Diseases of the ear and hearing damage - 547 entries found
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- Diseases of the ear and hearing damage
Hayden B., Macken K.
Noise - Is your hearing at risk?
An article aimed at those without specialised training, published in an Irish safety and health periodical. Coverage: the anatomy of hearing, effects of noise on hearing, audiometry, safe exposure levels, noise control, measurement of noise.
Sciath, Oct. 1986, No.72, p.6-9. Illus.
Noise in truck driver cabs and hearing damage in truck drivers
Bruit dans les cabines de poids lourds et atteinte auditive des conducteurs [in French]
This study is concerned with drivers of long-distance trucks and aims to establish whether a causal relationship exists between noise levels inside the driver's cab and hearing damage in the drivers. Literature survey of the subject. Measurements of noise levels and hearing tests of 250 drivers. At low frequencies the noise exposure of drivers is below danger levels. Nevertheless, many drivers exhibit a bilateral hearing deficit (particularly in the left ear and at the frequency of 4000Hz). This deficit is related to age, job seniority and - to a lesser degree - the number of hours per week of exposure to noise. This hearing deficit is not sufficiently serious at retirement age to make the drivers eligible for compensation in France. More research is needed on the impact of low-frequency noise on hearing.
Recherche Transport Sécurité, Mar. 1986, p.13-20. Illus. 16 ref.
Bioresponses in men after repeated exposures to single and simultaneous sinusoidal or stochastic whole body vibrations of varying bandwidths and noise
This study deals with the changes in temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), upright body posture sway amplitudes in the X and Y direction, heart rate, R-wave amplitude, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and the index characterising haemodynamic activity, when the subjects were exposed to noise alone, to vibrations alone or to simultaneous noise and vibration. The TTS2 values at 4 and 6kHz increased as a result of simultaneous exposure to noise and vibration more than as a result of exposure to noise alone. Amplitudes of body upright posture sway changed after exposure to vibration alone, and after exposure to noise alone. The changes in the heart rate, R-wave amplitude and blood pressure values also depended on the bandwidth of the vibration, the number of consecutive exposures and on whether the subjects were simultaneously exposed to noise in addition to vibration. As a rule, the effects of sinusoidal vibration differed from those due to stochastic vibrations.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.57, No.4, p.267-295. Illus. 26 ref.
Doswell Royster J., Royster L.H.
Using audiometric data base analysis
Audiometric data base analysis (ADBA) offers the most direct means of judging the effectiveness of a hearing conservation programme (HCP) in preventing occupational hearing loss. However, numerous factors need to be accounted for if the findings are to be meaningful. Several parameters known to influence the interpretation of group data statistics in assessing HCP effectiveness are discussed. Testing factors that affect the stability of the data base include audiometric techniques, calibration procedures, testing environment, and the motivation and prior experience of the subject. Pertinent population parameters include age, sex, race, current and prior noise exposures, learning effects, and the types of hearing protectors in use. Two case histories are presented to illustrate the application of ADBA techniques.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1986, Vol.28, No.10, p.1055-1068. Illus. 23 ref.
Hearing loss in mine carpenters
Nedoslýchavost důlních tesařů [in Czech]
Carpenters in uranium mines are estimated to be exposed to noise of varying intensity and duration for 56 minutes per shift. An analysis of audiometric data on 22 carpenters indicated that between exposure in years (x) and hearing loss at 4000Hz in decibels (y(dB)), there is statistically significant linear dependence, expressed by the regression equation y(dB) = 17.86 + 1.41x. In one year of work, a carpenter's hearing deterioration is on average 1.4dB. In 5 subjects (22.7%), decibel decrease at the audiometric frequencies tested did not exceed 20dB. In 9 cases, hearing loss merited compensation as an occupational illness at a mean age of 49 years, and a mean time exposure time of 14 years. Two of the persons had worked exclusively as carpenters, the others mentioned at such additional occupations as breaker, hewer, blaster and driller.
Československá hygiena, 1985, Vol.30, No.4, p.233-235. 6 ref.
Results of audiometry in in-plant health centres of the Czechoslovak Uranium Industry (CzUI)
Výsledky vyhledávací tónové audiometrie v závodních lékařských stanicích těžebních oblastí koncernu ČSUP [in Czech]
Since 1964, in-plant health centres have been applying tone-searching audiometry in the mining areas of CzUI as part of their preventive examinations. The sample of 2262 men (mean age 35.8, 18-68 years) had been working in uranium mines (as breakers, technicians, engine drivers, cagers and locksmiths) and in ore preparation facilities on the surface. In 63% the tone audiogramme was within physiological or borderline limits; in 37% there was hearing loss. Binaural damage occurred in 32%, monaural in 5%. Perceptual disorders were found in 26%, conduction-type disorders in 2% and combined-type in 2%. A thorough ear, nose and throat examination was recommended to 17% and screening for hearing damage to 10%; 8% were hospitalised. Hearing loss was compensated as an occupational disease in 0.1% of the cases.
Československá hygiena, 1985, Vol.30, No.5, p.306-309. 8 ref.
Miyakita T., Miura H.
Study on an evaluation index for noise susceptibility
The relationship between the magnitude of the acoustic reflex and the bandwidth of the reflex-activating sounds was investigated. A two-phase linear regression model was fitted to the sets of data, and the critical bandwidth (CBW) was estimated in 83 subjects with normal hearing acuity and without occupational noise exposure. The effects of noise exposure on the difference between the acoustic reflex threshold (ART) for white noise and the ART for 1kHz pure tone, and on the critical bandwidth were then investigated. The value of this ART-difference may be used as a sensitive indicator for detecting and evaluating the early stages of noise-induced hearing impairment and individual susceptibility to noise.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1985, Vol.55, No.4, p.285-293 and p.295-303. Illus. 56 ref.
Jindřichová J., Veselý C., Štěpánek O.
Noise-induced hearing damage in tractor drivers
Poškození sluchu z hluku u traktoristů [in Czech]
110 tractor drivers were examined. Audiometry disclosed a 4.5% reduction in hearing in 8 out of 17 (47%) in the ≤29-year age group, a 4.1% loss in 23 out of 36 (63%) in the age group of 30-39, a 5.6% loss in 14 out of 25 (56%) at 40-49 years and a 9.5% loss in 18 out of 25 (72%) in the 50-59-year group (>31% loss in 3 of the group). In the age group above 60 years, 5 out of 7 had an average hearing loss of 13.3%; in one it was 41.4%. Comparison of the degree of hearing changes with UNESCO data for the corresponding non-exposed age groups shows an excessive increase of moderate hearing changes in relation to age and a greater incidence of serious damage in the older age groups.
Pracovní lékařství, 1985, Vol.37, No.5, p.150-152. 10 ref.
Brückner C., Suworov G.A., Müller W., Denisov E., Skarinov L., Richartz G., Reichelt M., Dietze B., Kliesener H., Seidel H., Bartsch R.
Influence of differently structured noises on some physiological and psychological parameters
Die Beeinflussung einiger physiologischer Funktionen des menschlichen Organismus durch Lärm verschiedener Strukturen [in German]
The reaction of persons to noises of varying structures (the rate of impulses was changed) was studied in terms of heart rate, blood pressure, reaction time, temporary threshold shift (TTS) of hearing and the psychological factor "mood". Besides well-known effects, a special kind of TTS dependent on the structure of noise was found.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1985, Vol.31, No.4, p.198-201. Illus. 14 ref.
Wang T. et al.
Study of the health effects of loom noise on retired female weaving workers
Medical examinations were carried out for both auditory and extra-auditory systems on retired female weaving workers who had been exposed to loom noise for years. Most of them had not only severe hearing loss, but also changed in nervous, cardiovascular, digestive and genital systems. It is suggested that loom noise has its long-term effects on weaving workers and prevention of it is important.
Industrial Health and Occupational Diseases, 1985, Vol.11, No.5, p.275-278. 6 ref.
Hearing protection for the construction industry
Aspects covered in this illustrated data sheet: fundamentals of sound and noise; noise measurement; hearing process; hearing loss; hearing protection (types, effectiveness, selection criteria, fit, care and use); audiometry.
Construction Safety Association of Ontario, 74 Victoria St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5C 2A5, 1985. 16p. Illus.
Edmonds C., Freeman P.
Hearing loss in Australian divers
Seventeen out of 28 professional abalone divers (average age: 37.5 years) had significant hearing loss. The hearing loss occurred mostly in the high frequencies, and was unilateral in just under half the cases and bilateral in the others. The hearing loss could not be attributed to anything but diving, which was mainly to a depth of 15-20m (using hookah gear) and was done roughly 4h a day, 100 days a year.
Medical Journal of Australia, 11 Nov. 1985, Vol.143, No.10, p.446-448. 14 ref.
Iki M., Kurumatani N., Hirata K., Moriyama T.
An association between Raynaud's phenomenon and hearing loss in forestry workers
Comparative study of 37 workers with Raynaud's phenomenon with a control group matched for age and duration of exposure to noise in order to eliminate any confounding effect from these two factors. The cases has a higher median hearing threshold than the controls at every frequency. The difference was significant at 4 and 8kHz and almost significant at 2kHz. According to the study's classification of audiograms, the cases had more advanced types of noise-induced hearing loss than the controls.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1985, Vol.46, No.9, p.509-513. Illus. 27 ref.
Damongeot A., André G.
Exposure limits to high-pitched sound (8-16kHz) and to low-frequency ultrasound (16-100kHz). Bibliographic review and interpretation
Limites d'exposition aux sons aigus (8 ŕ 16kHz) et aux ultrasons de basse fréquence (16 ŕ 100kHz). Revue bibliographique et interprétation [in French]
Review of the harmful effects produced by exposure to ultrasound and very high-pitched sound in industry, and of the exposure limits in various countries. Recommendations for the choice of machinery and operating method that might result in exposure to ultrasound transmitted by contact. Exposure limits recommended for air-transmitted ultrasound vary with the time of exposure. Practical advice is given for the evaluation of the harmful effects of ultrasound.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd quarter 1985, No.120, Note No.1537-120-85, p.317-324. Illus. 11 ref.
Contribution of the occupational physician to the prevention of occupational deafness
Contribution du médecin du travail ŕ la prévention de la surdité professionnelle [in French]
This medical thesis is based on an analysis of the working conditions of 22 workers in a maintenance and repair shop for jet aircraft fuel systems of a large air transport company. The shops and test beds are described, unfavourable features of the environment are stated, and measurements of noise and vibration are presented. Auditory and extra-auditory effects were studied in connection with complaints mentioned by the workers. A review of French legislation on the protection of workers exposed to noise shows that the most important provision is for the audiometric monitoring of noise-exposed workers. The occupational physician has a primary role, both in preventive work and in sensitising workers to the hazards of noise and the importance of wearing personal protective equipment (examples).
Université Paris-Nord, Faculté de médecine de Bobigny, France, 1985. 86p. Illus. 25 ref.
Lane C.L., Dobie R.A., Crawford D.R., Morgan M.S.
Standard threshold shift criteria
Standard threshold shift (STS) criteria were evaluated using techniques borrowed from decision theory and signal detection theory to separate audiometric STS's in true-positive and false-positive shifts. The current OSHA (USA) definition of a "change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10dB or more at 2, 3 or 4kHz in either ear" and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgey recommandation of a 10dB or greater change for the worse for either the 0.5, 1 and 2kHz pure tone average or the 3, 4 and 6kHz pure tone average in either ear, were supported. Revisions of baselines after an STS occurs are supported.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1985, Vol.27, No.1, p.34-42. 18 ref.
Effect of simultaneous thermal and acoustic stress on temporary auditory threshold shift (TTS2)
Auswirkungen gleichzeitiger Hitze- und Schallbelastung auf die zeitweilige Hörschwellenverschiebung (TTS2) [in German]
Ten male volunteers were subjected to 6 combinations of temperature and broadband noise: 24° or 35°C at sound pressure levels of 75, 85 or 95dB(A). Auditory thresholds were measured immediately before and 2min after a 70min exposure period. The temporary threshold shift produced by the noise was consistently higher (by 2.0-4.5dB) at the higher temperature.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Nov. 1984, Vol.30, No.11, p.646-647. Illus. 5 ref.
Dieroff H.G., Kup W., Oeken F.W., Wilke J.
Otorhinolaryngology and occupational medicine
Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde und Arbeitsmedizin [in German]
This book for health care practitioners discusses work-related impairments of the ear, nose and throat. Chapters cover: the ear as an organ of hearing; the vestibular apparatus; the nose and sinuses; the laryngeal mucosa; the oral cavity; the senses of smell and taste; the larynx and trachea; the vocal apparatus; carcinoma in the ear, nose and throat region; rules and recommendations concerning the assessment and correction of negative factors in the workplace.
VEB Volk und Gesundheit, Neue Grünstrasse 18, DDR-1020 Berlin, 1984. 254p. Illus. Bibl. Price: M.47.50.
Effect of smoking on occupational hearing loss
Vliv kouření na profesionální nedoslýchavost [in Czech]
In a group of 1289 miners working as breakers, an adverse hearing effect of smoking was observed at regular preventive ear, nose and throat examinations. The correlation between years of smoking and hearing loss was a logarithmic function for decibel decrease at 1000, 2000 and 3000Hz, a divided radical function for decibel decreases at 4000Hz, and a linear function for total percent hearing loss calculated according to Fowler.
Pracovní lékařství, Nov. 1984, Vol.36, No.10, p.381-384. Illus. 18 ref.
Hearing loss in pilots of Z-37 Čmelák agricultural airplanes
Snížení sluchu u pilotů zemědělského letounu Z-37 Čmelák [in Czech]
Pilots of the agricultural aircraft Z-37 ("Čmelák") are exposed for about 500 hours a year to a noise level (Leq) of 105-106dB(A). Hearing changes were determined in 139 pilots by audiometry. Regression correlation showed that age-dependent hearing loss at 4000Hz was 1.6dB/year. Hearing acuity in pilots decreases by 30dB at a frequency of 4000Hz after 30 years of flying or at the age of 50. The pilot should use a protective helmet. Regulations should be unified for aircraft manufacturers and employers of pilots.
Pracovní lékařství, 1984, Vol.36, No.2, p.61-63. 8 ref.
Risk of hearing damage in the shoe industry
Riziko poškození sluchu v obuvnickém průmyslu [in Czech]
Noise spectra were obtained for mechanical and hydraulic cutting machines. Mechanical cutters were noisier. Levels of noise emitted by the mechanical cutters varied by 10dB, depending on the material being cut. Audiometric data were collected for 557 workers at 10 workstations and the percentages of male and female workers with normal hearing, hearing loss, and perceptual hypacusis were tabulated with age and seniority data.
Pracovní lékařství, 1984, Vol.36, No.2, p.56-60. Illus. 15 ref.
Noise protection - Recommendations
Protection contre le bruit - Recommandations [in French]
Contents: Belgian regulations on noise; the physics of sound; noise measurement (equipment and techniques for measurement in open and closed spaces); effects of noise on hearing (acute and chronic effects, measurement of hearing loss); standards on noise limitation (ISO and ACGIH, among others) in cases of exposure to continuous noise, to noise at one frequency or in a narrow frequency band and to impact noise; interference with work; noise and ergonomics; protective measures (protection at source; personal protection).
Commissariat général ŕ la promotion du travail, 53 rue Belliard, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1984. 79p. Illus.
Noise aboard ships: its effects on the hearing of merchant seamen
Bruit ŕ bord des navires: son retentissement sur la fonction auditive des marins de commerce [in French]
This study involved 222 seamen (132 of whom were engine-room workers), who spend several months every year at sea. A noise evaluation of ships has shown that important differences exist between engine rooms and other areas aboard. Audiometric examinations showed that engine-room workers, exposed throughout the day to noise levels above 90dB(A), suffered hearing impairment (with peak impairment at 4000Hz), while the other seamen, whose exposure was in the 60-85dB(A) range, suffered from premature presbycusis. The periodic nature of work aboard (3 months work/2 months vacation) and the retirement age (55 years) account for the fact that the hearing damage suffered by engine-room workers is limited, despite the very high levels of noise they are exposed to. Emphasis is on noise control aboard ships, on medical surveillance of workers at risk and on audiometric examinations of engine-workers every two years.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.5, p.345-349. Illus. 6 ref.
Caprioli R., Burdo S.
Can tinnitus in noise-induced hearing loss be assessed?
Si possono obiettivare gli acufeni nelle ipoacusie da rumore? [in Italian]
10 workers in a rubber factory, suffering from moderate acoustic trauma, had their hearing tested. The 3 workers who reported tinnitus had, on the whole, a different latency/intensity relation in their Auditory Brainstem Response from the 7 workers who reported no tinnitus. This suggests that a subjective assessment of tinnitus might be possible.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1984, Vol.75, No.6, p.443-449. Illus. 17 ref.
Studies of the risk of hearing damage due to impulse noise
Untersuchungen zur Gehörschädlichkeit von Impulslärm [in German]
Doctoral dissertation on the sensitivity of the ear to impulse noise and on the methods necessary for assessing the risk of hearing damage. Contents: physiological and metrological fundamentals; measuring equipment and methods of evaluating results; results of measurements in Swiss industry; acoustic data on weapons and industrial noise sources; hearing damage due to impulse and continuous noise (analysis of 250,000 cases studied by the Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund); injury caused by civilian and military explosive devices and firearms. The data suggest: that the scaling factor for impulse noise given by the relevant DIN/VDI standard overestimates the risk of injury; that impulse noise louder than 125dB(A) can permanently damage the inner ear; that, for impulse noise of short duration, analyses in 1/3-octave and octave bands are most appropriate.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Luzern, Switzerland. Mitteilungen der Sektion Physik, No.17, Sep. 1984. 144p. 96 ref. Illus.
Helmkamp J.C., Talbott E.O., Margolis H.
Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss characteristics of a blue-collar population
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 197 workers from a noisy plant in Pittsburgh, USA (≥89dBA), to fully assess noise exposure and hearing loss, incorporating information on duration of exposure, noise level, occupational and medical histories, audiometric evaluation and external noise sources. Recent use of ototoxic drugs, noisy hobbies, second jobs, military service, family history of hearing loss and ear-related problems did not have a significant effect on hearing levels at high frequencies, suggesting that the hearing losses observed in the study were of occupational origin.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1984, Vol.26, No.12, p.885-891. 31 ref.
Sataloff J., Sataloff R.T., Menduke H., Yerg R., Gore R.P.
Hearing loss and intermittent noise exposure
12,000 US workers were screened to find 295 who complied with strict criteria, the most important of which was intermittent noise exposure. Most of the subjects were exposed to jackhammer noise that peaked at about 118dBA. The study revealed a pattern of very severe hearing loss in high frequencies but relatively no or little loss in the lower frequencies. It is speculated that frequent rest periods permit the ear to protect itself from damage in the speech frequencies.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1984, Vol.26, No.9, p.649-656. 10 ref.
(Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Lärm [in German]
These regulations apply to enterprises where workers are exposed to noise. Contents: responsibilities of employers for the reduction of noise, the provision of hearing protectors, the elimination of accident risks due to noise, warning signs for noisy areas, work restrictions.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Oct. 1984, 6+11p. Price: DM.1.60.
Sinclair A., Smith T.A.
A three-frequency audiogram for use in industry
A 3-frequency hearing test (at 1, 2 and 4kHz) is suggested as adequate for audiometric screening of workers exposed to noise. Workers whose hearing threshold is above 20dB at any one of these frequencies can be considered to have "failed" the test. A comparison of this test with an 8-frequency test preceded by history and examination (done on 150 workers who "failed" the 3-frequency test) revealed a high degree of concordance between the results of the 2 tests.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.41, No.3, p.401-405. Illus. 12 ref.
The effect of calibration tolerance values on obtained audiometric threshold: A hearing conservation perspective
Auditory threshold was assessed at 6 commonly used test frequencies (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000Hz) and for frequencies just within calibration tolerances for frequencies above and below these. Observed differences of up to 23dB in obtained auditory threshold values resulted from variation in frequency within tolerances. These findings are discussed in terms of their importance in industrial hearing conservation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.110-116. 24 ref.
Behar A., Plener R.
Noise exposure - Sampling strategy and risk assessment
Description of a procedure based on the NIOSH sampling protocol to assess the risk of hearing loss of a large population by measuring the noise exposure of statistically representative sample of this population. Different degrees of risk can be assessed as the percentage of workers with exposure <85dBA, >90dBA or between 85 and 90dBA.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.105-109. 7 ref.
Duclos J.C., Lafon J.C., Dubreuil C., Olivier P., Bergeret A.
Effect of occupational noise on maternity
Influence du bruit professionnel sur la maternité [in French]
Retrospective study of 192 records of a maternity ward (for the years 1979-1980) where the majority of women were workers, some of whom had been exposed to noise. The records of pregnancy, delivery and neonatal pathology showed no correlation between noise exposure and maternal or neonatal abnormalities, including auditory defects among the children.
Journal de toxicologie médicale, 1984, Vol.4, No.1, p.7-14. 7 ref.
Mätysalo S., Vuori J.
Effects of impulse noise and continuous steady state noise on hearing
The hearing effects induced by occupational exposure to various kinds of noise in Finnish industry were compared. 3 groups exposed to impulse noise for various lengths of time, 1 group exposed to continuous steady-state noise, and a control group were studied. The effects of exposure to impulse noise for up to 4 years and to continuous noise for approx. 5 years are the same (highest hearing threshold at 6000Hz symmetrically in both ears); exposure to impulse noise for 5-6 years can induce a permanent threshold shift at 4000Hz and 6000Hz; exposure to impulse noise for 7-10 years may result in permanently raised thresholds within the entire hearing range. The effects on the left and right ear were different.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1984, Vol.41, No.1, p.122-132. Illus. 17 ref.
Noise Abatement (Hearing Conservation in Workplaces) Regulations 1983 [Australia - Western Australia]
Regulations issued under authority of the Noise Abatement Act 1972. Contents: measurement and evaluation of noise at workplaces; reduction of noise levels; reduction of noise exposure Leq A8; site identification of noise hazards; suitable hearing protection; hearing tests and medical examinations; management of hearing conservation activities. In the schedules: forms used for the register of designated workers and the annual statistical summary of reference audiometry.
Government Gazette of Western Australia, 21 Oct. 1983, No.77, p.4237-4258.
Novotný Z., Košt'álová L.
Central auditory analyser in occupational noise-induced hearing loss
Centrální sluchový analyzátor u profesionální nedoslýchavosti z hluku [in Czech]
In 25% of 40 examinees the threshold of maximum intelligibility deteriorated significantly in alternating audiometry (15-25dB) and in 17.5% the hearing loss was 10-25%. The results indicate central hearing disturbance in a relatively large number of workers. The damage is apparently not caused by the immediate effect of noise on the central hearing analyser, but is due to long-term effects of the noisy environment on the nervous, autonomic and vascular systems which lead to premature ageing. Excessive noise has a complex impact on the organism, manifested in alterations in blood pressure and in lipid and hydrocarbon metabolism.
Československá otolaryngologie, 1983, Vol.32, No.2, p.86-96. 20 ref.
Model for the prediction of hearing damage due to noise
Modell zur Gehörschadensvorhersage bei Lärmeinwirkung [in German]
This empirical mathematical model (ISO/DIS 1999) is usable for the prediction of the probable distribution of hearing thresholds among persons exposed to noise and it is based on certain parameters: evaluated noise level, length of exposure, age and sex. The model can be useful for the establishment of priorities in technical noise protection, for the calculation of the multiplication factor for impulse noise, for the evaluation of the effectiveness of ear protectors, for he calculation of minimal hearing deficiencies and for the calculation of dose-effect relations in the evaluation of hearing damage.
Die BG, 1983, No.12, p.702-706. Illus. 16 ref.
Savov A., Hristov H.
Vestibular function of transport workers with cervical osteochondrosis
Vestibularnata funkcija u transportni rabotnici s šijna osteohondroza [in Bulgarian]
A study of vestibular disorders in 60 transport workers with cervical osteochondrosis. The workers' ages were 20-60 and their lengths of service from 3 to >16 years. The vestibular system was studied with regard to spontaneous nystagmus and balance via experimental rotation and thermal provocation. Changes were observed in space-time perception after the provocation, as were rheographic haemodynamic changes and serum biochemical changes. In X-ray studies, cervical osteochondrosis was found in 40.3% of the subjects. X-ray abnormalities correlated with the vestibular disorders of the respective side confirmed by rheography. Vestibular dysfunction was more marked in older workers.
Problemi na higienata, 1983, Vol.8, p.94-101.
Tománek R., Sedlmajerová D.
Our audiometric criteria to prevent occupational hearing loss
Naše audiometrická kriteria v prevenci profesionálních poruch sluchu [in Czech]
183 workers involved in the construction of the Prague metro were examined. Of these, 68 (tunnel drivers) were exposed to mean Leq=109dB(A), maximum 116dB(A). 115 workers in a variety of other jobs were exposed to Leq=85dB. Audiometric findings were assessed by age and length of noise exposure. Hearing loss in the most exposed workers was such that dispensary treatment became necessary in all at the age of 46-50 years, job transfer in 20.5% of the cases, and compensation for deafness or severe hearing loss in 4.4%. Hearing changes were greatest at a frequency of 4,000Hz (1.5dB/year). It is important to assess the increase in hearing changes with time at certain frequencies (500-4,000Hz) and to compare individual findings with this correlation. Czechoslovak standards may require reevaluation.
Československá otolaryngologie, July 1983, Vol.32, No.4, p.230-238. Illus. 6 ref.
Phoon W.O., Ong C.N., Plueksawan W.
Cross sectional study on the health of fire fighters in Singapore
A study of 506 uniformed employees of the Singapore Fire Brigade, based on a questionnaire survey, pulmonary function and blood lead measurements, and audiometric tests. Mean values of forced vital capacity and FEV1 differed significantly among the 3 ethnic groups distinguished. Pulmonary function was better among the fire fighters than in other groups of workers studied previously, but degraded more rapidly with advancing age than in the other groups. This suggests that proper personal respiratory protection equipment should be worn more frequently than is currently the case. The audiometric and blood lead tests revealed no occupational effects.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Nov. 1983, Vol.25, No.6, p.463-470. Illus. 23 ref.
Dorošenko P.N., Stepčuk I.D.
Evaluating the effects of the combined action of infrasound and low-frequency noise on the auditory and vestibular apparatus of compressor operators
Gigieničeskaja ocenka kombinirovannogo vozdejstvija infrazvuka i nizkočastotnogo šuma na sluhovoj i vestibuljarnyj analizator kompressorščikov [in Russian]
The title functions were compared in 216 compressor operators and 220 machine-shop workers in the food industry. The former experienced 91-119dB infrasound and 84-97dB noise for 6-6.5h/shift, whereas the latter experienced noise only, at 93-106dB. The compressor operators showed poorer hearing and balance than the other group. Abnormalities appeared in workers with 5 years service, and became more pronounced with increasing length of service. Abnormalities of vestibular function could be prevented by introducing 15-20min rest periods every 2-2.5h during a shift. Workers who begin to show signs of auditory or vestibular abnormalities after less than 5 years' work with compressors should be transferred to other work away from the source of infrasound and noise.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1983, No.1, p.35-38. 8 ref.
Lackner J.R., Graybiel A.
Etiological factors in space motion sickness
Susceptibility to motion sickness was studied during exposure to sudden-stop stimulation as a function of gravitoinertial force level. Susceptibility is greatly enhanced, both with eyes closed and eyes open, for zero-g and 2-g conditions in parabolic flight compared with 1-g test conditions. Likely factors are: changes in vestibulo-ocular function, the altered pattern of otolithic activity, and the altered canal-otolith response synergies resulting from exposure to gravitoinertial force levels greater or less than terrestrial levels. These factors are related to the aetiology of space motion sickness. An explanation is proposed for the decrease in susceptibility to motion sickness in Skylab astronauts.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.54, No.8, p.675-681. Illus. 45 ref.
Kudoh C., Aizawa M., Aoki T., Andoh T., Iwakubo A., Iwata M., Iwasawa A., Ujiie T., Yamamura K.
Effects of low-frequency sound exposure on temporary threshold shift (TTS)
A temporary threshold shift (TTS) of 10dB increase was induced by exposure to sound at 100 and 250Hz for 864 and 126min respectively. These exposure times were longer than those mentioned in criteria proposed by the Japanese Society of Industrial Health. The relation between frequency of exposure sound and hearing test frequency to cause the greatest TTS increase was almost the same as that found for high-frequency sound exposure.
Igaku no Ayumi, Apr. 1983, Vol.125, No.4, p.272-274. Illus. 8 ref.
Chung D.Y., Mason K., Willson G.N., Gannon R.P.
Asymmetrical noise exposure and hearing loss among shingle sawyers
Shingle sawyers are exposed to noise predominantly on the left side. 244 shingle sawyers were studied, divided into 4 age groups. The lateral difference in noise exposure to the two ears was small, and the resulting asymmetrical noise-induced hearing loss was also relatively small. Any large asymmetry in hearing loss would suggest other causes and would warrant other special tests and detailed examination.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1983, Vol.25, No.7, p.541-543. Illus. 8 ref.
Study of auditory hazards and noise exposure in the work of motorcycle policemen
Studier av hörselskaderisk och bullerexponering vid arbete som MC-polis [in Swedish]
Description of methods used for measuring the noise exposure of motorcycle policemen (microphones in their safety helmets) and for audiometric examination. Results (93-106dB(A) at speeds of 110-150km/h), frequency analysis, noise dosimetry, comparison of auditory deficit in the subjects with those in non-motorised police work. Although no effects on hearing were detected, the effects of longer-term exposure should be studied.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 27p. Illus. 7 ref.
Grzesik J., Pluta E.
High-frequency hearing risk of operators of industrial ultrasonic devices
The hearing thresholds of 55 operators and 189 controls were evaluated for frequencies of 50-20,000Hz. There was a statistically significant elevation in the hearing threshold in the 10-20kHz range, and a decrease in the percentage of subjects responding at the highest frequency. Operators of ultrasonic welding and cleaning apparatus showed different threshold shifts, and the reasons for this are discussed. The physical parameters of the sound spectrum, daily exposure time and length of employment must be taken into account when evaluating exposure of operators of ultrasonic devices.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1983, Vol.53, No.1, p.77-88. Illus. 14 ref.
Exposure to industrial ultrasound: hazards, appraisal and control
Aspects discussed are: properties of ultrasound; physiological effects (airborne ultrasound, liquid and solid sources); auditory effects; subjective effects; exposure criteria; measurement, precautions (sealing of structures, ear protection (rubber plugs, earmuffs, foam plugs)).
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, 3 July 1983, Vol.33, No.3, p.107-113. Illus. 21 ref.
Iandolo A., Marciano E., Saulino C., Auletta G.
Effect of duration of previous employment on statistical evaluation of hearing loss
Incidenza dell'anzianitŕ lavorativa pregressa nella valutazione statistica della perdita uditiva [in Italian]
819 workers at a factory were divided into 2 groups: those who had worked exclusively at the factory, and those who had previously worked in noisy environments. Hearing loss increased with length of employment in both groups, but to a significantly greater extent in the latter.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Jan.-Mar. 1983, Vol.7, p.52-63. Illus. 7 ref.
Miyakita T., Miura H., Yamamoto T.
Evaluation of noise susceptibility: Effects of noise exposure on acoustic reflex
31 workers exposed to mainly continuous noise, 59 exposed to impulsive noise and a control group with acoustic reflex thresholds (ART) determined in a previous study were investigated using white noise (WN) and pure tones at 1 and 4kHz. The exposed workers were classified into 2 groups (hearing level less or more than 25dB). A significant elevation of the ART was seen in both of these groups. The difference between the ART for 1kHz and WN was significantly reduced in the noise-exposed groups. This parameter (ART1k-ARTWN) may be used as a sensitive and objective indicator of the early stages of noise-induced hearing impairment.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1983, Vol.52, No.3, p.231-242. Illus. 36 ref.
Continuous noise and sensorineural hearing loss: a case study
29 audiometric tests undergone by a worker employed over 26 years in a structural maintenance shop at a petrochemical company were analysed. At retirement, he had irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. The relationship between continuous noise (average 90dBA within 1.83m of operating equipment) and sensorineural hearing loss was linear. Auditory capability consistently deteriorated over long periods of exposure to continuous noise.
Human Factors, Aug. 1983, vol.25, No.4, p.425-429. Illus. 14 ref.
Studies of combined effects of sinusoidal whole body vibrations and noise of varying bandwidths and intensities on TTS2 in men
370 experiments were done in 13 volunteers using a one-man exposure chamber. Vibration increased the temporary threshold shift in hearing (TTS2) induced by noise. The most significant exposure combinations were vibration at a frequency of 5Hz and noise with band widths of 1-4, 1-8 or 0.2-16kHz. Exposure to simultaneous vibration and broad-band noise increased TTS2 values 1.2-1.5 times more in the 4kHz audio range than broad-band noise alone. No single vibration condition induced the same amount of TTS2.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 1983, Vol.51, No.4, p.273-288. Illus. 54 ref.
Atherley G., Johnston N.
Audiometry - the ultimate test of success?
An examination of occupational audiometry from a scientific and a social point of view. The study of its scientific validity includes: efficacy of hearing conservation programmes; employer motivation; reassurance of employees; application of the WHO criteria on audiometry to its evaluation as a screening test; methodological standards; reliability and repeatability of audiometry. Under social validity of audiometry are included: human rights; labelling; research; criteria for success. The principal conclusion is that legislating occupational audiometry is a social matter involving science, not the other way around.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1983, Vol.27, No.4, p.427-447. 38 ref.
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