Diseases of the ear and hearing damage - 547 entries found
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Kuo W., Bhattacharya A., Succop P., Linz D.
Postural stability assessment in sewer workers
In a study to assess central nervous system effects in workers at a wastewater treatment plant, postural stability was measured in 28 workers performing postural sway tests on a microcomputer-based force platform. Exposure to airborne organic solvents was determined by means of a photo-ionization detector. A positive correlation was demonstrated between postural sway and organic solvent exposure. The workers also had increased postural sway compared with a nonexposed population. Given the very low exposures measured, it is possible that solvent exposure may not be the causative agent, but that the solvent levels may correlate with some other causative exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1996, Vol.38, No.1, p.27-34. 23 ref.
Abbate C., Giorgianni C., Munaò F., Muraca G.
Occupational hypoacusia. Audiometric follow-up of workers exposed to industrial noise
Ipoacusia professionale. Studio di follow-up audiometrico in metalmeccanici [in Italian]
Topics: audiometric tests; basic metal industries; exposure evaluation; hearing loss; Italy; length of exposure; machinery industry; noise.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, July-Sep. 1995, Vol.11, No.3, p.119-126. Illus. 27 ref.
Pérez Bilbao J., Salvador Peracaula E.
The ageing process: Hearing and musculoskeletal capacity
Envejecimiento y trabajo: audición y motricidad [in Spanish]
This information note is focused on the decrease in work capacity, in particular hearing and musculoskeletal capacity, with age. Recommendations on how to compensate hearing and musculoskeletal loss during the ageing process are presented. See NTP 367-1995 (CIS 97-1735) for additional information.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 6p. 17 ref.
Eddington I., Moore D., Rooney P., Pensiero D.
Noise induced hearing loss amongst Australian farmers
Hearing thresholds were measured in a group of 25 farmers and in a matched group of office workers. Measurements were carried out using manual pure tone audiometric clinical procedures. Farmers aged 35 years or more had significantly more hearing loss than office workers. Use of firearms and holding of second jobs by farmers were associated with even greater hearing loss. Further research into the nature and extent of the problem is required.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1995, Vol.11, No.1, p.37-42. 3 ref.
Fuortes L.J., Tang S., Pomrehn P., Anderson C.
Prospective evaluation of associations between hearing sensitivity and selected cardiovascular risk factors
The prospective decline of hearing sensitivity was evaluated in a cohort of university physical plant and technical staff during the period 1984-1993. Age, sex, occupational and nonoccupational noise exposure, smoking, blood pressure and cholesterol level were each associated with a decline in hearing sensitivity. When controlling for age and historical noise exposure, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol level were independently associated with a decline in auditory sensitivity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.275-280. 25 ref.
Sokas R.K., Moussa M.A.A., Gomes J., Anderson J.A.D., Achuthan K.K., Thain A.B., Risheh Z.A.
Noise-induced hearing loss, nationality, and blood pressure
Analysis of medical records of 2,361 oil and gas extraction workers in the United Arab Emirates indicated that 610 of the workers had some degree of noise-induced hearing loss. Hearing status was associated with diastolic blood pressure, age, nationality and body mass index, although the effect was small. When national groupings were evaluated independently, hearing loss was associated with higher systolic and diastolic readings among Asians and Sub-Saharan Africans; no such association was found for Europeans, North Americans, Arabs or North Africans. Noise-induced hearing appears to be associated with elevated resting blood pressure only within certain ethnic groups.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.281-288. 22 ref.
Nordahl S.H.G., Aasen T., Molvær O.I.
Balance testing in saturation diving
Measurements of postural control were made in four divers using a static balance platform before, during and after an onshore experimental saturation heliox chamber dive lasting 32 days. Reduced postural control was detected in all four divers from approximately 200msw and deeper. Body sway showed a distinct increase during compression, reaching a maximum during the bottom phase. All sway parameters returned to pre-dive values after surfacing. Results indicate that deep heliox diving influences postural control and the vestibular system.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1995, Vol.66, No.11, p.1031-1036. Illus. 13 ref.
Ivanovič E., Kolarova D., Enev S., Savov A., Kojčeva V.
Assessment of the noise factor and state of the auditory analyzer in rolling mill workers
Ocenka ha šumovija faktor i săstojanieto na sluhovija analizator pri rabotnici ot prokatnoto proizvodstvo [in Bulgarian]
At the main workplaces in a sorting and sheet-rolling works, noise was measured and hearing sensitivity was investigated in 229 men aged 36.1±9.8 years (mean length of service 9.7 years), taking into consideration the excessive equivalent levels and its impulsive nature. Hearing thresholds for 4 and 6kHz and average speaking frequency were elevated, and the proportion of subjects with hearing thresholds above 30dB for all frequencies tested was larger among roll operators, furnace workers, cutters, crane operators, markers, packers, quality control staff and dispatchers than among subjects working at lower noise levels or exposed for shorter times to intense noise. Change in hearing sensitivity was more closely related to age than to duration of occupational experience. Summary in English.
Problemi na higienata, 1995, Vol.20, p.100-109. Illus. 11 ref.
Noise control - The law and its enforcement
This manual explains the law and practice relating to environmental and occupational noise in the United Kingdom. Contents: noise and sound; health effects; noise measurement; noise reduction techniques; noise nuisance; sources, effects and statutory control of noise in public places, abatement zones, construction sites, and from road traffic and aircraft; planning and development; occupational noise exposure (noise exposure and hearing loss, employer's duties and liability, statutory right to benefit, hazard evaluation, hearing conservation, role of safety committees). Summaries of relevant legal decisions are included.
Shaw & Sons Limited, Shaway House, 21 Bourne Park, Bourne Road, Crayford DA1 4BZ, Kent, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Feb. 1995. xli, 387p. approx. 190 ref. Index. Price: GBP 24.95.
Cocchiarella L.A., Sharp D.S., Persky V.W.
Hearing threshold shifts, white-cell count and smoking status in working men
The association between cardiovascular risk factors and high-frequency hearing loss was examined using medical records from 699 employees with low workplace noise exposure. High-frequency hearing was significantly associated with white-blood-cell (WBC) count (previously implicated as a marker for cardiovascular disease), smoking status, mean corpuscular volume and the globulin/albumin ratio, especially in men ≤40 years old. The association with WBC count remained significant after controlling for other factors. Findings suggest that high-frequency hearing loss may be used as a marker for susceptibility to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.45, No.4, p.179-185. Illus. 46 ref.
Hesse J.M., Irle H., Strasser H.
Experimental study of hearing damage by impulse noise
Laborexperimentelle Untersuchung zur Gehörschädlichkeit von Impulsschall [in German]
Ten volunteers aged 23 to 43 years were exposed to six noise events, the energy of which was equivalent to 8h exposure to 85dB(A). They were exposed to 94dB(A) for 1h and to 113dB(A) for 45s. In the following four exposures the 113dB(A) were split up into 180 impulses each lasting 250ms, 450 impulses of 100ms each, 1,800 impulses of 25ms each, and 9,000 impulses of 5ms each. The temporary threshold shift measured 2min after noise exposure was terminated (TTS2) and the required recovery time were significantly better after exposure to 113dB(A) for 45ms than after exposure to 94dB(A) for 1h. TTS2 and recovery time worsened significantly, however, with an increasing number of impulses of decreasing duration.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1994, Vol.48, No.4, p.237-244. Illus. 35 ref.
McBride D., Calvert I.
Audiometry in industry
Pure tone audiometry is the most common method of screening for hearing loss. The last official publication dealing with audiometry was a Health and Safety Executive discussion document 'Audiometry in Industry' published in 1978; no current recommendations are available. This article is a critical review of the advice given in that document, which aims to clarify the role that audiometry may play in the conservation of hearing. Audiometry may perform poorly in strict cost-benefit terms when used serially to detect a deterioration in hearing of an individual, but as the only form of biological monitoring it should be available to all employees who are advised to wear hearing protection at work. The analysis of the hearing of a group may be useful in assessing risk to hearing. Graphical methods of analysis are shown, and more formal methods of statistical analysis discussed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1994, Vol.38, No.2, p.219-230. Illus. 23 ref.
Test for determining the individual risk of noise-induced hearing loss
Test zum individuellen Gehörschadenrisiko bei Schalleinwirkungen [in German]
Epidemiological studies as well as human and animal experiments have shown that susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss varies among individuals. For this reason, it is recommended to examine noise-exposed employees. A method is proposed for this purpose according to which the temporary threshold shift 2min after noise exposure and the recovery time are determined. Summary in English and French.
Acustica, Mar.-Apr. 1994, Vol.80, No.2, p.156-165. Illus. 37 ref.
Noise-induced hearing loss and the 4kHz dip
Difficulties in the assessment of noise-induced hearing loss are briefly discussed. Traditionally, occupational noise has been described as causing a hearing loss which is worse at 4kHz - the 4kHz dip. More complete audiometry has indicated that this dip can occur at other frequencies and is dependent on noise characteristics, duration of exposure and individual variation. High-frequency dips in the audiogramme may also be caused by other factors; a hearing loss of 40dB or greater at 500kHz is likely to be due to a cause other than noise.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.44, No.4, p.222-223. 14 ref.
Duca P.G., Ferri F., Merluzzi F., Paltrinieri M.
Hearing loss in the ceramic tile industry - A historical cohort study
Perdita uditiva dei lavoratori del comparto ceramica - Profilo di danno valutato mediante studio longitudinale [in Italian]
Over the period 1980-1990, 2,024 workers in ceramic plants in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy, were evaluated for exposure to noise and hearing loss. Data collected by local public occupational health services were used. A deficit at 6kHz observed during early examinations was associated statistically with an impairment at 4kHz seen in subsequent tests.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1994, Vol.85, No.2, p.161-169. 6 ref.
Does classical music damage the hearing of musicians? A review of the literature
The published literature investigating possible hearing damage among classical musicians presents conflicting conclusions. While the design of many of the studies is poor, the overall opinion seems to be that noise-induced hearing loss does occur. Since it is clearly impossible to ask musicians to play more quietly (the equivalent of reducing noise levels in industry), careful planning of orchestras' repertoires might be the best general solution to reducing sound level exposures. Local sound levels may be reduced by improved orchestra layout and use of screens. Earplugs which cause less sound attenuation are also now available.
Occupational Medicine, July 1994, Vol.44, No.3, p.130-136. 18 ref.
Noise-induced hearing loss of occupational origin. A guide for medical practitioners
Contents of this guide: overview of the physics of sound, physiology of the normal ear and pathology of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL); measuring noise; workplace exposure standards and the terminology of "acceptable" noise levels; effects of noise on hearing; surveillance in the workplace; diagnosis of NIHL; differential diagnosis; management guidelines; prevention through education; requirements of the Health and Safety in Employment Act and the Noise Regulations. Appendices include: model industrial hearing conservation programme; basic tests of a person's hearing; list of ototoxic drugs; method of calculating hearing loss with age.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, PO Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Apr. 1994. 52p. Illus. 6 ref.
Personal hearing protection
Der persönliche Gehörschutz [in German]
La protezione individuale dell'udito [in Italian]
La protection individuelle de l'ouïe [in French]
This booklet describes noise, how it is measured and how its measurement is evaluated, effects of noise exposure, legal basis for the prevention of hearing loss due to noise exposure, different types of hearing protection, noise insulation (limit values in Switzerland; measures to be taken in view of the EC Directive); adoption of the new single number rating to be applied to hearing protective devices. A review of different hearing protection equipment is given. Acoustic communication in noisy surroundings is explained. Swiss regulations on the subject are reviewed. A chapter is devoted to the reluctance of workers to wear hearing protection equipment.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Oct. 1993. 61p. Illus. 17 ref.
Sack D., Linz D., Shukla R., Rice C., Bhattacharya A., Suskind R.
Health status of pesticide applicators - Postural stability assessments
Postural sway testing was performed on 37 pesticide-exposed workers and 35 non-exposed subjects. All subjects were asymptomatic. Weight/height ratio, exposure to pesticides, recent organophosphate exposure and plasma cholinesterase level were associated with increased body sway. The pattern of sway performance suggested a proprioceptive impairment, well compensated by visual cues, potentially attributable to pesticide exposure. The finding is of unclear clinical significance because neurological examinations and nerve conduction studies that were reported separately did not show evidence of neuropathy.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.12, p.1196-1202. Illus. 51 ref.
Albera R., Beatrice F., Romano C.
Comments on the determination of the onset of occupational hearing loss
Considerazioni sulla determinazione di insorgenza dell'indebolimento del senso dell'udito di natura professionale [in Italian]
Different aspects of the diagnosis of noise-induced hearing disability and handicap are discussed. It is suggested that this diagnosis can only be made if both occupational acoustic trauma and hearing disability or handicap are present. Occupational acoustic trauma may be considered to be present only in people working in a noisy environment, if there are no hearing problems other than those of occupational origin, and if the hearing loss is neurosensorial, bilateral, greater at higher frequencies and greater than in subjects of the same age not exposed to industrial noise. On the other hand, loss of hearing function may be diagnosed when hearing disability and handicap are present according to the WHO definition. An experimental model is proposed that will establish the presence of hearing disability and handicap.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.448-458. 36 ref.
Collective evaluation of audiometric methods: The Klockhoff method
Valoración colectiva de las audiometrías: Método de Klockhoff [in Spanish]
Training module on audiometric methods consisting of a diskette (MS-DOS) and an accompanying booklet. The main purpose of the diskette is to provide a tool for the teaching and comparison of various audiometric methods in use today. In addition to being a user's manual, the accompanying booklet contains the following supporting documents: evaluation criteria; Technical Prevention Note No.284.91 on how to conduct an audiometric examination; Technical Prevention Note No.285.91 on how to distinguish between transmission- and perception-based hearing damage; Technical Prevention Note No.287.91 on how to locate the exact location of the lesion that results in hearing damage.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, C/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 61p. + 3.5" diskette (MS-DOS). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Jacobsen P., Hein H.O., Suadicani P., Parving A., Gyntelberg F.
Mixed solvent exposure and hearing impairment: An epidemiological male study of 3284 men. The Copenhagen male study
This study investigated the relationship between self-assessed hearing problems and occupational exposure to solvents in 3284 men aged 53-74 years. Exposure to solvents for five years or more resulted in an adjusted relative risk (RR) for hearing impairment of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9) in men without occupational exposure to noise. The prevalence of hearing impairment in men not exposed to organic solvents was 24 per cent and the attributable risk from solvent exposure was 9.6 per cent. Exposure for less than five years had no effect on hearing capacity. Occupational exposure to noise for five years or more had an effect twice that of solvents. RR: 1.9 (95% CI: 1.7-2.1). In men exposed to both solvents and noise the effect of the latter dominated and no additional effect from solvents was found. Damaging effect on hearing ability from long-term solvent exposure was found in the present study. The relative effect was moderate but with a high background frequency of hearing problems in the unexposed sample the absolute effect, i.e. attributable risk, was considerable and of both clinical and preventive importance.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.43, No.4, p.180-184. 21 ref.
Five-year follow-up study of hearing loss at several locations within a large automobile company
This longitudinal epidemiologic study was designed to investigate hearing loss over a five-year period among noise-exposed employees of a large automobile company and to assess effectiveness of hearing conservation programmes at locations representing a large spectrum of operations. Methodology based on computerized audiometric test data was developed for measuring occupational hearing loss and evaluating programmes at these locations, which had maximal 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 104-110dB(A). The methods take account of age and hearing level of study subjects at baseline audiogramme and clearly demonstrate the extent of hearing loss during the study period. Among five study locations, the average hearing loss at 2,000-4,000Hz in the worst-loss ear ranged from 3.4 to 6.2dB over the follow-up period after adjustment for presbycusis, the loss was less than 2dB at all but one location, which showed a loss of nearly 4dB. Hearing conservation programmes at four of the five locations were judged to be effective.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1993, Vol.24, No.1, p.41-54. Illus. 30 ref.
Sataloff R.T., Sataloff J.
Occupational hearing loss
Contents of this revised manual (see CIS 89-647 for previous edition): occupational hearing loss - an overview; the physics of sound; the nature of hearing loss; the otologic history and physical examination; classification and measurement of hearing loss; the audiogramme; special hearing tests; conductive hearing losses; sensorineural hearing loss - diagnostic criteria; mixed, central and functional hearing loss; systemic causes of hearing loss; diagnosing occupational hearing loss; handicap and rehabilitation; hearing protectors; tinnitus; dizziness; facial paralysis; tables summarising differential diagnosis; noise measurement; noise control; noise criteria regarding risk and prevention of hearing injury in industry; hearing conservation underwater; hearing loss in musicians; hearing conservation in industry; establishing a hearing conservation programme; legislation and compensation; US Occupational Safety and Health Administration noise regulation; formulae differences in state and federal hearing loss compensation; occupational hearing loss in the railroad industry; the US Longshore and Harbour Workers' Compensation Act; occupational hearing loss in Canada and the UK; tape simulation of hearing loss; presenting medical evidence in workers' compensation cases.
Marcel Dekker Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1993. viii, 833p. Index. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 195.00.
Phoon W.H., Lee H.S., Chia S.E.
Tinnitus in noise-exposed workers
Tinnitus is said to be a common complaint of workers who are exposed to noise. The prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in 647 noise-exposed workers who had been notified as cases of noise-induced deafness were investigated. 151 had tinnitus, giving a prevalence of 23.3%. The tinnitus was bilateral in 42.4% of cases, and of high frequency in 44.4%. In 23.8% it was associated with other symptoms. About 30% of those with tinnitus complained that it interfered with daily activities like telephone conversation and sleep. The workers with tinnitus had consistently higher hearing thresholds at both high and low frequencies than those with no tinnitus. Workers are often told that noise exposure causes deafness, but little is mentioned about tinnitus. Awareness of the possible occurrence of tinnitus may encourage workers to cooperate more actively in a company hearing conservation programme.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.43, No.1, p.35-38. 12 ref.
Ohgaki T., Nigauri T., Okubo J., Komatsuzaki A.
Exostosis of the external auditory canal and sensorineural hearing loss in professional divers
Shokugyō daiba ni mirareta ji shikkan-gaiji dō gai kotsushu to kan'on'sei nanchō ni tsuite [in Japanese]
Audiometry and endoscopic examination of the external auditory canal were performed on the 31 professional divers of a fishing cooperative, who were frequently exposed to dysbaric conditions. Over 40% of the subjects had exostosis (projections of bony tissue in the canal). Over 70% had sensorineural hearing loss, even when audiometric data were corrected for aging. Hearing loss increased with the number of years spent in diving. Few of the subjects had experienced inner ear barotrauma on descent. It is proposed that the frequent small changes of pressure occurring in the outer ear are transmitted to the middle ear and perilymph, which eventually damages the inner ear.
Journal of Otolaryngology of Japan, 20 Sep. 1992, Vol.95, No.9, p.1323-1331. Illus. 20 ref.
Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region - Proceedings of the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de Bordeaux et de sa région - Séances du 24 mai, du 15 novembre et du 13 décembre 1991 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region (France): Health and safety in the use of composite materials in the aircraft industry; comments on the problems associated with the notification of occupational diseases under the French Scheme (example of Schedule 64 (intoxication due to carbon monoxide); repercussions of work on perinatal problems in rural settings (survey of 534 women); conditions of work; comparison of the results of objective and subjective analysis; work in tropical countries: update of specific preventive measures; medical problems due to laser check-out workstations in supermarkets; problem of aptitude to apprenticeship in the case of a subject suffering from tuberous sclerosis: a case study; survey of occupational deafness cases diagnosed in the unit of occupational diseases in Bordeaux; the concept of occupational risk (danger, risk, cyndinics); compulsory vaccination against hepatitis B (Law of 18 Jan. 1991; Order of 15 March 1991: CIS 91-1754).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.426-442.
Acoustic trauma by high-level impulse noise. Evolutive non linear occupational pathology
A propos des traumatismes sonores par les bruits impulsionnels de forte intensité. Pathologie professionnelle évolutive à progression non linéaire [in French]
According to this technical note on acoustic trauma due to high-energy impulse noise, there is much interindividual variation in susceptibility to impulse-noise induced hearing loss. The new quantity E0 is proposed as a measure of the daily tolerable noise dose for a given individual, and it is suggested that the number of high-energy impulse noise events per day be related on an inverse exponential scale to E0.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.175-181. Illus. 21 ref.
Shusterman D.J., Sheedy J.E.
Occupational and environmental disorders of the special senses
Workplace hazards affecting vision, hearing, equilibrium, olfaction and taste are reviewed. These include chemical hazards (irritant chemicals, pharmacologic/toxicologic agents), physical hazards (microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet radiation, visible light, vibration, rapid ambient pressure changes), ergonomic hazards (task-related symptoms, workers with pre-existing vision disorders, ergonomic factors), biological hazards, use of contact lenses in industry.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.7, No.3, p.515-542. Illus. 269 ref.
Thiéry L., Guiret A., Eloy J.
Textile spinning mills: Assessment of the risk of hearing loss due to noise exposure in the workshop
Filatures de fibres textiles. Estimation du risque de surdité dû à l'exposition aux bruits dans les ateliers [in French]
The risk of hearing loss in workers exposed to noise in textile-spinning plants is documented by three studies: a noise exposure survey of 40 plants in five regions of France; an epidemiological study of hearing loss in 1,465 workers exposed to noise; an analysis of occupational hearing impairment with regards to worker's compensation. When considered together with the relationship established by French Standard NF S 31-013 (ISO 1999, CIS 90-299) between noise exposure and hearing loss, these studies help to estimate the magnitude of the occupational hearing loss risk.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1992, Note No. 1899-149-92, p.505-514. Illus. 10 ref.
Acoustic trauma in a telephone operator
This case report describes an incident where a telephone operator suffered acoustic trauma from a subscriber blowing a whistle down a telephone mouthpiece, the sound being transmitted into the ear of the operator. Evidence of hearing loss persisted for several months before complete recovery was achieved. Comparison is made with hearing loss associated with the use of cordless telephones.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1992, Vol.42, No.4, p.215-216. 7 ref.
Chen T.J., Chiang H.C., Chen S.S.
Effects of aircraft noise on hearing and auditory pathway function of airport employees
The effects of aircraft noise on the hearing and the auditory pathway function of 112 airport employees were studied. Audiometry and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were used to evaluate cochlear function and to verify the possibility of retrocochlear involvement. The typical audiogramme pattern of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) was a dip at 3 or 4kHz and moderate hearing loss in the frequency range of 6 to 8kHz. Audiogramme results revealed that the prevalence rate of high-frequency loss in all employees was 41.9%. Incidence of NIHL was highest in maintenance workers (65.2%) and firemen (55.0%). For BAEPs, both click threshold and latencies showed that the impairment was most severe in maintenance workers and firemen. The degree of auditory damage coincided with job patterns. Furthermore, damage of both peripheral cochlear organs and the central auditory pathway by high-frequency aircraft noise exposure was confirmed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1992, Vol.34, No.6, p.613-619. Illus. 39 ref.
Sułkowski W.J., Kowalska S., Sobczak Z., Jóźwiak Z.
The statokinesiometry in evaluation of the balance system in persons with chronic carbon disulphide intoxication
In a group of 37 patients with chronic carbon disulfide (CS2) intoxication manifested by encephalopathy, polyneuropathy or psycho-organic syndrome and complaining for vertigo, a statokinesiometric test was performed with open and closed eyes and with visual simulation. Basic test parameters of stabilograms and statokinesiograms were compared with standard values of the control group. Results of the test were in addition verified by electronystagmography with the recording of spontaneous, positional, optokinetic and post-rotatory nystagmus as well as by the eye-tracking test. Statokinesiometry revealed a postural stability disorder in 72.9% of patients. Balance disorders detected by means of this test showed high compatibility with results of electronystagmography, which confirmed damage of the central part of the vestibular system due to CS2 intoxication.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.3, p.265-275. Illus. 18 ref.
Hearing: The cochlear amplifier - A survey of recent gains in understanding the physiology of hearing
Audition: l'amplificateur cochléaire - Synthèse des acquis physiologiques récents [in French]
In France, the most common occupational disease is deafness. Therefore, the occupational physician must pay particular attention to workers' hearing. There are now new audiometric tests in existence, faster than traditional ones, such as the measurement and analysis of otoacoustic emissions and of changes in acoustic distortion. These screening tests rely principally on the physiological properties of the cochlea. The understanding of cochlear amplification and of otoacoustic emissions is essential to the proper application of these audiological tests, likely to enter universal use in the near future.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.49, p.15-22. Illus. 31 réf.
Neuberger M., Körpert K., Raber A., Schwetz F., Bauer P.
Hearing loss from industrial noise, head injury and ear disease: A multivariate analysis on audiometric examinations of 110,647 workers
Out of 260,917 Austrian workers who underwent a compulsory audiometric examination during the period 1976-1986, 110,647 were selected for this study on the basis of full-time exposure to well-defined noise >85dB(A) for a minimum of 6 months. The standardised audiogrammes and medical and occupational histories were analysed using loglinear and multiple linear regression. The most important factors for prediction of pure-tone hearing loss at 4kHz were found to be age, sex and noise immission level. For predicting speech impairment and handicap the history of ear disease, head injury and tinnitus were more important than noise immission level. Dose-response relationships are given to improve prevention and compensation of hearing loss from combined factors.
Audiology, 1992, Vol.31, p.45-57. Illus. 39 ref.
Gaynés Palou E., Goñi Gonzalez A.
Noise-induced hearing loss: Clinical evaluation and diagnosis
Hipoacusia laboral por exposición a ruido: evaluación clínica y diagnóstico [in Spanish]
Summary of this information note: definition; clinical evaluation; diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss; factors influencing degree of hearing loss (intensity and frequency of noise, length of exposure, individual susceptibility, age, sex, disorders of the middle ear, nature of noise); evaluation of the percentage loss of hearing (table illustrating the calculation method for single-ear hearing loss, formula for the calculation of hearing loss); medical prevention.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 4p. Illus. 8 ref.
The effects of occupational noise on hearing: Recent developments
There in an apparent contradiction between the results of two recent studies into the effects of noise on hearing ability. While some theoretical studies indicate that the effects of long-term noise exposure on hearing have been underestimated, a report on an audiometric study of miners indicates that a lifetime exposure to 90dB(A) has no adverse effect on hearing. The two sets of results are discussed along with their implications for the lowering of noise action levels for worker exposure and resulting cost implications for insurers and the insured.
The Loss Prevention Council, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HY, United Kingdom, Apr. 1991. 7p. 11 ref.
Victoria Jumilla F., Viviente López E., Clemente Ibañez M., Cerrada Delgado M.C., Espinosa Lozano F.J., Sánchez Ferrero F., Monasterio Acha R., Serrano Castro M.B.
Noise and deafness
El ruido - La sordera [in Spanish]
Five articles on noise and its effects on hearing: (1) Response of the population to a survey on environmental noise in urban centres of Murcia. (2) Occupational hearing loss. (3) Effects of work in a noisy environment on hearing. (4) Industrial noise as an occupational pathology. (5) Pathology of noise. The articles cover topics such as: physical characteristics of noise and its potential to induce disorders, in particular occupational deafness; evaluation and control of noise in the working environment; protection of workers against noise; the importance of prevention; studies carried out in various Spanish enterprises. Tables are included.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr.- June 1991, Vol.38, No.152, p.3-43. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Marvel M.E., Pratt D.S., Marvel L.H., Regan M., May J.J.
Occupational hearing loss in New York dairy farmers
A study of 49 randomly selected, full-time dairy farmers was performed to assess the prevalence and nature of hearing loss in this population. An age- and sex-matched group of rural non-farmers was also studied. Medical, occupational, and recreational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was administered. Sixty-five percent of farmers had hearing loss in the higher frequencies and 37% had losses in the mid-frequency range as compared to 37% and 12% of non-farmers respectively (p<.01). The age of the subjects and the number of years spent farming were highly correlated with hearing loss. Correlation and regression analyses supported the hypothesis that the difference in the prevalence of hearing loss between the dairy farmers and the non-farmers was due to occupational noise exposure on the farm.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.20, No.4, p.517-531. Illus. 10 ref. Appendix.
Noise exposure of pilots in the cockpit of jet aircraft
Die Schallbelastung der Piloten im Cockpit von Strahl-Verkehrsflugzeugen [in German]
Measurements with an artificial head in the cockpit of 7 different types of jet aircraft identified radio communication using headphones as a major noise source for pilots. The average noise level from this source was above 105dB(A), with peak levels extending to 127dB(A). The risk of hearing damage for pilots was confirmed from random samples of audiogrammes and through notifications of occupationally-induced hearing damage. Speech-filter type earplugs tested by pilots were welcomed by the majority of pilots older than 30 years.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Sep. 1991, Vol.45, No.3, p.159-167. Illus. 21 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Long-term noise exposure and health
Langjährige Lärmbelastung und Gesundheit [in German]
A group of 164 workers with hearing impairment was interviewed to determine the occupational noise exposure. In addition, extensive medical examinations were performed. No significant relationship was found between systolic blood pressure and hearing loss. Systolic blood pressure was more closely associated with subjectively perceived noise annoyance than with the average life-time noise exposure level. For a group of 547 workers in the German iron and steel industry the causes of sickness absenteeism were determined. No connection with noise exposure could be found. In annex: sample questionnaire for medical diagnosis; incidence of past and present pathologies; results of clinical and audiometric examinations in 164 subjects suffering from hearing impairment; sample questionnaire on noise exposure. Detailed summaries in German, English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1991. 300p. Illus. ca. 350 ref. Price: DEM 44.00.
Effects of underwater noise on human hearing
Hearing conservation for divers and swimmers has been overlooked nearly everywhere in the world. Because submerging a listener changes his or her auditory physiology dramatically the research on which are based exposure limits for airborne noise are not relevant under water. So far, little research has been done for the development of a damage-risk standard for underwater noise exposure. The value of Poland's marine industries and the motivation of its audiologists make Poland and ideal country in which to accomplish this research and to lay the foundation for national and international standards.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.2, p.153-157. 3 ref.
Cattiau P., Corrette R., Lasfargues G., Rondeau du Noyer C.
Development of a hearing handicap by personnel in a pressworks
Evolution d'un handicap auditif du personnel d'un atelier de presses [in French]
An evaluation was made of the development of the overall risk of hearing damage in a French pressworks. A significant deterioration in the hearing of the pressworks employees was observed, in particular in audiometric tests performed 10yrs after the previous one. These observations suggest, above all, the need for collective technical control measures which may only be devised after the establishment of an accurate dosimetric mapping of noise in the workshop.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.45, p.43-47. Illus. 4 ref.
Spreng M., Leupold S., Firsching P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Proposal for a system to assess hearing impairment due to impulse noise
Gehörschäden durch Impulsgeräusche - Vorschlag für ein gehörschadensrichtiges Impulsbewertungssystem [in German]
A method is described for measuring impulse noise, taking into account the relationship between peak levels, the duration of exposure and the morphological damage of the stereocilia of sensory cells observed in animal experiments. With a newly developed personal computer-controlled signal processor system, the level and extent of exposure to various frequencies and the dynamics of sound are determined. The value obtained is added to the equivalent continuous noise level LEq. Summaries in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1991. 273p. Illus. 158 ref. Price: DEM 34.00.
Yassi A., Gaborieau D., Gillespie I., Elias J.
The noise hazard in a large health care facility
A noise-level survey, dosimetry and audiometric testing were conducted in a large health care facility to determine the areas with hazardous noise levels, the number of employees at risk, and the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among the exposed. Nine high-risk areas were identified, with readings of up to 110dB(A) recorded. In the work force of approximately 6,000 employees, 321 were identified as exposed to potentially hazardous noise levels. Abnormal hearing patterns were observed in 59 (19%) of the 308 workers screened, with 36 cases of NIHL documented. The findings showed that noise is a serious hazard in many areas, that some cases of NIHL have developed from occupational exposure in this hospital, and that a control programme is essential.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.33, No.10, p.1067-1070. 19 ref.
Crutchfield C.D., Sparks S.T.
Effects of noise and vibration on farm workers
This paper summarises the basic physiology of the ear and the effects of excessive noise, namely noise-induced hearing loss. Appropriate studies are cited which document the high noise levels of various farm machinery. The current U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit is explained, and studies are presented which identify particularly noisy practices and farm occupations. Noise control strategies are summarised. The same machinery that produces excessive noise can produce hazardous levels of vibration. The sources and types of vibration are outlined and the literature concerning the health effects of whole body vibration and hand-arm vibration are reviewed.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.3, p.355-369. Illus. 43 ref.
Noise and you: The ABC's of hearing conservation
Simple illustrations and text are used to increase safety awareness among workers. The physiology of the ear, how we hear, the effects of noise on hearing loss and elements of a noise control program are explained.
Scriptographic Communications Limited, 150 Consumers Road, Suite 404, Willowdale, Ontario M2J 1P9, Canada, 1991 ed., 1991. 15p. Illus.
Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss in fire fighters assigned to airport fire stations
Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) studied hearing levels and noise exposures of 197 fire fighters at 5 metropolitan fire stations. Two of the 5 stations served an international airport. The noise surveys consisted of personal noise dosimetry on fire fighters for the entire 24-hr tour of duty over 2 consecutive days. The audiometric examinations were pure-tone, air conduction tests. The dosimetry results revealed time-weighted averages ranging from 60 to 82dB(A). However, the levels encountered during Code 3 responses (sirens and air horns) reached 109dB(A) for a 1 minute time period. The audiometric results showed that the average fire fighter exhibited a characteristic noise-induced permanent threshold shift. Hearing loss was related to the amount of time on the job with decreasing hearing ability a function of years of service.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1991, Vol.52, No.9, p.372-378. Illus. 14 ref.
The University of New England (Armidale, Australia)
Occupational noise-induced hearing loss: Prevention and rehabilitation - Papers presented at a national seminar series, Nov. 1990
Full text of articles presented at a series of 1-day seminars dealing with occupational hearing loss (OHL) held in various parts of Australia in Nov. 1990. The articles were: History and politics of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) (Noble W.); Occupational noise exposure, hearing impairment, and rehabilitation - An overview of the present situation in Australia (Waugh R.); Coping with OHL: The University of Montréal Acoustics Group Rehabilitation Program (Getty L., Hétu R.); Why is hearing impairment so debilitating? (Noble W.); The nature of handicaps associated with OHL: Implications for prevention (Hétu R., Getty L.); The Worksafe Australia National Strategy, community promotion campaign and workplace information materials for the prevention of NIHL (Waugh R.); Further questions and issues in prevention of occupational NIHL (Noble W., Hétu R., Getty L. Waugh R.).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Feb. 1991. iv, 111p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Campo P., Boettcher F.A.
Effects of salicylates on the auditory system - A literature review
Effets de salicylates sur le système auditif - Revue bibliographique [in French]
Human and animal studies have shown that salicylates alone do not generate a permanent threshold shift of auditory sensitivity. Salicylate-inducing hearing loss and deterioration of psychoacoustic abilities are temporary. However, temporary aspirin-induced auditory effects should not be ignored. Indeed, these effects might induce accidents, especially in industrial areas where communication in noise and good auditory sensitivity are required. Furthermore, a high serum salicylate level (> 40mg/100mL) may exacerbate the effects of noise and increase temporary hearing loss. However, there is no experimental proof that salicylates facilitate the permanent threshold shift of auditory sensitivity caused by noise.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.142, Note No.1817-142-91, p.79-86. Illus. 38 ref.
Diseases of hearing: Causes, symptoms and prevention
Enfermedades del oído - Causas, síntomas y prevención [in Spanish]
Information booklet aimed at workers. It covers the various health problems of hearing, their relationship to noise exposure and appropriate preventive measures.
ISSSTE, Av.Juárez No.134, 4o piso, Col. Tabacalera, C.P. 06030, México, D.F., Mexico, 1990 (?). 15p. Illus. 1 ref.
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