Diseases of the ear and hearing damage - 547 entries found
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- Diseases of the ear and hearing damage
Diseases of hearing: Causes, symptoms and prevention
Enfermedades del oído - Causas, síntomas y prevención [in Spanish]
Information booklet aimed at workers. It covers the various health problems of hearing, their relationship to noise exposure and appropriate preventive measures.
ISSSTE, Av.Juárez No.134, 4o piso, Col. Tabacalera, C.P. 06030, México, D.F., Mexico, 1990 (?). 15p. Illus. 1 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Lärm [in German]
Revised version of these regulations applying to enterprises where workers are exposed to noise (updating document abstracted under CIS 85-64). Contents: responsibilities of employers for the reduction of noise, provision of hearing protectors, elimination of accident risks due to noise, warning signs for noisy areas, work restrictions.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Jan. 1990. 15 + 15p.
Shida S., Yoshida M.
Clinical observation on the dip location of industrial deafness and physiological consideration on the dip origin
Sōonsei nancho ni okeru "dip" no ichi to sono seiin ni tsuite no ichi kōsatsu [in Japanese]
As observed previously, early industrial deafness is caused by hearing loss characterised by a dip in audiometric curves at 4kHz. In fact decrements are seen not only at 4kHz, as had been generally agreed, but more significantly at 5kHz or 6kHz. Comparing the results obtained by the traditional octave audiometer which measures hearing levels at 2, 4 and 8kHz, and those obtained by audiometer which records at 4, 5, 6, 8kHz, the former missed 19% of cases of hearing deficiency and recorded much lower level of hearing loss than the latter. Traditional octave audiometry routine used in hearing assessment is not sufficient in diagnosing and controlling industrial deafness, and high frequency audiometry at 3, 4, 5, 6kHz should be considered indispensable. The possible physiological cause of the dip is discussed.
Journal of Otolaryngology of Japan, 20 Nov. 1990, Vol.93, No.11, p.1823-1831. 21 ref.
Pawlas K., Grzesik J., Witula R.
The effects of impulse noise on hearing
Impulse noise is a peculiar type of noise that retains its separate status, both as a physical phenomenon and as an adverse influence exerted upon human recipients. The ongoing research and numerous experiments with animals and industrial populations have not yet fully explained its nature. There are no clear-cut standards for measurement procedures or impulse evaluation, and no admissible intensity levels. A comprehensive review of both Polish and foreign literature on this subject shows that the following features have the most traumatising effect on hearing: peak value, impulse duration rate, spectrum composition, repetition frequency, equivalent energy leval, and total number of impulses.
Polish Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.3, No.2, p.153-162. 61 ref.
Petiot J.C., Parrot J., Lobreau J.P., Smolik H.J.
Combined effects of a moderate dose of alcohol and of exposure to noise upon auditory fatigue
Effects of alcohol consumption on hearing thresholds at 4 and 6kHz were studied on 16 subjects exposed for 20 minutes to 105dB continuous pink noise. Two minutes after noise had ceased, the mean hearing thresholds at 4kHz reached a significantly lower level in subjects under the effect of alcohol. Auditory fatigue was significantly lower than in a noise condition without alcohol. The rate of recovery from auditory fatigue was not modified by alcohol, but owing to initially lower auditory fatigue, recovery at 4kHz was attained earlier under alcohol. No noticeable effect of alcohol was found for auditory fatigue at 6kHz.
Archives of Complex Environmental Studies, Mar. 1990, Vol.2, No.1, p.37-41. Illus. 18 ref.
Automatic audiometry for preventive screening: The frequency scanning method (audioscan) - Comparison with conventional methods
Audiométrie automatique de dépistage préventif: le balayage fréquentiel asservi (audioscan) - Comparaison avec les méthodes classiques [in French]
Preventive screening for hearing loss is preferable to the conventional audiometric screening used primarily for the determination of compensation. With this in mind, a new method has been developed to increase the precision and sensitivity of audiometric examinations; the frequency scanning method (audioscan) performing basic pure tone threshold audiometry covering the full frequency spectrum. This innovative method compares well with the conventional method insofar as it is automated, more accurate, more sensitive and better suited to preventive screening.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1990, No.139, Note No.1777-139-90, p.335-345. Illus. 10 ref.
Kessler M., Korn M., Drysch K., Schmahl F.W.
The noise environment in landscape management and gardening - Noise exposure measurements and audiometric studies
Lärmbereich "Landschaftspflege und Landschaftsgartenbau" - Schallimmissionsmessungen und audiometrische Untersuchungen [in German]
The noise levels emitted by motor-driven gardening implements were determined in 2 horticultural enterprises. One specialised in landscape design, the other in the upkeep of public gardens. Measured noise levels of mowers, motor hoes, chain saws, power saws and wood grinders ranged from 85.6dB(A) to 103.1dB(A). Audiometric examination of 36 landscape gardeners revealed 17 cases of hearing loss which were in excess of age-related hearing loss.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1990, Vol.25, No.8, p.352-356. Illus. 15 ref.
Hétu R., Getty L.
The handicap associated with occupational deafness: a major obstacle to prevention
Le handicap associé à la surdité professionnelle: un obstacle majeur à la prévention [in French]
This article presents an analysis of the handicap associated with occupational deafness based on the result of questionnaire inquiries and interviews with workers and their spouses. The interviews allowed clarification of the nature of the hearing disabilities and identification of the dimension of the handicap suffered by both the deaf person and the spouse. Results show that occupational deafness is not perceived as a serious threat to health by those who are at risk as well as by those who employ them. It is concluded that a new type of intervention must be designed, using approaches developed within the framework of health education.
Travail et santé, Autumn 1990, Vol.6, No.3, p.S.18-S.25. Illus. 23 ref.
Devine J.A., Forte V.A., Rock P.B., Cymerman A.
The use of typanometry to detect aerotitis media in hypobaric chamber operations
Diagnosis and quantification of aerotitis media were performed using a modified commercially-available tympanometer under hypobaric conditions. Subjects were 22 males and 9 females, 22-43 years of age, who were tested in each ear with the tympanometer prior to and after exposure, sequentially at the barometric pressue plateaus of 706, 656, 609, 586, 564, and 522mm Hg, and following an induced ear block during a 1-min descent from 522 to 586mm Hg. Each subject was examined once either alone or in pairs during a 90-min exposure. Aerotitis media was detected using tympanometry at simulated altitude as evidenced by the difference between measurements made during induced ear blocks and those made prior to inducement, as well as following relief of the pressure differential with the Valsolva manoeuvre. There were no significant differences between pre- and post-induced aerotitis media values at 586mm Hg, or between pre- and post-hypobaria. Thus, tympanometry can be a valuable tool in managing aerotitis media in the aeromedical environment.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1990, Vol.61, No.3, p.251-255. Illus. 20 ref.
National Institutes of Health
Consensus Conference - Noise and hearing loss
Report on the discussions of the Consensus Development Conference on Noise and Hearing Loss (held 22-24 Jan. 1990). Discussed were: definition of and studies on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), most of which is due to occupational noise exposure; anatomic and physiologic correlates of NIHL; assessment of NIHL; sound levels that can damage hearing; factors influencing susceptibility to NIHL (anatomical differences, age, sex, exposure to ototoxic drugs); prevention strategies (individual protection, protection at and outside the workplace); directions for future research; conclusions and recommendations.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 20 June 1990, Vol.263, No.23, p.3185-3190.
Noise protection - Recommendations
Protection contre le bruit - Recommandations [in French]
Update of the publication abstracted as CIS CIS 86-358. Contents: the physics of sound; noise measurement equipment and techniques; effects of noise on hearing; hearing conservation programmes; personal protection; practical criteria for hearing comfort.
Commissariat général à la promotion du travail, 53 rue Belliard, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1990. 81p. Illus.
Acoustics - Determination of occupational noise exposure estimation of noise-induced hearing impairment
Acoustique - Détermination de l'exposition au bruit en milieu professionnel et estimation du dommage auditif induit par le bruit [in French]
This international standard specifies a method for calculating the expected noise-induced permanent threshold shift in the hearing threshold levels of adult populations due to various levels and durations of noise exposure; it provides the basis for calculating hearing handicap according to various formulae when the hearing threshold levels at commonly measured audiometric frequencies, or combinations of such frequencies, exceed a certain value.
International Organization for Standardization, P.O. Box 56, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1990. 17p. Illus.
Letourneux M., Caillard J.F., Andrieu-Guitrancourt J.
Occupational ear, nose and throat pathology
Pathologie ORL professionnelle [in French]
Topics covered in this information note on occupational ear, nose and throat pathology: cochleovestibular disorders represented principally by deafness due to noise, but also caused by electrical or toxic accidents; dysbaric ear diseases due to pressure variations in the surrounding atmosphere; naso-sinal disorders; disorders due to inhalation of pathogenic agents; various clinical aspects (naso-sinal or laryngeal cancer, irritative or allergic rhinitis, vocal disorders of those using their voice in a professional capacity).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications - Pathologie du travail, 1989. 12p. Illus. 105 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
National Strategy for the Prevention of Occupational Noise-induced Hearing Loss
Contents of this recommendation applicable to all of Australia: goals; background; scope of the problem (estimated 250-500,000 people work in hazardous noise environments in Australia; estimated total direct and indirect costs of compensation: AUD 70 million per year); components of the National Strategy (assessment, research, hearing conservation programmes, preventive programmes, training and education, incentives, development of uniform legislation, measures aimed at ensuring compliance).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, July 1989. 10p. 4 ref.
Chavalitsakulchai P., Kawakami T., Kongmuang U., Vivatjestsadawut P., Leongsrisook W.
Noise exposure and permanent hearing loss of textile workers in Thailand
Hearing loss induced by noise exposure in a large scale textile mill (number of workers = 1,611) in Thailand was investigated on the basis of interviews, noise measurements, and audiometric tests. The frequency of subjective symptoms relating to noise exposure was higher in the weavers than among other mill workers and office workers. The average noise levels in the weaving sections and other sections were 101.3±2.7dBA and 89.8±5.3dBA, respectively. The results of the audiometric tests revealed a significantly higher incidence of noise-induced hearing loss among workers in the weaving section than among other mill workers and office workers (P<0.01). Among weavers, hearing levels decreased with the longer years of work. It was found that 38.6% of the weavers never used personal hearing protection devices. It was concluded that there was a serious loss of hearing among workers in the mill. Improvements by means of integrated work organisation activities were recommended.
Industrial Health, 1989, Vol.27, No.4, p.165-173. 8 ref.
Work in a dangerous environment - the road as work environment
Arbeiten in gefährlicher Umwelt - die Strasse als Arbeitsumgebung [in German]
The fears of road repair workers of being run over by a car are illustrated by quoting accounts of near misses. Other hazards encountered by these workers are exposure to noise levels above 85dB(A) during most of their work and to air pollutants from exhaust gases. A study of 70 workers revealed hearing losses between 23 and 26dB(A) after an average of 15 years of noise exposure. A survey of information on the effects of exhaust gas components on the respiratory tract of workers showed that few specific studies exist.
Arbeit und Betrieb, 1989, No.22, p.74-93. Illus. 27 ref.
Chavalitsakulchai P., Kawakami T., Kongmuang U., Vivatjestsadawut P., Leongsrisook W.
Noise exposure and permanent hearing loss of textile workers in Thailand
Hearing loss induced by noise exposure in a large scale textile mill (number of workers = 1,611) in Thailand was investigated on the basis of interviews, noise measurements, and audiometric tests. The frequency of subjective symptoms relating to noise exposure was higher in the weavers than among other mill workers and office workers. The average noise levels in the weaving sections and other sections were 101.3±2.7 dB(A) and 89.8±5.3 dB(A), respectively. The results of the audiometric tests revealed the significantly higher noise-induced hearing loss among workers in the weaving section compared to other mill workers and office workers (P<0.01). Among weavers, hearing levels decreased with longer years of work. 38.6% of the weavers never used personal noise protective devices. It was concluded that hearing loss status in the workers of the mill was serious. Improvements by means of integrated work organisation activities were recommended.
Industrial Health, Mar. 1989, Vol.27, No.4, p.165-173. 8 ref.
Gold S., Haran I., Attias J., Shapira I., Shahar A.
Biochemical and cardiovascular measures in subjects with noise-induced hearing loss
The purpose of this study was to compare values of certain biochemical and cardiovascular measures in subjects with noise-induced hearing loss with normal hearing subjects with a similar history of prolonged exposure to military noise. From a parent population of over 10,000 military personnel, 400 subjects were randomly selected based on demonstrating a hearing loss typical of noise-induced hearing loss. These were matched with normal hearing control subjects from the same parent population. All subjects underwent a physical examination as well as a range of laboratory tests and a routine audiological examination. The results showed that in each group the means of all tested factors were within the clinically accepted normal range. The significant differences between the biochemical measures across the groups were few and inconsistent. It therefore seems that noise-induced hearing loss in these subjects, in contrast to the findings of other studies conducted on industrial workers, was not accompanied by any chronic changes in the autonomic system represented by the parameters tested.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1989, Vol.31, No.11, p.933-937. Illus. 27 ref.
Rentzsch M., Minks B.
Combined effects of sound, climate and air pollutants on noise induced hearing loss
In a laboratory experiment, 10 subjects were exposed to various sound loads at air temperatures of 24°C and 35°C. As expected, the greatest threshold shifts occurred at maximum sound and climate loads. A field study was also carried out to investigate permanent hearing loss in groups of welders and machinery and plant assembly workers exposed to a combination of noise and carbon monoxide. Welders suffered hearing damage when the noise limit for hearing impairment was scarcely exceeded, while the risk was relatively lower for the assembly workers with comparatively higher noise levels and lower carbon monoxide exposure. Results therefore indicate a relationship between combined noise and carbon monoxide exposure and risk of hearing damage.
Archives of Complex Environmental Studies, Dec. 1989, Vol.1, No.1, p.41-44. Illus. Bibl.
Estimation of occupational deafness in a pasta factory
Ektimēsē tōn epaggelmatikōn ōtopadeiōn se mia biomēhania zumarikōn [in Greek]
The hearing of 264 workers was tested and the noise environment was measured in order to evaluate the relationship between noise exposure and occupational deafness in a pasta factory.
Iatrikē tēs Ergasias, Apr.-June 1989, Vol.1, No.2, p.103-108. Illus. 9 ref.
Pett R., Förster W.
Extent of hearing loss among railway track construction workers
Umfang der Gehörschädigung bei Beschäftigten im Gleisoberbau [in German]
Determination of hearing loss among 235 track construction workers revealed significantly higher hearing loss than among workers in the other branches of the construction industry who served as controls. The loss was highest at 4 and 6kHz and depended on the duration of noise exposure. Approximately 69% of the track construction workers did not make use of hearing protectors.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1989, Vol.101, No.8, p.555-560. Illus.
Soleo L., Cassano F., Mazzilli G., Martemucci A., Castrignanò G., Catamo E., Lasorsa G., Candilio G., Ambrosi L.
Evaluation of noise-induced hearing loss in a group of cement workers
La valutazione del danno da rumore: Considerazioni su una casistica di esposti addetti alla produzione del cemento [in Italian]
The study covered 1,334 workers employed in 12 cement factories located in southern Italy. They were submitted to audiometric screening consisting of a questionnaire containing questions on past otologic complaints, dysmetabolic diseases, use of ototoxic drugs and past occupational or non-occupational exposure to noise, plus otoscopic examination and full audiometric examination. The results revealed a statistically significant relationship between duration of exposure to noise and elevation in the hearing threshold. On the question of assessment of the audiometric tracings for preventive and insurance purposes, attention is drawn to the fact that there is a need for a method that will enable an evaluation for prevention to be transformed into an evaluation for insurance. This method should in any case allow for deduction of the portion of hearing loss regarding presbycusis and socioacusis and take due account of the 3KHz frequency. The attention of industry and public administration is drawn to the urgent need for prevention programmes to protect against noise-induced hearing loss in both occupational and non-occupational settings.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1989, Vol.80, No.3, p.229-243. Illus. 39 ref.
Pyykkö I., Koskimies K., Starck J., Pekkarinen J., Färkkilä M., Inaba R.
Risk factors in the genesis of sensorineural hearing loss in Finnish forestry workers
A detailed analysis of risk factors for the development of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was carried out in 199 forest workers. The hearing threshold of both ears at 4000Hz was measured, and the effect of age, exposure to noise, blood pressure, presence of vibration induced white finger (VWF), tobacco smoking, plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration, and consumption of drugs were evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis. Aging was the major risk factor, followed by exposure to occupational noise and the presence of VWF. Plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration and the use of antihypertensive drugs also correlated significantly with SNHL. These main factors were able to explain about 28 per cent of the SNHL variance. Additional factors in the analysis, including smoking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and consumption of salicylates did not significantly contribute to the genesis of SNHL.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1989, Vol.46, No.7, p.439-446. 52 ref. Illus.
Alleyne B.C., Dufresne R.M., Kanji N., Reesal M.R.
Costs of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss
Using claims for hearing loss submitted to a Canadian compensation board for a 5-years period (1979 to 1983), the current cost per claim was $14,106. An annual increase of 20.4% for noise-induced hearing loss claims was observed and it was projected that if 80% of the 450 claims submitted in 1987 are accepted, it will commit the Workers' Compensation Board in Alberta to a cost of $5,373,360 a considerable commitment for a disease that makes up only 0.3% of all claims. As a measure of morbidity the years of potential hearing loss were determined. The 207 workers between the ages of 18 and 70 years who were pensioned had a potential hearing loss value of 2529 years. Some authors have expressed the view that hearing loss is currently inadequately compensated and review of the literature suggests that a fertile climate is emerging for increasing litigation. This tendency is likely to lead to further escalation of costs if prevention is not taken more seriously.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1989, Vol.31, No.2, p.134-140. 7 ref.
Unit: Harmful noise - Module: Basic principles
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. There are two segments: 1 - Basic acoustics (sound waves; the decibel system; sound power; frequency analysis; energy equivalent level; percentage exceedance levels; noise rating curves); 2 - hearing (the human ear; measurement of hearing and performance of the ear; age and frequency response of the ear; loudness; hearing damage).
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1988. 38p.
Studies of the pathophysiological effects of noise on the vestibular apparatus
Untersuchungen zur Pathophysiologie des Gleichgewichtsorgans bei Lärmeinwirkung [in German]
Two groups of subjects with 5 years of occupational exposure to noise levels exceeding 90dB(A) and an unexposed control group were subjected to nystagmographic analyses. Of the exposed group, 120 suffered from minor and 114 from major permanent hearing loss in the high frequency range. No significant vestibular disorders could be detected in either of the exposed groups. Nevertheless, since subjects were exposed only to high frequency noise, the question whether balance can be affected by low frequency noise remains open.
Lärmbekämpfung, 1988, Vol.35, No.4, p.91-96. 15 ref.
Kobryn U., Rothe R., Meister A., Bräuer D., Kreibich H.
Reaction of the cardiovascular system, TTS and sensations during local dynamic muscular work and noise
Reaktion des Herzkreislaufsystems, TTS und Befindlichkeit bei lokaler dynamischer Muskelarbeit unter Lärmeinwirkung [in German]
Ten male and ten female subjects aged 30 to 39 years were exposed to noise of 90dB(A) without muscular work and to noise (90 dB(A)) combined with one-hand work. The reactions of the cardiovascular system were higher during the combined exposure (noise and one-hand work) than during comparable local muscular work without noise. There were also differences in changes of cardiovascular parameters and temporary threshold shift of hearing (TTS) in men and women. The noise sensitivity index seems to reflect physical changes in the body during and after acute noise exposure.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, July 1988, Vol.34, No.7, p.415-417. Illus.
Lalande N.M., Lambert J., Riverin L.
Development of questionnaires for occupational hearing loss victims and their spouses
Développement de questionnaires pour les victimes de surdité professionnelle et leur conjoint [in French]
The hearing handicap and the needs for rehabilitation services cannot be predicted from a pure tone audiogram. The use of interviews or questionnaires is necessary to evaluate the psychosocial disadvantages experienced in daily life, or to plan appropriate interventions to reduce the handicap. Various qustionnaires have been developed in the United States and in Europe. In order to use them with a French-speaking population, however, they would have to be translated and adapted. Moreover, these questionnaires were not designed specifically (a) to identify those persons most susceptible of experiencing disadvantages due to occupational hearing loss; (b) to promote the self-acknowledgement of a hearing problem by the hearing impaired and their relatives; and (c) to favour the willingness to enroll in a rehabilitation program. Within the framework of a community health intervention, these objectives are crucial. The validation of a French experimental questionnaire has allowed us to propose two questionnaires, one related to the screening of handicap due to occupational hearing loss and the other to the evaluation of the psychosocial disadvantages experienced by the workers and their close relatives.
Travail et santé, Autumn 1988, Vol.4, No.3, p.S20-S25. Bibl.
Self-reported hearing loss among workers potentially exposed to industrial noise - United States
Data collected from approximately 40,000 households as a result of National Health Interview Surveys in 1971 and 1977 have been analysed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in order to assess the prevalence of hearing loss among adult workers in the United States. Exposure levels were estimated on the basis of the 1972-74 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) of approx. 5000 workplaces in the US. Some degree of hearing loss was reported by 3.2% of all respondents. Self-reported hearing loss was higher among adults working in industries with potential exposure. Industries in the manufacturing sector had the highest prevalence of noise exposure (overall exposure rate, 37%). Respondents were divided into three groups: 1) persons with light exposure, or those working in industries where less than 10% of the employees were exposed to noise more or equal to 85dBA; 2) persons with moderate exposure, or those employed in industries where 10-24% of workers received such exposure; 3) persons with heavy exposure, or those employed in industries where more than or equal to 25% of workers received such exposure. A comparison of these groups showed that the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss increased with both age and increasing exposure to industrial noise.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 15 Apr. 1988, Vol.259, No.15, p.2213-2217. 10 ref.
Temporary threshold shift under long-term noise exposure
Chōjikan sōon-bakuro ni yoru Temporary Threshold Shift [in Japanese]
Temporary threshold shift was measured 2 minutes after noise exposure (TTS2) in 17 subjects. High speed electric railway noise, car noise and aircraft noise were used as noise sources. TTS2 was measured hourly during 8 hours of exposure to each of these noises, and after cessation of exposure. TTS2 was not detected in the case of railway noise exposure. TTS2 at 4000Hz was observed after exposure to car and aircraft noise. TTS2 was recognized more frequently at 4000Hz than at 2000Hz.
Tōhō Igakkai Zasshi - Journal of the Medical Society of Toho University, Mar. 1988, Vol.34, No.6, p.561-568. Illus. 14 ref.
Bloch W., Kaminsky G., Hahn P., Lembke E.
Hearing losses after a decade of forestry work
Hörverluste nach einem Jahrzehnt Waldarbeit [in German]
More than 300 forestry workers and a control group consisting of employees of an insurance agency in the Federal Republic of Germany were subjected to regular audiometric examinations over a period of ten years, starting on their first day of work. Average hearing losses of 10dB at 4kHz and of 6-8dB at 6 and 8kHz were found among the forestry workers at the end of the ten-year period. Workers were found to wear hearing protectors on the average 60-70% of the time.
A F Z - Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift, 1988, Vol.43, No.16-17. p.470, 472-473. Illus. 7 ref.
Workers' compensation for occupational hearing loss
The factors affecting workers' claims are described. Included are: audiometric profile, recent legislation, loss of job or earnings, and failure to use protectors. Actual and potential cost estimates are given, based on numbers of exposed workers. Future trends are also discussed.
Noise and Vibration Control, Feb. 1988, Vol.19, No.2, p.66-68. Illus. 20 ref.
McMahon K.J., McManus P.E.
Occupational noise exposure in the printing industry
The noise exposures of 274 printing production workers in 34 establishments in the New York City area were monitored. Results showed that 43% were exposed to 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 85dBA or greater and that 14% were exposed to 8-hr TWAs of 90dBA or greater. Within the press department, web press workers were exposed to significantly greater mean 8-hr TWAs than sheetfed press workers. In general, a greater percentage of the workers in the bindery departments were exposed to potentially harmful noise than workers in the press departments. Results of this study indicate that many workers in the printing industry may be at risk of occupational hearing loss. Further research is needed to determine the extent of hearing impairment in this group of workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1988, Vol.49, No.1, p.34-37. 8 ref.
Lärmbekämpfung [in German]
In Austria, hearing loss caused by occupational noise is a recognised occupational disease. The Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt is responsible for measuring noise exposure at the workplace and for delivering expertise. This leaflet explains the generation and impact of noise as well as the measuring methods and indicates the appropriate types of ear protectors and other noise-abatement measures.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1987. 13p. Illus.
Nilsson Granström A., Wenngren B.I., Rudell B., Hammarström U., Kolmodin-Hedman B.
Dizziness and oculomotor dysfunction after welding
Yrsel som subjektivt symptom och oculomotorisk störning vid svetsning [in Swedish]
In this study information on symptoms related to welding was obtained by means of a qustionnaire survey comprising 323 welders. Fatigue and eye irritation proved to be common symptoms, while only 8% suffered from dizziness. In a second part of the investigation 7 welders afflicted by dizziness and 7 references were investigated with a battery of oculomotor tests before and after 30 minutes of welding. The results showed that the oculomotor function of the welders had been impaired prior to the investigation exposure but also that the dysfunction increased after 30 minutes of exposure to welding fumes, especially as regards eye movement gain. However, no correlation was found between changes in oculomotor function and the extent of exposure to any particular metal, nitrous oxides or ozone.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 37p. Illus. 56 ref.
Schäcke G., Kwiatkowski A., Fuchs A.
Audiometric tests in musicians
Audiometrische Untersuchungen bei Musikern [in German]
Musicians need intact hearing to follow their profession. On the other hand, music can reach sound levels which may be harmful. 108 orchestra musicians were tested. Violinists, violists and cellists had the highest absolute number of abnormalities (9), whereas percussionists had the highest relative proportion (3 of 7). The hearing loss was more distinct on the left ear than on the right one. Orchestra musicians should be tested regularly to diagnose hearing losses more precisely.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1987, Vol.37, No.7, p.221-226. Illus. 13 ref.
Kessler M., Korn M., Drysch K., Schmahl F.W.
Noise area: domestic refuse collection
Lärmbereich Hausmüllabfuhr [in German]
Sound level measurements showed the presence of impulse noise. Equivalent sound levels range between 92 and 95dB(A). Audiometric examinations showed that half of the refuse collectors suffered low to severe hearing losses. Noise-reducing devices have been already developed for some garbage trucks. Special attention should be given to the fitting of older equipment.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1987, Vol.37, No.2, p.34-39. Illus. 13 ref.
Alekseev S.V., Lopotko A.I., Nehorošev A.S.
Prediction of auditory organ strength in workers exposed to noise with various frequencies
Prognozirovanie ustojčivosti organa sluha rabočih v uslovijah vozdejstvija šuma različnyh častotnyh harakteristik [in Russian]
Recording of the acoustic impedance of mechanical structures of the middle ear, intratympanal muscle reflex and thresholds of the intratympanal acoustic reflex (AR) during intrasonic exposure, and studies of the fatiguing action of low-frequency industrial noise on the threshold of the acoustic reflex in workers showed that impedance audiometry can be used for predicting occupational hearing loss.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1987, No.4, p.36-39. Illus. 7 ref.
Sataloff T., Sataloff J.
Occupational hearing loss
Contents: occupational hearing loss - an overview; the physics of sound; the nature of hearing loss; the otologic history and physical examination; classification and measurement of hearing loss; the audiogramme; special hearing tests; conductive hearing losses; sensorineural hearing loss - diagnostic criteria; mixed, central and functional hearing loss; systemic causes of hearing loss; handicap and rehabilitation; tinnitus and vertigo; tables summarising differential diagnosis; noise measurement; noise control; noise criteria regarding risk and prevention of hearing injury in industry; hearing protectors; legislation and compensation; US Occupational Safety and Health Administration noise regulation; formula differences in state and federal hearing loss compensation; noise induced hearing loss in the railroad and maritime industries; the US Longshore and Harbour Workers' Act; occupational hearing loss in Canada and the UK; presenting evidence in workers' compensation cases; hearing conservation in industry; establishing a hearing conservation programme.
Marcel Dekker Journals, 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1987. 717p. Illus. Bibl. Price: USD 99.75.
Bloch G.W., Kaminsky G.
Longitudinal study of hearing loss in forestry workers
Längsschnittstudie über Hörverluste bei Waldarbeitern [in German]
Audiometric examinations of forestry workers at age 17 and 10 years later revealed hearing loss. in 45% of the 141 examined workers at the 15, 20 and 30dB(A) level. Causes of hearing loss were identified as negligence in wearing hearing protection, as required for work with power saws that emit noise at a level of 110dB(A), and the annual duration of noise exposure. From the development over time of hearing loss, a statistically significant relationship was derived, permitting prediction of the hearing loss due to a further 10 years of occupational noise exposure of the forestry workers. Protective measures are recommended in order to prevent hearing loss.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1987, Vol.41, No.4, p.243-248. Illus. 12 ref.
Barone J.A., Peters J.M., Garabrant D.H., Bernstein L., Krebsbach R.
Smoking as a risk factor in noise-induced hearing loss
The relation between cigarette smoking and hearing loss among 2,348 noise-exposed white male participants in a hearing conservation programme was studied. When subjects with hearing loss were defined as those in the top third of the hearing loss distribution (at 3, 4, and 6kHz) for their age category, and controls were those in the lowest third of the distribution, the crude relative risks for smokers were significantly elevated compared with persons who had never smoked. The effects of smoking, having a noisy hobby, and years worked at the plant were independent factors for hearing loss. When hearing loss cases were defined according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criteria for beginning impairment, present smoking was a statistically significant independent predictor of impairment. These results suggest that smokers are at increased risk of noise-induced hearing loss.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.29, No.9, p.741-745. 26 ref.
Hodgson M.J., Talbott E., Helmkamp J.C., Kuller L.H.
Diabetes, noise exposure, and hearing loss
To examine relation between diabetes, noise exposure, and hearing loss, data were reanalysed from a cross-sectional investigation on noise exposure, hearing loss, and blood pressure conducted in a high-noise and a low-noise plant. 28 of 348 participants met the criteria for diabetes. Diabetics were evenly distributed between high- and low-noise exposure. They demonstrated no evidence of higher hearing threshold shifts than non-diabetics at the same noise levels. Noise and diabetes together do not appear to produce more neuropathic damage than does one insult alone.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1987, Vol.29, No.7, p.576-579. 19 ref.
Hetu R., Boudreault V., Fortier P., Lemoine O., Phaneuf R.
Audiometric survey protocol for use in noisy factories
Protocole d'enquête audiométrique en usine bruyante [in French]
A new method for the audiometric screening of workers is presented. It includes the collection of medical data, the computerised statistical analysis of the data and the interpretation of the results. This method can be used to estimate the extent of hearing loss in a population of workers attributable to occupational exposure to noise.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1987, No.128, Note No.1640-128-87, p.407-415. Illus. 23 ref.
Miyakita T., Miura H., Futatsuka M.
Noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration-induced white finger in chain-saw workers
The association between hearing loss and vibration-induced white finger (VWF) was examined among 499 workers. In the age groups 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 years with 5-9 years of exposure, the chain-saw workers with VWF had a significantly grater hearing loss at higher frequencies than those without VWF. However, in the 10-14-year exposure groups, a significant difference was not found between the VWF and non-VWF groups, except that the 50-59 year age groups showed a significant difference in mean age. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to noise and vibration may be the reason for the synergistic effects of noise and vibration.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1987, Vol.13, No.1, p.32-36. Illus. 21 ref.
Velázquez González J.
Hearing damage caused by head injury
Otopatías por traumatismos craneanos [in Spanish]
Contents of this booklet written for occupational physicians: clinical anatomy of the skull and the ear; mechanism of skull injuries; physiopathology of damage to the ear produced by skull injuries; clinical picture; diagnosis and treatment; determination of skull injury as an occupational accidents; evaluation of hearing damage as permanent disability.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Paseo de la Reforma 476, 06698 México, D.F., Mexico, 1987. 48p. Illus. 16 ref.
Pal'cev Ju.P., Syromjatnikov Ju.P., Komarova A.A., Jazburskis B.I., Čekmarev O.M.
Occupational hygiene and health status of medical staff working with lasers and ultrasonic equipment
Gigiena truda i sostojanie zdorov'ja medicinskogo personala, rabotajuščego s lazernoj i ul'trazvukovoj apparaturoj [in Russian]
Forty-seven ophthalmologists and 41 surgeons who use lasers as well as 28 physicians who work with ultrasonic equipment (control group) were subjected to detailed medical examination. The ages of the subjects ranged from 20-50yrs. Physicians exposed systematically to laser radiation showed functional disturbances of the nervous and cardiovascular systems and of the vestibular organs. Ophthalmologists had such specific changes as point opacities of the crystalline lens. Physicians exposed to ultrasound risk having direct contact action of high-frequency ultrasound and manifest disturbances in vegetative regulation of the circulatory system, thermo-regulation of the extremities and changes in the bones of the hands following the pattern of enostosis. Prophylactic measures are proposed: in surgery - use of special instruments with dull and black surfaces to reduce levels of reflected laser radiation and local exhaust in laser "scalpels" to remove the products of pyrolysis of tissues; in ophthalmology use of protective screens, shields and glasses.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1986, No.10, p.27-31.
Okamoto K., Takyu H., Inoue J.
Hearing loss in airplane crew
Kōkūki jōmuin no nanchō ni kansuru kenkyū [in Japanese]
From 1970 through 1984, 289 airplane crew who failed to satisfy hearing criteria in physical examinations were studied. Hearing loss in the left ear was more frequently found than in the right. Because the noise level (Leq) in cockpits was found to be about 90dB, the noise did not seem to have caused the hearing loss. Hearing loss in cockpit crew might be due either to head-phone sound or to an individual hypersusceptibility.
Journal of the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 1986, Vol.8, Supplementary Number, p.129-133. Illus. 5 ref.
Bancale A., Bancale R.
Istituto italiano di medicina sociale
Hypoacusia caused by ionising radiations (long-term hazard for the orthopaedic surgeon)
Ipoacusia da radiazioni ionizzanti (un ulteriore rischio per il chirurgo ortopedico) [in Italian]
Reference is made for the first time in the literature to exposure to ionising radiation as a cause of occupational hearing loss. Orthopaedic surgeons who must sometimes work very close to ionising sources are identified as the persons most at risk. Their audiometric curves show a characteristic loss between 2000 and 4000Hz. The hypoacusia is bilateral and symmetrical. The symptoms are described and hypotheses are formulated concerning the pathogenesis. Differential diagnosis and medico-legal aspects are discussed. The possibility of treating this type of auditory impairment as a compensable professional disease is considered.
Difesa sociale, Nov.-Dec. 1986, No.6, p.107-116. Illus. Bibl.
Grzesik J., Pluta E.
Dynamics of high-frequency hearing loss of operators of industrial ultrasonic devices
Results of audiometric tests of 26 operators of ultrasonic equipment before and after a period of 3 years were compared. The determined hearing threshold shift in the range 500Hz-13kHz could be explained as the effect of aging, whereas in the range 13-17kHz the stated mean threshold elevation of 2-5dB, beyond the hearing loss connected with aging within 3 years, is the consequence of high-frequency noise exposure. On this basis, a high-frequency hearing loss of 1dB/year in the case of continued exposure to high-frequency noise was calculated. Apart from the observed threshold elevation, the fraction of ears responding to acoustic stimuli at the highest frequencies decreased by about 10% with frequency increase of 1kHz in the range of 13-19kHz. This indicates that the hearing organ is more susceptible to high-frequency noise at the highest audible frequencies.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.57, No.2, p.137-142. Illus. 7 ref.
Grzesik J., Pluta E.
High-frequency-noise-induced hearing loss: a field study on the role of intensity level and accumulated noise dose
Based on audiometric tests (in the range 10-20kHz) of 106 operators of ultrasonic equipment, as well as on measurements of high-frequency noise, the problem of safety limits for high-frequency noise exposure was investigated. Analysing the relation between noise levels of 1/3 octave bands at center frequencies of 10, 12.5 and 16kHz and the accumulated noise dose on the one hand, and changes in hearing at 10-12, 11-13 and 14-16kHz respectively, on the other hand, a harmless level up to 80dB and a harmless noise dose up to 1 unit for people not older than 40 years have been found. For older people this level and this noise dose can be harmful.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.57, No.2, p.127-136. 7 ref.
Hayden B., Macken K.
Noise - Is your hearing at risk?
An article aimed at those without specialised training, published in an Irish safety and health periodical. Coverage: the anatomy of hearing, effects of noise on hearing, audiometry, safe exposure levels, noise control, measurement of noise.
Sciath, Oct. 1986, No.72, p.6-9. Illus.
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