work under a fluorescent ultraviolet (UV) lamp which had been borrowed by another department and the filters removed and not replaced. NIOSH TLVs for UV radiation exposure are given; recommendations include use of warning notices. Discussed are: understanding the NIOSH curve (diagram), workers at risk (occupations listed), natural and man-made UV radiation sources, effects of over-exposure (particularly to the eyes: carcinoma, keratoconjunctivitis), with wavelengths and exposure levels at which the effects occur; permissible exposures and relative spectral effectiveness by wavelength (tables).
Occupational Health, Feb. 1978, Vol.30, No.2, p.74-80. Illus. 10 ref.
Occupational hygiene aspects of vision at work
Igiene della vista nel lavoro [in Italian]
Contents of this general study: visual function (VF) and VF tests (visual acuity, refractive errors, ocular motility; stereoscopic vision, colour vision (CV) and CV tests, binocular instruments for eye tests, work-related visual requirements, measures to improve visual tasks); pathology of VF in relation to work (changes due to age and illness, occupational eye injury, eye injury due to ultraviolet, infrared or ionising radiation, laser beams, microwaves, accident hazards, screens); workplace lighting (lighting and good eyesight, light physics, light distribution, light measurement and instruments used, luminance, reflection, colour schemes, contrast, glare, daylight and artificial lighting; general and local lighting; illumination levels; offices; types of lamps and maintenance).
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, May-June 1978, Vol.65, No.3, p.295-336; July-Aug. 1978, No.4, p.597-626; Sep.-Oct. 1978, No.5, p.765-794; Nov.-Dec. 1978, No.6, p.1095-1136. 50 ref.
Söderberg I., Calissendorff B., Elofson S., Knave B., Nyman K.G.
Microscope work - I. Investigation of visual disorders in workers using microscopes in the electronics industry
Mikroskoparbete - I. Utredning av ögonbesvär hos mikroskopoperatörer pĺ elektronisk industri [in Swedish]
Results of an investigation in a Swedish plant manufacturing miniaturised electronic components, during which 75 workers (91% women) using microscopes for assembling or checking the components complained of visual fatigue. The authors examined the workers concerned for refractory disorders, eye disorders in general, and binocular vision. Subjective symptoms of visual fatigue were recorded in 80% of microscope workers. A statistical analysis of the results shows a significant relation between these symptoms, on the one hand, and astigmatic refraction disorders, quality of binocular vision and duration of employment in microscope work, on the other.
Arbete och hälsa, Vetenskaplig skriftserie, 1978:16, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1978. 54p. Illus. 26 ref.
Is cataract an occupational disease?
Cataract, een beroepsziekte? [in Dutch]
This literature survey considers the occupational factors liable to cause cataract: radiation sources (infrared, ionising, laser, microwave, etc.) and chemical. 102 substances are listed, with details of their cataractogenic effects in man and animals, with the corresponding references.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 8 Nov. 1978, Vol.56, No.22, p.748-751. 49 ref.
Occupational eye disorders caused by iodine and their prevention
Professional'nye zabolevanija organa zrenija, vyzyvaemye jodom, i ih profilaktika [in Russian]
Results of ophthalmological examinations in 198 wrkers in the iodine industry (49 exposed regularly to iodine vapour, 80 exposed intermittently and 69 non-exposed). The greatest exposure (100mg/m3 and above) was in sublimation, crystallisation and adsorption units. The most frequent disorders were blepharitis, conjunctivitis and corneal damage. These conditions, and reduced corneal sensitivity, tended to increase with exposure. The incidence of functional disorders (loss of visual acuity, narrowing of visual field, retinal adaptation disorders) are reported. Preventive measures recommended are technical (enclosure and mechanisation), ophthalmological surveillance of workers, and wearing of gas-tight goggles.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1978, No.4, p.16-20.
Sugimoto K., Goto S., Kanda S., Taniguchi H., Nakamura K., Baba T.
Studies on angiopathy due to carbon disulfide - Retinopathy and index of exposure dosages.
Retinopathy (microaneurisms, small dot haemorrhages) and the coded resting and postexercise findings suggestive of coronary heart disease (CHD) were studied in 420 male workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) and 390 non-exposed. Retinopathy was detected in 24.4% of the exposed and 3.8% of the non-exposed workers by colour fundus photography. Among exposed workers, there was a significant correlation between retinopathy and index of exposure dosages (a value calculated from worker history and time-weighted average CS2 concentrations). The relation between retinopathy and exposure duration was not so high. The occurrences of coded resting and postexercise "coronary" ECG findings were not related to the index of exposure dosages. Risk factors for CHD such as total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, beta-lipoproteins, blood pressure, obesity and skinfold thickness were simultaneously studied. These variables were not important in the development of angiopathy due to CS2, especially the so-called retinopathia sulfocarbonica.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1978, Vol.4, No.2, p.151-158. Illus. 14 ref.
Monocular vision and occupation.
The physiology of binocularity is reviewed, and the effects of loss of vision in one eye - loss of visual acuity on one side, loss of field on one side, loss of binocular vision - presented with the hazards they engender. Occupations in which binocular vision is important are briefly surveyed.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1978, Vol.28, No.2, p.57-59. 3 ref.
Colour vision defects - Occupational significance and testing requirements.
Colour vision defects affect 8% of the male population. With the widespread use of colour coding, often involving safety situations, careful consideration must be given to the problems of this minority. The physiology of colour vision is reviewed, and colour defects are classified with their incidence in males. The occupational importance of inherited and acquired defects is discussed: the severity of the defect is far more important than the type, and what really matters is whether a deficiency significantly handicaps an individual in his work. The significance of age changes is briefly looked at. Testing procedures for inherited and acquired defects are compared as regards suitability, as well as trade tests which simulate the job in question.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1978, Vol.28, No.2, p.51-56. 34 ref.
Eye hazard associated with lasers.
Paper read at the British Occupational Hygiene Society's annual conference, York (United Kingdom), 28-31 Mar. 1977. The anatomy and physiology of the eye are discussed in detail in relation to laser radiation and to the mechanisms of laser-induced damage. Using the retina as an example, such damage is described together with the subjective symptoms that it may produced. Empirical studies for determining laser damage thresholds are briefly reviewed, with the way in which such figures are used to determine the safe viewing levels incorporated in current codes of practice.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 1978, Vol.21, No.1, p.69-77. 24 ref.
Kindernay Š., Šimko A., Svěrák J.
A rare case of toxoplasmosis with ocular manifestations
Neobvyklý případ profesionální toxoplasmózy s očními projevy [in Czech]
A zoological garden worker aged 40 presented bilateral panuveitis due to toxoplasmosis with resulting pseudopigmentary degeneration of the right retina and a small area of pigmentary chorioretinitis in the left eye. Electrophysiological studies showed severe changes of the right retina and marked disturbances of electroretinographic potentials (depression of I-R curves) and the electrooculographic tracing in the left eye.
Pracovní lékařství, Nov. 1977, Vol.29, No.9, p.344-347. Illus. 24 ref.
Zoz N.I., Kuznecov Ju.A.
Visual accommodation disorders due to work with the microscope
Sostojanie akkomodacionnogo apparata organa zrenija pri rabote s mikroskopom [in Russian]
A thousand workers using binocular microscopes for assembly of electronic components were examined: visual disturbances were found which increased in severity with length of service. Accommodation power was assessed according to the amplitude of absolute accommodation and the positive component of age-adjusted relative accommodation. Visual stress was largely due to over-focussing of the microscope. Correct focussing of the microscope by assembly workers is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1977, No.12, p.13-15. 3 ref.
Eye lesion hazard during automobile paint drying
Ögonen i fara vid torkning av billack [in Swedish]
The introduction of a new type of short-wave infrared radiation dryer involves a hazard which generally goes unrecognised in automobile bodywork paintshops: cataract due to coagulation of protein molecules in the crystalline lens of the eye under the effect of heat. A study in paintshops showed that certain painters work close to these dryers. Exposure limits proposed for this type of short-wave radiation are dealt with and the use of protective screens recommended.
Arbetsmiljö, 1977, No.14, p.33-34. Illus.
Case history - Safety hazard from colour vision defect.
Description of a case where a worker's inability, through colour vision defect, to see the blue flame from a small hand-held natural gas torch used in solvering work in a car body plant had resulted in his frequently burning himself and his co-workers. The article then traces the development of scientific knowledge of, and research on colour blindness, with reference to the ILO Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety, and considers many aspects of colour vision defect (history in early childhood; protan, duteran and trito defects; effects of heredity; race factor; effects of senile cataract; colour vision tests) and job suitability tests (lantern test, etc.).
Occupational Health, Nov. 1977, Vol.29, No.11, p.483-488. Illus. 16 ref.
Albert D.M., Puliafito C.A.
Choroidal melanoma: possible exposure to industrial toxins.
Report on 2 cases of choroidal melanoma, one fatal, and one of squamous-cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in chemical workers at plants employing dimethyl sulfate, hydrazine and 4,4'-methylenedianiline. No other cases had occurred since 1956, the total incidence of eye cancer in this period being 0.5, a statistically significant 6-fold excess.
New England Journal of Medicine, Mar. 1977, Vol.296, No.11, p.634-635. 9 ref.
Sugimoto K., Goto S., Hotta R.
Studies on chronic carbon disulfide poisoning - A 5-year follow-up study on retinopathy due to carbon disulfide.
Direct ophthalmoscopic/colour fundus photographic examinations and the prednisolone glucose tolerance test were performed in 214 male carbon disulfide workers, 3 times in 5 years, to determine the influence of exposure cessation or continued exposure on retinopathy. Results are summarised as follows: progression to a more developed stage of retinopathy was higher in the group with continuing exposure; no progression was found in workers with exposure of 10 years or less; disappearance or improvement of retinopathy was higher in the group removed from exposure, even after long duration of exposure; mean blood-glucose values were higher in workers with retinopathy than without. Similarities in the clinical pictures of chronic carbon disulfide poisoning and diabetes are discussed. Insulin deficiency was not investigated.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 6 Sep. 1976, Vol.37, No.4, p.233-248. Illus. 9 ref.
Korotkova L.P., Ginijatullina A.K., Kal'met'eva M.A., Ahmetova Ė.T., Kamenskaja L.E.
Visual function changes in trichloroethylene and chlorine production workers
Izmenenie sostojanija organa zrenija u rabočih, zanjatyh na proizvodstve trihlorėtilena i hlora [in Russian]
Results of ophthalmological examinations in 46 trichloroethylene- and 64 chlorine-production workers: an initial increase in secretion of aqueous humour declined after several years' exposure, with a reduction in intraocular pressure. These effects were accompanied by hypertension of the arteries of the eye and functional disturbances of the visual analyser.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1976, No.3, p.46-47.
Wayne L.G., Bryan R.J., Ziedman K.
Irritant effects of industrial chemicals: Formaldehyde.
Occupational health surveys were conducted in 3 plants; a shirt factory and 2 wood products plants. Formaldehyde levels in the first were 0.2-0.8ppm; average levels in the two wood products plants were 0.6-0.9ppm. 83 workers in a wood products plant wee given ophthalmologic examinations; medical histories were ovtained, and eye irritation symptoms were ascertained. No relations of eye disorders or symptoms to chronic formaldehyde exposure or work history were found. Possible acute effects of formaldehyde on visual function were examined by administering tests of visual acuity, depth perception, peripheral vision, accommodation, fixation, and colour vision to 50 workers in one wood products plant both before and after work. No acute effects of formaldehyde on worker's performances occurred at formaldehyde levels which average 0.4ppm.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-117, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1976. 148p. Illus.
Pleština R., Piuković-Pleština M.
The effects of pesticides on the eyes and vision
Učinak pesticida na oko i vid [in Serbocroatian]
The effect of pesticides on eyes and vision in humans and animals is reviewed. The literature is scarce and not easily available. Acute effects of pesticides are known, but possible delayed effects caused by prolonged exposure have received little attention. Some of the obvious visual impairments found in selected populations in Japanese retrospective studies indicated the existence of a special nosologic entity, Saku Disease. The number of examined subjects, their occupations, type and duration of exposure are plotted against ophthalmological findings. The most striking finding was visual field constriction. However, in most cases the methodology and conditions of the examination were insufficiently described. Clinical observations on the effects of anticholinesterase miotics used in therapy of glaucoma are also described. Dogs, rats and rabbits were studied to discover the effects of a given compound, but rarely to determine the mechanism of the eye impairment. The morphological findings or electrophysiological changes were nonspecific. Efforts to explain these findings have not been successful. Morphological changes and functional eye impairment in humans and animals are indicative, but not fully confirmative of the unequivocal effect of pesticides on humans.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1976, Vol.27, No.4, p.321-333. 67 ref.
Douglas A.A., MacDonald-MacLean A., Cullen J.F.
Blindness from accident.
This survey of causes of blindness due to accidents, carried out in 4 major Scottish hospitals from 1968 to 1973, contains an extensive literature survey, with sections devoted, inter alia, to a study of 49 cases of severe loss of vision due to occupational accidents: general review; prevention; treatment; breakdown by age, sex, cause of accident and resultant vision. Appendices: questionnaire forms used in the survey; illustrated data sheets on various types of goggles and eyeshields (polycarbonate lens, rubber frame eye protectors, welding goggles, etc.), headbands and safety helmets with visors, etc.
W.H. Ross Foundation (Scotland), 20 Lauriston Place, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 1976. 75p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: Ł0.50.
Effects of organophosphate pesticides and other drugs on subcortical mechanisms of visual integration.
Atropine, scopolamine, mevinphos, and eserine selectively block directional sensitivity of visual integrative neurones in the thalamus. Cholinergic drugs that do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier are without effect. The neurones studied are important links in reflex brain systems controlling visual attention and eye movements. The results suggest that any cholinergic drug that can reach the brain will disturb visual functions. Since the changes are qualitative and the system is reflex, the affected individual may be unaware of dysfunction. The resultant dangers to aerial applicators are discussed, particularly with respect to atropine, which is necessary in the therapy of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning but is potentially harmful if self-administered for either prophylaxis or treatment.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 1976, Vol.47, No.6, p.627-629. Illus. 10 ref.
Sugimoto K., Goto S., Hotta R.
An epidemiological study on retinopathy due to carbon disulfide - CS2 exposure level and development of retinopathy.
Methods and results of an ophthalmoscopic study in 289 workers with exposure to carbon disulfide in a viscose-rayon staple plant, and 49 controls, are described. Workers having either a diabetic family history or exposure to organic solvents were excluded. Retinal abnormalities characterised by microaneurysms, haemorrhages and exudates were found in 89 (30.8%) of the exposed workers and 2 (4.1%) of the controls. Results clearly showed an increasing prevalence of retinopathy with increasing duration and concentration of CS2 exposure. The retinopathy progressed through 4 stages of a classification used by the authors. They propose the name "retinopathia sulfocarbonica" for these retinal abnormalities.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 28 Apr. 1976, Vol.37, No.1, p.1-8. Illus. 11 ref.
Shacklett D.E., Tredici T.J., Epstein D.L.
Evaluation of possible microwave-induced lens changes in the United States Air Force.
Clinical ophthalmologic examinations were conducted among 477 subjects working around microwave-generating equipment and 340 controls with no known occupational exposure to microwave radiation. No significant differences were found as regards the presence of lens opacities, vacuoles and posterior subcapsular iridescence between the 2 groups. There was an increased incidence of lens changes with increasing age. It was not possible to establish any connection between lenticular effects and occupational exposure to microwave radiation.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1975, Vol.46, No.11, p.1403-1406. 18 ref.
Hartz W.P., Swencicki R.E.
Keratitis on exposure to dimethyl phosphorochloridothionate (DMPCT).
DMPCT is used as an intermediate in the synthesis of several insecticides and other compounds. Case histories of 6 exposed workers with corneal injuries (the authors had found none in the literature) are given. All had severe eye irritation and swelling of the eyelids. DMPCT vapours do not cause immediate discomfort (latent period of symptoms 4-12h). Punctate keratitis was revealed only at slit lamp examination. There was no lung involvement. All patients recovered completely without loss of visual acuity.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1975, Vol.17, No.5, p.335-336. 2 ref.
Wright W.D., Birch J., Palmer D.A.
Colour vision characteristics.
This paper is in 3 parts. Part 1 summarises present knowledge about the colour perception process (not the colour vision theory) and discusses questions which are still unanswered. Part 2 deals with defective colour vision, its classification and investigation. Part 3 is devoted to the relationship between colour perception and level of illumination. The discussion which followed the presentation of the paper is appended.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1975, Vol.7, No.3, p.155-168. Illus. 44 ref.
Appleton B., Hirsch S., Kinion R.O., Soles M., McCrossan G.C., Neidlinger R.M.
Microwave lens effects in humans.
Continuation of earlier studies (CIS 74-1296) extended to cover a total of 2,343 microwave workers and 801 controls over 5 years. Comparison of lens abnormalities found (opacities, vacuoles, or posterior subcapsular iridescence) showed the 2 groups to be essentially the same, and did not support the hypothesis that microwave exposure causes lens damage in humans. The results suggest that the existing safety level of 10mW/cm2 is adequate.
Archives of Ophthalmology, Apr. 1975, Vol.93, No.5, p.257-258. 3 ref.
Retinal effects of a multiple-pulse laser.
Retinal lesions were produced in the temporal paramacular area of the eyes of 38 anaesthesised rhesus monkeys by near-infrared laser radiation from a repetitive-pulse gallium arsenide laser. Pulse repetition frequencies of 40 pulses per second (pps) and 1,000pps were used with a 30-ns pulse width at the wavelength of 905nm. Lesions could be produced only by varying the exposure duration with a fixed energy output; results were therefore expressed in terms of total exposure duration rather than energy per pulse. The median effective dose (ED50) - that is, the dose that will produce retinal damage with a probability of 50% - of 0.72s obtained for the 1,000-pps exposure is significantly lower than the 22.3s for the 40-pps exposure and demonstrates a cumulative effect.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1974, Vol.35, No.5, p.252-256. Illus. 13 ref.
Toxicology of the eye.
An introductory survey of the types of toxic effects which involve the eyes or vision is followed by an alphabetically-arranged compendium of information on all substances which by direct contact or by the systemic route may have adverse effects on the eyes or produce visual disturbances. Drugs, chemicals, cosmetics, plants and venoms are covered, and the systemic side-effects of ophthalmic drugs are reviewed. Detailed instructions for the treatment of chemical eye burns and data on testing methods and species specificity are provided in separate sections. There is a detailed alphabetical subject index.
Charles C. Thomas, 301-327 East Lawrence Avenue, Springfield, Illinois, USA, 1974. 1201p. 268 ref. Price: US-$47.50.
Developments in the investigation and aetiology of colour deficiency.
Current thinking on the mechanism of normal colour vision is briefly reviewed. Colour deficiency can occur both as a hereditary and as an acquired condition; examinations should be designed to distinguish between the 2 forms. Some of the methods of screening for colour-defective individuals are indicated.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1974, Vol.24, No.2, p.54-58. Illus. 12 ref.
Vision screening in industry: Objectives and methods.
There are difficulties in analysing the relationships between visual abilities and job competence. Initially, visual tasks involved in any job should be analysed and the importance of the visual parameters assessed. Vision can be screened by a modified clinical technique or with instrumental screeners. A number of instrumental screeners are described, their practical advantage being that they can be operated by lay technicians. For jobs of high visual demand, the use of a modified clinical technique is advisable.
In: Vision and its protection. Australian Optometrical Publishing Company, 24 Nithsdale Street, Sydney, Australia, 1973, p.123-138. Illus. 18 ref.
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