Diseases of the eye and vision damage - 225 entries found
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- Diseases of the eye and vision damage
Pérez Bilbao J., Nogareda Cuixart C., Salvador Peracaula E.
Ageing and work: Visual function
Envejecimiento y trabajo: la visión [in Spanish]
Topics: age-linked differences; ageing; data sheet; physiology of vision; Spain; visual function disorders.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/ Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 5p. 12 ref.
Solé Gómez M.D.
Neurotoxicity: Colour vision evaluation
Neurotoxicidad: estudio de la visión cromática [in Spanish]
Topics: colour vision deficiency; colour vision; data sheet; neurotoxic effects; Spain; vision tests.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 6p. Illus. 19 ref.
Thermal effect of visible light and infra-red radiation (i.r.-A, i.r.-B and i.r.-C) on the eye: A study of infra-red cataract based on a model
Exposure to intense optical radiation in the workplace leads to the development of infrared cataracts. To investigate the role of the wavelength of optical radiation in infrared cataract formation, the temperature rise induced in the eye by monochromatic optical radiation (visible light and infrared (i.r.)) was calculated on the basis of a mathematical model. It is shown that, in accordance with Goldmann's theory, when visible light or i.r.-A is incident on the eye, the radiation is absorbed by the iris and converted into heat which is then conducted to the lens, inducing cataracts. When i.r.-B or i.r.-C is incident on the eye, it is adsorbed by the cornea and converted into heat which is then conducted to the lens, inducing cataracts. It is suggested that i.r. cataracts are induced by i.r.-B or i.r.-C in the workplace.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.38, No.4, p.351-359. Illus. 16 ref.
Pennarola R., Scarselli R., Bongiorno V., Iannuzzi G.
The visual apparatus and work with particular reference to video-terminal using activities
Apparato visivo e lavoro con particolare riferimento alle attività con uso di videoterminali [in Italian]
Seventy-four visual display terminal (VDT) operators were surveyed in Italy in relation to the action which dust and chemical, physical, biological and ergonomic agents may have on workers' eyes. The principal associated symptoms included: tired eyes, stress, psycho-social disorders, arthropathies. The detected vision disorders are the symptoms of a reversible dysfunctional state. Psychological aspects and disturbances of the locomotor apparatus are of notable importance in the studied sample. Medical surveillance is recommended for VDT operators on the accommodative function and on the structure of the anterior segment, using microbioscopic monitoring techniques. Psychological aspects of the work, including studies of the locomotor apparatus and environmental conditions, should also be conducted.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-Mar., 1994, Vol.6, No.1, p.41-55. Illus. 43 ref.
Hjortsberg U., Ørbaek P., Arborelius M.J., Karlsson J.E.
Upper airway irritation and small airways hyperreactivity due to exposure to potassium aluminium tetrafluoride flux - An extended case report
Twenty-two workers, exposed to potassium aluminium tetrafluoride used as flux for soldering aluminium, were studied as clinical outpatients for symptoms of irritation of the nose, eye, skin and airways. Sixteen volunteered for spirometry with methacholine provocation test including a test for small airways function by volume of trapped gas (VTG). Symptoms of airways irritation diminished in all subjects after flux exposure ended. The FEV1 was within the normal range in 16 of 17 subjects before the methacholine provocation test. The FEV1 decreased by ≥20% in two out of 16 subjects after the 0.1% methacholine provocation and after inhalation of methacholine, eight out of 16 subjects (50%) had an abnormal increase of VTG indicating hyperreactivity in small airways. Potassium aluminium tetrafluoride flux seems to induce an increase of bronchial reactivity in small airways. A setting of an occupational standard is proposed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1994, Vol.51, No.10, p.706-709. 15 ref.
Chia S.E., Jeyaratnam J., Ong C.N., Ng T.P., Lee H.S.
Impairment of color vision among workers exposed to low concentrations of styrene
In a study of 21 male workers exposed to styrene concentrations below 30ppm in a fibre-reinforced plastic boat manufacturing plant, mean end-of-shift urinary mandelic acid and phenylglycoxylic acid were 84mg/g creatinine and 66mg/g creatinine respectively. Tests revealed that the exposed workers had significantly poorer colour discrimination ability than a non-exposed control group. Results of neurobehavioural tests were also poorer for the exposed workers. Low exposure to styrene could affect psychometric performance and may impair colour vision.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1994, Vol.26, No.4, p.481-488. 19 ref.
Watten R.G., Lie I., Birketvedt O.
The influence of long-term visual near-work on accommodation and vergence - A field study
A study of the influence of sustained, visual near-work on a set of oculomotor functions (ZCSV, Zone of Clear Vision) was carried out in a group of young, female accountants engaged in full-time work using a video display terminal. PRA (Positive Relative Accommodation), NRA (Negative Relative Accommodation), PRC (Positive Relative Convergence) and NRC (Negative Relative Convergence) were measured before work and at the end of the working day. There were significant reductions in the four ZCSV components over the working day; vergence reductions accounted for over 60% of the changes.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1994, Vol.23, No.1, p.27-39. 49 ref.
Ebran J.M., Roquelaure Y.
Toxic and occupational eye pathology (except optical neuropathies); Prevention of hazards to the eye in the workplace
Pathologie ophtalmologique toxique et professionnelle (en dehors des neuropathies optiques); Prévention des risques ophtalmolgiques professionnels [in French]
Information notes on toxic and occupational eye pathologies (excluding optical neuropathies). Main issues dealt with in the 1st one: ocular traumas and pathology related to physical agents (ocular contusions and burns), traumas caused by animals or plants); pathology linked to physical agents (radiations, industrial electricity); infectious, irritative or allergic occupational pathology; ocular injuries induced by occupational poisoning, non specific visual disorders (visual fatigue, glare, others (miner's nystagmus, vibration, sick building syndrome). Optical correction of ametropias in the workplace. Themes studied in the 2nd note: medical and technical prevention of ocular accidents (protective glasses, screens and masks), prevention of visual fatigue.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie, Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 1994. 6p. + 3p. 42 ref. + 18 ref.
Krüger E., Werth B.
Studies of pesticide contamination in root-crop farming
Untersuchungen zur Pestizidkontamination bei Hackfruchtpflegearbeiten in Landwirtschaftsbetrieben [in German]
Dermal exposure pads were attached to the skin of the chest, arms and legs of 61 farm workers spraying root crops with pesticides. The pesticide concentrations found on the pads of workers wearing protective clothing were low. However, concentrations as much as 77.2% in excess of the tolerable dermal dose were found when no protective clothing was worn. Of the 61 workers, 24 had health problems such as headache (23), vision disturbances (11) and dermatitis (2).
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Jan. 1993, Vol.28, No.1, p.9-12. 34 ref.
Gratton I., Piccoli B., Pierini F., Bergamaschi A.
Medium-term variations of visual function in VDT operators - Observation of 70 cases
Variazioni a medio termine della funzionalità visiva in operatori VDT - Osservazioni di 70 casi [in Italian]
The aim of the study was to evaluate medium-term variations of visual functions in 70 VDT operators in function of their VDT exposure. Clinical records of the operators were reviewed in order to evaluate the variation of visual parameters (refraction, phorias, fusional convergence and divergence, stereopsis) after a 2yr follow-up. Subjects affected by hyperopia, large ametropias, or binocular vision disturbances were excluded from the study. The operators were divided into two subgroups: low exposures (n=20; <4h/day) and high exposures (n=50; >4h/day). Asthenopia was frequent in both groups. Variation of refraction and binocular vision parameters was absent or rather limited in both groups. This indicates that in subjects without significant ophthalmological problems the risk of permanent functional damage is very low at medium-term.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.482-486. 13 ref.
Gruppo italiano per lo studio dei rapporti tra lavoro e visione
The relationship between work and eyesight in preventive medicine: Initial guidelines for a correct ergo-ophthalmologic approach proposed by the Italian Working Group for the Study of Work/Eyesight Relationships - Part 1: Presentation; Part 2: Methods
Il rapporto tra lavoro e visione sotto il profilo medico preventivo: Primi orientamenti per un corretto approccio ergoftalmologico secondo il Gruppo italiano per lo studio dei rapporti tra lavoro e visione (GILV) - Parte prima: presentazione; Parte seconda: metodo [in Italian]
This document, in two parts, was developed in view of the numerous and complex problems posed by modern technology with respect to the eyesight of workers. Part 1: past hypotheses about the possibility of serious eye damage in non-industrial workers; recent investigations of the short and long-term effects of office work (prolonged visual effort "at near point", the high prevalence of asthenopia). Three main guidelines are identified for correct ophthalmological assessment. In Part 2 emphasis is given to fact-finding inspections and the making of subjective assessments by occupational health physicians. An analytical list is provided of the parameters that the ophthalmologist should measure during eye examinations as well as the appropriate assessments that the occupational health physician should perform if an ophthalmological specialist is not available.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1993, Vol.84, No.4, p.311-331. 146 ref.
Leśnik H., Poborc-Godlewska J.
The relationship between ciliary muscle fatigue and the type of artificial light used to illuminate the area of visual work
The relationship between the degree of eye fatigue resulting from visual work and type of light source used to illuminate the field of work was assessed. The tests were performed using artificial light sources: fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, high pressure mercury (vapour) and high pressure sodium (vapour) lamps. The assessment was performed on two groups of 10 women each, of which one included women without, and the other with, refraction errors. On the basis of changes of nearer vision point and dispersing lens tolerance, it was found that sodium light produced the highest visual fatigue in the test women, especially in those with refraction errors.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.3, p.287-292. 15 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Evaluation of visual problems with colour CRT screens
Evaluierung visueller Probleme bei Farbrasterschirmen [in German]
While using colour coding of characters on VDUs vision problems arise that do not exist with monochrome screens. These problems, that include chromatic aberrations, double contours and stroke sharpness, involve both the visual transmission properties of colour perception and the technical realization of colour CRTs. There is no systematic way to make the best possible choice of colours. It is concluded that if most of these problems are to be avoided, the monitor's colour space should be significantly reduced. Summaries in German, English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1992. ix, 216p. Illus.
French Society of Occupational Medicine and Health - Meetings of 8 Oct. and 12 Nov. 1991
Société de médecine et d'hygiène du travail: Séances du 8 octobre et du 12 novembre 1991 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of 8 Oct. and 12 Nov. 1991 of the French Society of Occupational Medicine and Health: measurement of bronchial reactivity among personnel of a plant manufacturing orthopedic prostheses; cardio-vascular risk factors among truck drivers and drivers of public transport vehicles; study of bronchial hyperreactivity associated with hairdressers' dermatoses; exposure to isocyanates: comparative study of respiratory symptoms in enterprises; conjunctivitis, rhinitis and asthma due to occupational exposure to the medicinal plant Harpagophytum; HIV infection: epidemiological update, classification and trends; aptitude to work of HIV-positive physicians.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.4, p.281-295.
Shusterman D.J., Sheedy J.E.
Occupational and environmental disorders of the special senses
Workplace hazards affecting vision, hearing, equilibrium, olfaction and taste are reviewed. These include chemical hazards (irritant chemicals, pharmacologic/toxicologic agents), physical hazards (microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet radiation, visible light, vibration, rapid ambient pressure changes), ergonomic hazards (task-related symptoms, workers with pre-existing vision disorders, ergonomic factors), biological hazards, use of contact lenses in industry.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.7, No.3, p.515-542. Illus. 269 ref.
Computer-specific spectacle lens design preference of presbyopic operators
Twenty-nine presbyopic subjects who spent at least 20 hours a week at a video display terminal compared a progressive addition lens designed for this function, with another commonly prescribed task-specific lens. Each of the paired lens types was worn for four weeks and then compared directly for one week. A statistically significant (P<0.05) portion of the subjects (76%) preferred the task-specific lenses overall. It was also preferred more frequently for each feature compared, although the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) only for utility of distance vision. Both of the task-specific designs contributed to symptomatic relief. The presence of a distance-clear zone and the absence of lens discontinuities most likely account for user preference for the task-specific lenses. That preference suggests improved performance for presbyopic computer users wearing task-specific progressive addition lenses.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1992, Vol.34, No.10, p.1023-1027. 10 ref.
Watten R.G., Lie I.
Time factors in VDT-induced myopia and visual fatigue - An experimental study
In an experimental design with two matched groups (n=13 and n=17) working for 2h and 4h respectively, followed by a 15min restitution time, the study examined the effect of continuous VDT work on: (1) visual acuity, refraction and oculomotor functions (ZCSV: zone of clear, single vision) and (2) the effect of 15min restitution time on the oculomotor functions (ZCSV). In both groups there was a significant reduction in visual acuity, refraction changes in myopic direction and reduced ciliar and vergence muscle capacity. The ZCSV changes were temporary and a 15min restitution period restored approximately half of the ZCSV changes. There were no significant differences between 2h or 4h of VDT work on any of the variables examined.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1992, Vol.21, No.1, p.13-20. Illus. 41 ref.
Scurti D., L'Abbate N., Capozzi D., Lofrumento R., Crivellini S., Ambrosi L.
Ocular hypertension in radiologists and radiology technicians
Ipertono oculare in medici e tecnici radiologi [in Italian]
The incidence of ocular hypertension (OH), a condition that frequently leads to glaucoma, was investigated in 128 subjects occupationally exposed to ionising radiation (42 radiologists and 86 radiology technicians) and in 130 controls. The ocular tension in 33 exposed subjects, but only in two controls, was higher than the cut-off value of 18mmHg. The age distribution of those with OH was also different among the exposed population, with 13 out of 58 exposed workers in the 31-40yr age group suffering from the conditions (in the general population: 1.2% in the same age group). Radiology technicians had a higher incidence of OH than did radiologists. Gonioscopy showed pigmentary dispersion in the eye, particularly in subjects with OH, suggesting that OH might be due to mechanical obstruction of the channels for aqueous humour outflow.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.330-337. 23 ref.
Mergler D., Huel G., Bowler R., Frenette B., Cone J.
Visual dysfunction among former microelectronics assembly workers
Study conducted on 54 former microelectronics workers and 54 controls in the United States.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1991, Vol.46, No.6, p.326-334. 57 ref. ###
Hakim R.B., Stewart W.F., Canner J.K., Tielsch J.M.
Occupational lead exposure and strabismus in offspring - A case-control study
A population-based case-control study investigated the association between strabismus and parental occupational lead exposure. Cases were children diagnosed with nonrestrictive strabismus between 1985 and 1986 (n=377). Controls were matched for age and hospital of birth (n=377). Jobs held by parents were assessed for lead exposure by industrial hygienists. The unadjusted odds ratio for maternal lead exposure and the esotropic form of strabismus was 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-27). Unadjusted odds ratios for paternal occupational lead exposure and esotropia were 1.0 (95% CI 0.5-2.1) for low exposure, 2.1 (95% CI 0.9-5.3) for moderate exposure, and 1.2 (95% CI 0.4-3.3) for high exposure. The study results suggest the possibility of a weak association between paternal lead exposure and strabismus in offspring.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Feb. 1991, Vol.133, No.4, p.351-356. 34 ref.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 96. Dimethylethylamine
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation - 96. Dimetyletylamin [in Swedish]
The literature on dimethylethylamine was reviewed and evaluated. The compound irritates the mucous membranes of the eye and produces corneal oedema. Subjective symptoms are foggy vision and a halo effect. Symptoms appear at levels as low as 10mg/m3. Effects reported at much lower levels of occupational exposure are probably due to short high exposure peaks. An exposure limit should be based on the effect of dimethylethylamine on the eyes.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 15p. 28 ref.
Ståhlbom B., Lundh T., Florén I., Åkesson B.
Visual disturbances in man as a result of experimental and occupational exposure to dimethylethylamine
Experimental exposure of four volunteers to 40-50mg/m3 of dimethylethylamine (DMEA) for eight hours caused irritation of the mucous membrane of their eyes, subjective visual disturbances (haze) and slight oedema of the corneal epithelium. The thickness of the cornea showed a slight but consistent increase in all four subjects at these exposures and in two subjects exposed to 10mg/m3. Concentrations of 80 and 160mg/m3 for 15 minutes caused eye irritation but no visual disturbances or corneal oedema. Occupational exposure for eight hours to about 25mg/m3 of DMEA (with peaks above 100mg/m3) was also associated with eye irritation, haze, and corneal oedema. The divergence between our findings and other reports in which visual disturbances occurred at low concentrations during occupational exposure may be due to peak concentrations.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1991, Vol.48, No.1, p.26-29. Illus. 16 ref.
Rosenthal F.S., West S.K., Munoz B., Emmett E.A., Strickland P.T., Taylor H.R.
Ocular and facial skin exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight: A personal exposure model with application to a worker population
A model of eye and facial skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is presented that combines interview histories of work activities, leisure activities, eyeglass wearing, and hat use with field and laboratory measurements of UV radiant exposure. Site-specific exposure is expressed as the product of personal ambient exposure, defined as the ambient exposure while an individual is exposed to sunlight, and factors that describe the ratio of site-specific to personal ambient exposure. Ocular exposure is further corrected by the UV attenuation of typical eyewear. The model was used to compute cumulative and yearly exposures in a population of 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay (State of Maryland, United States) and are highly exposed to sunlight. The model was found to be predictive of conditions known to be caused by excessive sun exposure--skin elastosis, climatic droplet keratopathy, and squamous cell carcinoma--and has been useful in several epidemiological studies.
Health Physics, July 1991, Vol.61, no.1, p.77-86. Illus. 18 ref.
Roquelaure Y., Efthymiou M.L., Penneau-Fontbonne D.
Occupational optical neuropathies
Neuropathies optiques professionnelles [in French]
As a large number of substances are potentially toxic to the optic nerve, the prevalence of occupational toxic optical neuropathy is underestimated. Diagnostic methods which allow the detection of subclinical optical neuropathies, such as colour vision testing, testing of contrast sensitivity and the registering of potential images, are reported along with the development and causes of such neuropathies. Occupational poisoning, currently an uncommon cause of such neuroropathies, may be caused by heavy metals, solvents, insecticides, cyanides, gases and other toxins such as amyl acetate. Prevention requires both technical and medical measures. Only four of the occupational optical neuropathies are compensated in France.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1991. 5p. 77 réf.
Decompression sickness presenting as optic neuropathy
Report of a case of acute optic nerve dysfunction seen in a parachutist after repeated hypobaric exposures. The patient made 2 to 4 high altitude exposures per day for 4 days in an unpressurised aircraft at a maximum altitude of 3,636-3,939m. Resultant symptoms included persistent headache, paracentral scotoma and decreased visual acuity in the left eye. Symptoms improved promptly following treatment with recompression and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. This is believed to be the first case of decompression sickness presenting as optic neuropathy.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.62, No.4, p.346-350. Illus. 11 ref.
Gobba F., Galassi C., Imbriani M., Ghittori S., Candela S., Cavalleri A.
Acquired dyschromatopsia among styrene-exposed workers
The occurrence of colour vision loss in 75 styrene-exposed workers and in 60 referents was investigated. Colour vision was evaluated by adopting the Lanthony D 15 desaturated panel, a test specifically suited to detect mild acquired dyschromatopsia. The results of the test were expressed as the Colour Confusion Index. Styrene exposure was evaluated with both environmental and biological monitoring. Airborne levels of the solvent were 3.2 to 549.5mg/m3. In styrene-exposed workers colour vision was significantly impaired when compared with referents matched for age. A significative correlation was found between environmental and urinary levels of styrene and the Colour Confusion Index excluding the influence of age in multiple regression analysis, indicating the possibility of a dose-effect relationship. The findings suggest that styrene can induce an early appearance of a dose-dependent colour vision loss.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1991, Vol.33, No.7, p.761-765. Illus. 24 ref.
Yoshikawa H., Yoshida M., Ueda T., Yatsugi K., Hara I.
Evaluation of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides and of its effect on ocular function in pest control operators
Bōeki sagyōsha ni okeru yūki rinzai bakuro no hyōka to sono gan kinō e no eikyō [in Japanese]
Electroretinograms (ERG) were measured for 8 pest control operators to assess the effect of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides on ophthalmic function. One operator spraying chlorpyrifos 10 times per week showed marked decreases in plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase (ChE) activity, the most subjective symptoms and an abnormal ERG with marked decreases in amplitudes of all the waves. Four operators spraying fenitrothion and dichlorvos 3-5 times per week showed low plasma and/or erythrocyte ChE activities. Among these operators, 2 showed ERG changes including decreased amplitudes of some waves, and 1 of them showed some subjective symptoms. Alkylphosphates were detected in the urine of all the operators. The abnormal ERG observed in the chlorpyrifos-sprayer may have been caused by exposure to this organophosphorus pesticide.
Japanese Journal of Toxicology, 25 Jan. 1991, Vol.4, No.1, p.65-71. 12 ref.
A clinical study of trinitrotoluene cataract
The results of ophthalmic examination of 413 workers exposed to TNT were analysed. Cataracts were detected in 143 cases (34.6%), reaching 88.4% in those exposed for more than 20 years. Both prevalence and degree of lenticular damage increased with increasing exposure. The shortest latent period of cataract development was three years and the youngest subject was only 22 years old. The characteristics of TNT lens impairment are discussed.
Polish Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.3, No.2, p.171-176. 4 ref.
Harazin B., Grzenik J., Pawlas K., Kozak A.
The effects of noise on vision efficiency
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between intensity, noise duration and non-auditory effect represented by changes both in visual acuity and the near point of accommodation. Changes in vision efficiency determined by a black and white chess board were monitored during and after 1h exposures to 4 levels of noise: 90dB(A), 93dB(A), 96dB(A) and 99dB(A) and 2h exposure to 96dB(A). Results indicated that vision impairment can be attributed to a complex relationship between the intensity and the duration of exposure to noise.
Polish Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.3, No.2, p.163-169. Illus. 11 ref.
Narda R., Magnavita N., Sacco A., Sarnari L., Sani L.
Chronic conjunctivitis in arc welders - Cross-sectional study
Affezioni oculari nei saldatori - Uno studio longitudinale [in Italian]
A follow-up study of chronic conjunctivitis in arc welders in a foundry in Italy was conducted from 1979 up to 1989. Airborne dust concentrations in the foundry often exceeded the TLV-TWA limit. The frequency of chronic conjunctivitis was markedly higher amongst the welders than in the unexposed controls (RR = 4.25). The incidence rate of conjunctivitis was 4.98% in the exposed group: manual welders showed a higher incidence rate (5.69%) than non-manual welders (risk ratio = 1.76). Ocular symptoms (eye burning, lacrymation, photophobia) often occurred well before the development of chronic conjunctivitis (predictive value = 61.5%). In current occupational health practice, the disclosure of a high prevalence of ocular symptoms should lead to careful examination of the working environment.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Vol.81, No.5, p.399-406. 11 ref.
Andersson N., Ajwani M.K., Mahashabde S., Tiwari M.K., Kerr Muir M., Mehra V., Ashiru K., Mackenzie C.D.
Delayed eye and other consequences from exposure to methyl isocyanate: 93% follow up of exposed and unexposed cohorts in Bhopal
A follow-up study 3 years after exposure to methyl isocyanate in 93% of exposed survivors and "control" residents in 10 Bhopali communities showed an excess of eye irritation, eyelid infection, cataract, and a decrease in visual acuity among the exposed people. Breathlessness was twice as common in the heavily exposed clusters as among those with lower exposure a trend that could not be explained by different age or smoking patterns. Case referent analysis of outpatient attendances at Bhopal Eye Hospital, considering patients with severe refractive errors and astigmatism as "controls", showed a 40% increased risk of trachoma, 36% increased risk of other lid infections, and 45% increased risk of irritant symptoms among previously exposed people. "Bhopal eye syndrome" may thus include resolution of the initial interpalpebral superficial erosion, a subsequent increased risk of eye infections, hyperresponsive phenomena (irritation, watering, and phlyctens), and possibly cataracts. It remains to be confirmed whether this reflects a more generalised disease as a consequence of previous exposure to methyl isocyanate or whether it is only the eye that is affected.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1990, Vol.47, No.8, p.553-558. 16 ref.
Pitfalls in the conception, manipulation, and measurement of visual accommodation
Reports of applied research in visual accommodation frequently contain points of confusion, suggesting that there may be some widespread misunderstanding regarding the nature of accommodation, the complexities involved in its measurement, and the multiple meanings inherent in its terminology. The present paper reviews several of these problem areas. Included are discussions of the effect of refractive error on accommodation assessment; the dangers involved in assuming equivalence among physiological, refractive power, and conjugate distance changes; and multiple meanings in the conception of resting accommodation. A variety of manipulation and measurement problems are also reviewed, including the specification of accommodative target distance, the use of lenses, and the correction of refractive error. The review concludes with recommendations regarding conceptions and procedures useful in avoiding the difficulties described.
Human Factors, Feb. 1990, Vol.32, No.1, p.27-44. Illus. 81 ref.
Deschamps D., Leport M., Laurent A.M., Cordier S., Festy B., Conso F.
Toxicity of ethylene oxide on the lens and on leucocytes: an epidemiological study in hospital sterilisation installations
An epidemiological study was conducted in 55 subjects (mean age: 41) in hospitals to determine the prevalence of lens opacities and cataracts in workers exposed to ethylene oxide in six sterilisation units. The relation between occupational exposure to ethylene oxide and white blood cell concentrations was also investigated. Lens opacities were observed in 19 of the 55 exposed. No link was found between the characteristics of the lens opacities and the characteristics of exposure. For cataracts, their prevalence differed significantly between the exposed (six of 21) and the non-exposed (0 of 16); there was no relation between their existence and overexposures. The risk of lens opacifications by ethylene oxide could also exist during chronic exposure to low concentrations. Linear relations were found between the logarithm of the cumulative exposure index and the logarithms of blood concentrations of polymorphoneutrophils.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1990, Vol.47, No.5, p.308-313. Illus. 13 ref.
Affections des yeux [in French]
Information note and training brochure on the preventive measures against accidents that might occur to the eyes in the metalworking industry.
International Metalworkers' Federation, 54 bis, route des Acacias, 1227 Genève, Switzerland, 1990. 7p. Illus.
Effects of microwaves on the eye
Les effets des micro-ondes sur les yeux [in French]
Animal studies show that exposure to microwaves of sufficient intensity can cause damage to the eye, in particular, the formation of cataracts. Human studies suggest that occupational microwave exposure is involved in increasing lens aging and injury to the retina. Exposure should be kept below current limits.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, June 1989. 6p. Illus. 13 ref.
Schwaninger U., Thomas C., Nibel H., Menozzi M., Läubli T., Krueger H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitschutz
Long-term effects of work with VDU's on the eye and the musculoskeletal system
Auswirkungen der Bildschirmarbeit auf Augen sowie Stütz- und Bewegungsapparat [in German]
The long-term health effects of VDU work are analysed according to four different approaches: 1 - The results of outstanding international epidemiologic studies are reviewed. 2 - The results of a questionnaire survey carried out on 2722 VDU workers for a cross-sectional study are supplemented by interviews with occupational physicians, providing a thorough survey of the health status of VDU workers in large entreprises. 3 - In order to evaluate the effects on the eyes, the results of eye-tests done by in-plant health services were investigated. 4 - Special groups of workers, such as expectant mothers, presbyopic and disabled workers are given particular attention.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 (W) Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1989. 202p. Illus. Bibl.
Doyle L., Gallagher K., Health B.S., Patterson W.B.
An outbreak of infectious conjunctivitis spread by microscopes
Among the potential occupational hazards of microscope use is the transmission of infectious agents among employees. A large (145 cases) and costly ($647 000) epidemic of viral conjunctivitis in a microelectronics factory is reported. Spread of the illness appeared to be through sharing of microscopes among employees. Routine handwashing instructions and safety glasses failed to prevent spread of the epidemic. Mandatory screening prior to work and temporary plant shut-down were finally successful. Efforts to control this outbreak and recommendations to prevent similar epidemics in other workplaces are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.31, No.9, p.758-762. 12 ref.
Luberto F., Gobba F., Broglia A.
Temporary myopisation and subjective symptoms in video display terminal operators
Miopizzazione temporanea e sintomatologia soggettiva in operatori al videoterminale [in Italian]
A study of 64 female VDT operators showed a significant incidence of end-of-shift (temporary) myopia among operators with asthenopia, demonstrating VDT-related visual fatigue. Operators without asthenopia did not develop temporary myopia.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1989, Vol.80, No.2, p.155-163. 31 ref.
Piccoli B., Gratton I., Perris R., Grieco A.
Ergo-ophthalmological investigation at the workplace - Study of a group of VDU operators engaged in book-keeping work
L'indagine ergoftalmologica sul campo: esempio di un intervento su di un gruppo di operatori video addetti a lavori di contabilità amministrativa [in Italian]
Several investigators have put forward the hypothesis that even a single exposure to activities requiring prolonged visual effort at close range may cause transitory variations of ocular functions. These variations may be correlated to asthenopic symptoms and may indicate the risk of future irreversible variations. To verify this hypothesis, in a field study the variations of 3 parameters of visual function were examined (phorias, refraction, fusional convergence) before and at the end of the work day in 3 groups of 7 subjects: employees working with VDUs, employees engaged in conventional office work, workers not involved in visually demanding activities. The subjects were selected in order to be homogeneous as to age, sex and visual conditions (emmetropia, good ocular motility); further, the study was organised in such a way that exposure and environmental conditions were identical for all subjects. While phorias did not change significantly, refraction and convergence had small but consistent variations. Refraction showed a tendency towards an increase of accommodative tonus at long range and a decrease at close range, in both exposed groups. Fusional convergence decreased only in the VDU operator group.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1988, Vol.79, No.4, p.288-297. Illus. 14 ref.
McKinlay A.F., Harlen F., Whillock M.J.
Hazards of optical radiation: a guide to sources, uses and safety
This book reviews the sources of optical radiation - visible, ultraviolet, infrared and laser - and discusses the associated effects of each. Topics covered include biological effects, mechanisms of damage to the eyes and skin and situations where various optical radiation sources are likely to be found.
Adam Hilger Ltd., Techno House, Redcliffe Way, Bristol BS1 6NX, United Kingdom, 1988. 121p. Bibl. Appendices. Index. Price: GBP 15.00.
Takeda T., Östberg O., Fukui Y., Iida T.
Dynamic accommodation measurements for objective assessment of eyestrain and visual fatigue
A high-precision optometer system has been developed for dynamic measurement of the refractive power of the eye. With the use of individually chosen stimulus steps, a subject's accommodation performance can be unobtrusively assessed in about 3min. Three experiments using this assessment method are described: (1) visual search using a visual display terminal (VDT) and a matched hard copy display, (2) visual search using a VDT with 5 different cathode ray tube (CRT) phosphor colours, and (3) round-the-clock optometer testing with different lines of view. The results show that the new method is sensitive enough to detect both decreased accommodation performance in the course of a few hours of visual work and a circadian rhythm in baseline accommodation and dark focus. The method is thus a potentially useful tool in research on eyestrain and visual fatigue.
Journal of Human Ergology, Sep. 1988, Vol.17, No.1, p.21-35. Illus. 27 ref.
Harima M., Horiguchi S., Matsumura S., Takise S.
Excessive accommodation of the eye in desk workers
In ophthalmological examinations in printing companies, the subjective symptoms of the eye were significantly greater in subjects who wore over-correcting glasses or who were hyperopic. Of 240 wearers of glasses, 64 (26.7%) displayed a drop in near visual acuity when they wore glasses for desk work, but this was not found for the groups of older workers. One group, the A group, could see an object 40cm away with difficulty, while another group, B, could easily see the object. Subjective symptoms among group A were more frequent than among group B for persons in their 20's, 30's (p<0.05) and 40's (p<0.1). The near visual acuity of group A was significantly lower than that of group B for persons in their 20's and 30's (p<0.05) and their teens (p<0.1).
Osaka City Medical Journal, Dec. 1988, Vol.33, No.2, p.169-174. Illus. 7 ref.
Oishi S., Yoshida H., Torikai H., Takagi M.
Glaucoma induced by visual display terminals
VDT-sagyō to ryokunaishō [in Japanese]
Three cases of open-angle glaucoma related to VDT work were observed in those who have a disposition to a glaucoma. These symptoms developed even under satisfactory working conditions and despite regular therapy. The complaints were generally relieved when the subjects were released from VDT work. It is suggested that VDT work might induce glaucoma in those who have a predisposition to it.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1988, Vol.36, No.3, p.242-245. Illus. 7 ref.
Experimental corneal damage caused by arc welding light exposure
Yōsetsukō ni yoru kakumakushōgai no jikkenteki kenkyū [in Japanese]
To elucidate the effect of arc welding light on corneas covered by soft contact lenses, rabbit corneas covered by several kinds of contact lenses (CLs) were exposed to arc welding light and thermal changes of the corneal surface and the corneal tissues were studied histopathologically. Corneas covered by high-water-content soft contact lenses (SCLs) showed an immediate rise of superficial temperature after exposure, and the same pattern of temperature rise was observed in the case of corneas warmed by near-infrared rays. After exposure to arc welding light the cornea was stained with fluorescein, and vesicle formation and shedding of superficial epithelia were observed by light microscopy. Adjacent superficial epithelia of the cornea showed dissociation at adjoining borders, and microvilli on the cell surface fused into rough structures as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Multiple vesicle formation and enlargement of the vesicles in the cytoplasm of superficial and wing-like cells were also observed by transmission electron microscope. Thus, the near-infrared component of arc welding light affected the high-water-content SCLs thermally, causing dehydration which in turn led to more severe epithelial damage of the corneas in the case of other kinds of CLs.
Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi - Acta Societatis Ophthalmologicae Japonicae, Mar. 1988, Vol.92, No.3, p.53-63. Illus. 23 ref.
Use of ethylene oxide in medical and surgical sterilisation. Evaluation of the occupational risk of opacification of the lens
Utilisation de l'oxyde d'éthylène en stérilisation microchirurgicale. Evaluation du risque professionnel d'opacification du cristallin [in French]
This medical thesis reports on a cross-sectional epidemiologic survey of 75 persons - 45 exposed to ethylene oxide during equipment sterilisation in 5 hospitals in Paris, and 20 controls - to determine whether or not the exposure increased the risk of developing cataracts or opacities of the lens. Topics: characteristics of ethylene oxide; use of ethylene oxide for sterilisation; methodology and results of the epidemiologic study. Continuous measurements according to French standards showed that the exposure level was 0.06-39ppm for periods of 0.5-190min. There seems to be no risk of cataract in the case of low exposure, but the condition may occur in the case of massive overexposure, and should be considered as an occupational accident.
Université de Paris, Faculté de médecine Broussais-Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1988. 222p. Illus. 108 ref.
Gobba F.M., Broglia A., Sarti R., Luberto F., Cavalleri A.
Visual fatigue in video display terminal operators: Objective measure and relation to environmental conditions
Female (28) and male (16) CRT data-acquisition operators in Italy were subjected to ophthalmological examinations. A questionnaire was administered to determine prevailing subjective ocular symptoms and discomfort. Workplace illumination, luminance and constrast between text and screen background were determined. In 10 (26.3%) subjects significant myopisation was observed. A significant correlation between reported eye discomfort, ocular asthenopia and myopisation existed. Illumination level, luminance and contrast were found to be of great importance for visual symptoms: neither asthenopia nor myopisation occurred at adequate lighting and contrast conditions.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1988, Vol.60, No.2, p.81-87. Illus. 31 ref.
Mosconi G., Leghissa P., Fiorentini E., Tani A.
Retrobulbar neuritis in a worker exposed to vinylbenzene (styrene)
Neurite ottica in paziente professionalmente esposto a stirene [in Italian]
A case of retrobulbar neuritis is described in a worker exposed to high levels of styrene in the manufacture of reinforced plastic boats. The medical and occupational history, the exposure levels and the aetiopathogenic role of styrene are discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1987, Vol.78, No.5, p.380-385. Illus. 7 ref.
Nilsson Granström A., Wenngren B.I., Rudell B., Hammarström U., Kolmodin-Hedman B.
Dizziness and oculomotor dysfunction after welding
Yrsel som subjektivt symptom och oculomotorisk störning vid svetsning [in Swedish]
In this study information on symptoms related to welding was obtained by means of a qustionnaire survey comprising 323 welders. Fatigue and eye irritation proved to be common symptoms, while only 8% suffered from dizziness. In a second part of the investigation 7 welders afflicted by dizziness and 7 references were investigated with a battery of oculomotor tests before and after 30 minutes of welding. The results showed that the oculomotor function of the welders had been impaired prior to the investigation exposure but also that the dysfunction increased after 30 minutes of exposure to welding fumes, especially as regards eye movement gain. However, no correlation was found between changes in oculomotor function and the extent of exposure to any particular metal, nitrous oxides or ozone.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 37p. Illus. 56 ref.
Antonjuženko V.A., Gnesina E.A., Gnelickij G.I., Karačarova S.V., Kalistova V.V.
Some characteristics of current forms of occupational nervous system diseases of chemical aetiology
Osobennosti sovremennyh form professional'nyh zabolevanij nervnoj sistemy himičeskoj ėtiologii [in Russian]
Follow-up of 214 patients with the most commonly encountered types of poisoning (caused by ethylene, vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene, mercury and its compound granosanum-64) as well as with occupational pathology due to antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin). Neurological symptoms often develop in combination with symptoms of organic lesions of different parts of the brain. Ethylene, vinyl chloride, and trichloroethylene affect mainly the mesencephalon and caudal regions, whereas mercury affects the brain stem and cerebellum. Antibiotics produce circulatory disorders confirmed by visual disorders.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1987, No.2, p.19-22. 9 ref.
NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing vision disturbances and acute physical distress due to dimethylethylamine (DMEA) exposure
This Alert concerns moulding and coremaking operations in foundries. Described are: background, case reports of health effects (medical surveys, emergency room records, environmental surveys), regulatory status, conclusions and recommendations.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1987. 8p. 8 ref.
Foussereau J., Cavelier C.
Irritant dermatitis due to diallyl glycol carbonate monomer
La dermite par irritation au carbonate de diallylglycol monomère [in French]
Information note for occupational physicians. The allyl monomers widely used in the optical industry are sometimes not tolerated by the skin and eyes; this is especially true of diallyl glycol carbonate (DAGC). The toxicity of DAGC and isopropyl percarbonate (IPP) is reviewed. Clinical aspects indlude the irritant properties of mixtures of DAGC and IPP, the risk of contact with the substances as a function of work assignment (before and after polymerisation), frequency of intolerance in exposed workers, description of lesions. Human tests with IPP, DAGC and impurities found in DAGC, and tolerance in animals are reviewed. Diagnosis, prevention and compensation are also discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1987, No.31, p.223-226.
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