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Diseases of the ear and hearing damage - 547 entries found

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CIS 02-1901 Girard S.A., Picard M., Jean S., Turcotte F., Laroque R., Simpson A.
Hearing status and work-related accidents
Audition et accidents du travail [in French]
This cohort study examined the relationship between the hearing status of noise-exposed workers and work-related accidents. Hearing at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the accident records of 88,247 workers between 1983 and 1998 were reviewed. It was found that age and hearing loss were associated with the risk of being the victim of work-related accidents. For every group starting at age 25, a significant increase in accident rate was observed when permanent hearing loss exceeded 16dB, becoming more prominent for those individuals with greater sensory impairment. This was confirmed by cross-sectional analyses limited to those individuals with a baseline of 10 years of noise exposure. Furthermore, for each category of hearing status, the relative risk (RR) is higher when noise in the workplace is excessively high (≥90BA). Results also show that same workers categorized in various age groups from 25 to 64 years are at higher risk of accident with the oldest most severely impaired group showing the greatest risk (RR = 1.66).
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2002, Vol.63, No.8, p.622-633. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 02-1659 Counter S.A., Buchanan L.H.
Neuro-ototoxicity in Andean adults with chronic lead and noise exposure
Brainstem auditory evoked responses and audiological thresholds were used as biomarkers for neuro-ototoxicity in adults in Ecuador with chronic lead intoxication from long-term exposure in ceramic glazing work. Venous blood samples collected from 30 adults (15 men and 15 women) indicated a mean blood lead level of 45.1µg/dL, above the WHO health-based biological limits. Mean auditory thresholds at frequencies susceptible to ototoxicity (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0kHz) revealed sensory-neural hearing loss in men, which may be attributable to occupational noise exposure in combination with lead intoxication. Brainstem auditory evoked response tests on participants with elevated blood lead levels (mean, 47.0 µg/dL) showed delayed wave latencies consistent with sensory-neural hearing impairment. The results suggest that environmental noise exposure must be considered an important factor in determining sensory-neural hearing status in occupationally lead-exposed adults.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.30- 38. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 02-1429 Brink L.L., Talbott E.O., Burks J.A., Palmer C.V.
Changes over time in audiometric thresholds in a group of automobile stamping and assembly workers with a hearing conservation program
Noise-induced hearing loss afflicts millions of persons who work in noise above 85dBA. In this study of 301 workers at an automobile assembly plant, measurements were used to construct average lifetime noise exposure and hearing protection compliance estimates for use in modelling to predict total hearing loss and the onset of hearing loss. 16 subjects were found to have hearing loss at the speech frequencies (defined as an average hearing level ≥25dB at 500, 1000 and 2000Hz). In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, years of employment, male sex and proportion of time wearing hearing protection were the factors most associated with hearing loss at the average of 2000, 3000 and 4000Hz. The most consistent predictor of hearing loss in both univariate and multivariate analyses was percentage of time having used hearing protection during the workers' tenure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.482-487. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 02-1054
Department of Labor - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements - Final Rule [USA]
This final rule (effective 1 Jan. 2003) revises the hearing loss recording provisions of the Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements rule published on 19 Jan. 2001 (see CIS 01-1277). The criteria for recording hearing loss cases are modified in several ways. The principal change is that Standard Threshold Shifts (10dB shifts in hearing acuity) that have resulted in a total 25dB level of hearing above audiometric zero (averaged over 1000, 2000 and 4000Hz) are to be recorded.
Federal Register, 1 July 2002, Vol.67, No.126, p.44037-44048.

CIS 02-715 Williams W., Forby-Atkinson L., Purdy S., Gartshore G.
Hearing loss and the farming community
Over recent years, concern has been growing regarding the incidence of hearing loss in rural communities. Anecdotal accounts have always portrayed older farmers as individuals with typical hearing loss characteristics. More recent formal evidence certainly supports this. Recent published statistical data indicate that hearing loss in the rural community is a serious problem for many individuals and their families. Typically, attention has been directed at noise-exposed workers who work in more conventional workplaces, such as factories. However, farm workers have been considered "hard to reach" and, as a consequence, have not experienced traditional hearing loss prevention education programs. Thought needs to be given to more efficient methods of alerting the farming community to noise hazards.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2002, Vol.18, No.2, p.181-186. Illus. 26 ref.


CIS 03-656 Żera J.
Hearing perception during proper and defective internal ear function
Percepcja dźwięku przy prawidłowym i uszkodzonym funkcjonowaniu ucha wewnętrznego [in Polish]
Hearing loss is one of the most widespread occupational diseases. This booklet describes the principles of hearing perception of healthy persons and persons with internal ear damage.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 47p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 03-407 Alves Maia P.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Noise in civil engineering work and the risk of work-induced deafness
O ruído nas obras da construção civil e o risco de surdez ocupacional [in Portuguese]
This thesis analyses the risk of hearing loss caused by noise among various categories civil engineering workers (labourers, masons, metalworkers and concrete formwork workers) exposed to noise levels of 82dB(A). The spectrum of noise emissions of machinery used in civil engineering as well as the noise levels to which the workers are exposed in the course of their different tasks were determined. Audiometric measurements were made among workers of 49 civil engineering contractors to evaluate hearing loss across the different job categories. Audiograms were corrected for age according to the ISO 7902 standard. They were also compared to the expected audiograms according to the ISO 1999 standard, which takes account of tenure and hours of work per day. Among the categories studied, only formwork workers were at significant risk of hearing loss.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2001. 144p. Illus. 85 ref. Price: BRL 15.00.

CIS 02-1278 Kales S.N., Freyman R.L., Hill J.M., Polyhronopoulos G.N., Aldrich J.M., Christiani D.C.
Firefighters' hearing: A comparison with population databases from the International Standards Organization
This study investigated firefighters' hearing relative to general population. For five groups of male firefighters with increasing mean ages, their hearing thresholds at the 50th and 90th percentiles were compared with normative and age- and sex-matched hearing data from the standardized ISO and United States population databases (databases A and B, respectively). At the 50th percentile, from a mean age of 28 to a mean age of 53 years, relative to databases A and B, the firefighters lost an excess of 19 to 23dB, 20 to 23dB, and 16 to 19dB at 3000, 4000, and 6000Hz, respectively. At the 90th percentile, from a mean age of 28 to a mean age of 53 years, relative to databases A and B, the firefighters lost an excess of 12 to 20dB, 38 to 44dB, 41 to 45dB, and 22 to 28dB at 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000Hz, respectively. The results are consistent with accelerated hearing loss in excess of age-expected loss among the firefighters, especially at or above the 90th percentile.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.43, No.7, p.650-656. 19 ref.

CIS 02-399 Hwang S.A., Gomez M.I., Sobotova L., Stark A.D., May J.J., Hallman E.M.
Predictors of hearing loss in New York farmers
Data from the telephone interview portion of the New York Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance were used to study self-reported hearing loss in New York farmers. 1,622 persons completed the hearing loss and noise exposure interview. Hearing loss was defined as at least some trouble hearing in one or both ears. Predictors of hearing loss were determined using logistic regression. 22% of participants reported hearing loss. From the logistic regression, significant confounders are age, sex, being from a livestock farm, and loss of consciousness due to head trauma. Significant noise exposures are more hours of lifetime exposure to noisy farm equipment and having had a noisy non farm job, with or without hearing protection. In conclusion, farm noise exposure is a serious risk to the hearing of this population. Although use of hearing protection should be encouraged, replacing and modifying farm equipment to decrease noise at the source should be the first priority.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.23-31. 29 ref.

CIS 02-406 Palmer K.T., Coggon D., Syddall H., Pannett B., Griffin M.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational exposure to noise and hearing difficulties in Great Britain
To determine the prevalence of self-reported hearing difficulties and tinnitus in working-aged people from the general population, and to estimate the risks from occupational exposure to noise, a questionnaire was mailed to 21,201 subjects of working age selected at random and 993 subjects from the British armed services. Information was collected on years of employment in a noisy job, and whether the respondent wore a hearing aid, had difficulty in hearing conversation, or had persistent tinnitus over the past year. 2% of subjects reported severe hearing difficulties. In men, the prevalence of this outcome rose steeply with age, from below 1% in those aged 16-24 years to 8% in those aged 55-64. The pattern was similar in women, but with severe hearing loss being only about half as prevalent in the oldest age band. In both sexes, after adjustment for age, the risk of severe hearing difficulty and persistent tinnitus rose with years spent in a noisy job.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2001. vi, 61p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 01-1812
Health and Safety Executive
The Noise at Work Regulations - A brief guide to the requirements for controlling noise at work
Exposure to high noise levels can cause irreparable hearing damage. Noise at work can also cause disturbance, interference with communications and stress. This booklet summarizes the responsibilities of employers, employees and equipment suppliers under the Noise at Work Regulations (CIS 90-21). Contents include: actions required at noise levels below 85dB, between 85 and 90dB and above 90dB; advice for employers on carrying out noise assessments and implementing prevention measures; advice for employees, in particular on using protective equipment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2001. 8p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 01-860 Lawton B.W.
Health and Safety Executive
Damage to human hearing by airborne sound of very high frequency or ultrasonic frequency
This literature review examines the audiological, occupational hygiene and industrial safety literature on the subjective and auditory effects of audible sound in the very high frequency range (10-20kHz) and also in the inaudible ultrasonic range (greater than 20kHz, generally thought to be the upper frequency limit of young normal hearing). Proposed exposure limits have been in existence since 1961, with the intent of avoiding any subjective effects and any auditory effects, in any exposed individuals. The evolution of these internationally-recognised Damage Risk Criteria and Maximum Permitted Levels has been examined critically. Conclusions and recommendations are offered in respect of hearing damage and adverse subjective effects caused by sounds outside the customary frequency range for occupational noise exposure assessments.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 77p. 114 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.


CIS 06-1201 de Paula Santos U., Paiva Santos M.
Exposure to noise: Effects on health and how to prevent them
Esposição a ruído: efeitos na saúde e comi prevení-los [in Portuguese]
Contents of this booklet on the effects of exposure to noise and the prevention of hearing loss: causes of hearing loss, definition of sound and noise, and various types of noise; how to prevent hearing loss; legal aspects; practical examples for the control of exposure to noise.
Instituto Nacional de Saúde no Trabalho (INST) Rua Caetano Pinto 575, São Paulo, CEP 03041-000, Brazil, 2000. 30p. Illus.

CIS 02-1902 Bastide J.C.
Noise-induced disorders
Les affections provoquées par le bruit [in French]
Despite advances in recent years, noise-induced disorders still count among the most frequent occupational diseases. In France, compensation was granted for more than 700 cases of noise-induced disease during 1997, with a total cost of compensation estimated at FRF 360 million (approx. EUR 55 million). This article summarizes the key statistics concerning noise-induced diseases in France. Contents: statistical trends in the number of cases of noise-induced diseases between 1985 and 1997; proportion of workers exposed to noise; proportion of exposed workers who use ear protection; responsibilities of employers under current French regulations.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2000, No.592, p.39-42. Illus.

CIS 02-1883 Adera T., Amir C., Anderson L.
Time trends analysis of hearing loss: An alternative approach to evaluating hearing loss prevention programs
Time trends analysis is an alternative method for evaluating the performance of hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs), involving assessing patterns in hearing loss over time. To demonstrate this method, it was applied to a cohort of 44,547 industrial workers enrolled in HLPPs between 1980 and 1990 and followed retrospectively for three years to determine the incidence of hearing loss. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by sex and adjusted for age, race and hearing threshold at enrolment. For women, adjusted HRs against enrolment years produced a statistically significant trend of an initial increase in hearing loss, followed by decreasing incidence over time. For men, there was a statistically significant linear trend of decreasing hearing loss over time. The downward trends indicate improved HLPP performance during the latter portion of the decade.
AIHA Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.61, No.2, p.161-165. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 02-1172 Less noise for healthier hearing - The Factories (Noise) Regulations 1996 - What you need to know
Over 1000 factories in Singapore present a noise hazard and more than 50,000 workers are estimated to be exposed to harmful noise. Prolonged exposure to noise can cause deafness, a chronic disease which cannot be cured. This information leaflet provides guidance on the application of the Singapore Factories (Noise) Regulations 1996. Contents: permissible exposure limits; responsibilities of employers; noise control; noise emission labelling of machinery; noise dosimetry; hearing protection; workers' training and information; medical examinations.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 6p. Illus.

CIS 02-1171 Do you know what is noise-induced deafness?
Contents of this information leaflet on noise-induced deafness: definition; causes (prolonged exposure to noise levels above 85dB(A)); effects of noise-induced deafness; audiometric examinations; responsibilities of management; responsibilities of workers; Singapore legislation; some basic facts about noise.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 8p. Illus.

CIS 02-104 Noise control in industry: A basic guide
Noise is a major occupational hazard. Short-term effects include temporary hearing loss, stress and irritability. It can make verbal communications difficult, thereby leading to safety hazards. Long-term exposure can lead to permanent hearing loss. This guide provides an overview of the methods of recognizing, evaluating and controlling workplace noise exposure. It is aimed at workers, supervisors, safety representatives and occupational safety and health professionals. Topics covered include: units of noise; methods of measuring noise level and noise exposure; instruments used to measure noise; relationship between noise exposure and hearing loss; noise exposure limits; engineering methods of noise control; effectiveness of hearing protectors; basic elements of a hearing conservation programme.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2000. 131p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere).

CIS 01-72 Berg S.Z.
Sound advice - Protect your ears in noisy environments
This publication is in the form of a booklet containing several short articles on occupational exposure to noise. According to NIOSH, 30 million persons are exposed to hazardous noise at work in the United States, of whom 10 million suffer from permanent hearing loss. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to develop and implement noise monitoring programmes whenever any employee's exposure equals or exceeds an 8-hour average exposure of 85dB. Various hearing protection devices are described (foam plugs, pre-molded reusable plugs, canal caps, earmuffs, miscellaneous devices). Finally, answers to some frequently-asked questions on hearing protection are provided.
Safe Worker, Feb. 2000, Vol. 74, No.2, p.2-11, 14-15. Illus.

CIS 00-1574 Listen up! Learn how to protect your hearing
This issue is dedicated to hearing loss prevention. Contents include: usefulness of hearing loss prevention programs; frequently asked questions about hearing loss; reducing noise at the workplace; types of hearing protectors (earplugs, earmuffs); selection criteria for hearing protectors; noise reduction rating (NRR).
Today's Supervisor, Feb. 2000, Vol.64, No.2, 19p (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 00-1431 Beckett W.S., Chamberlain D., Hallman E., May J., Hwang S.A., Gomez M., Eberly S., Cox C., Stark A.
Hearing conservation for farmers: Source apportionment of occupational and environmental factors contributing to hearing loss
Persons working on farms continue to have a high prevalence of hearing loss, despite efforts to promote hearing conservation in agriculture. To develop improved hearing conservation programmes, an analysis for hearing loss was performed in a large, multiphasic survey, the New York Farm Family Health and Hazard Survey. Sources of information used included audiometric, otoscopic and tympanometric examinations, detailed general health and farm exposure interviews; and a second interview that focussed on additional potential determinants of hearing loss. Results show that hearing loss measured by audiometry was significantly associated with age, sex, education, hunting with guns, use of a grain dryer and spraying crops. Hearing conservation programmes for farmers should thus be directed toward reduction in noise exposure, both from occupational and non-occupational sources.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.42, No.8, p.806-813. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 00-523 Lutman M.E., Hall A.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Novel methods for early identification of noise-induced hearing loss
The aim of the project was to compare various methods that might be used to monitor cochlear function in people exposed to noise, and particularly new techniques involving the recording of otoacoustic emissions, with typical monitoring by audiometry. The recording of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) has three advantages: it does not require the active cooperation of the test subject, it is faster (by a few seconds) and the specifications of the test room are less stringent than for audiometry. Three different types of OAE tests were evaluated as well as two psychophysical tests.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 2000, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. vi, 49p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.


CIS 02-395 Lee L.T.
A study of the noise hazard to employees in local discotheques
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the noise hazard of employees exposed to amplified music in discotheques. Personal noise dosimetry was carried out on 40 employees (disc jockeys, bartenders, waiters, cashiers and security officers) of 5 discotheques. Audiometric examination results of another 46 employees were compared with 37 subjects from a non-exposed matched control group. The range of exposure to noise level above 85dBA for the employees was 3.6 to 6.9 hours with a mean of 5.1 hours. The discotheque group had statistically significant higher prevalence (41.9%) of early hearing loss compared to the control group (13.5%). A higher proportion of employees in the older age group (above 30 years old) and working longer (above 1 year) suffered from hearing loss. A significant proportion of the discotheque study subjects (21%) also complained of recurrent tinnitus compared to 2.7% in the control group. The younger workers (< 30 years) and those with shorter exposure duration (< 1 year) appeared to complain of tinnitus more.
Singapore Medical Journal, 1999, Vol.40, No.9, p.571-574. 26 ref.

CIS 01-1507 Knoche C., Meunier P., Smolik H.J.
Advantages and disadvantages of the main methods for assessing hearing risk caused by noise
Avantages et inconvénients des principales méthodes d'évaluation du risque auditif lié au bruit [in French]
There are two types of methods for assessing hearing risk caused by noise: measurement of the stressors or sonometry (dosimetry, sound spectrometry, 8h exposure dosimetry) and evaluation of the resulting strain (audiometry, evoked potential, otoacoustic emission). Based on their 15 years of experience, the authors sum up the main principles of these different techniques, their practical applicability and their advantages and drawbacks.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1999, Vol.39, No.4, p.425-429. 7 ref.

CIS 01-867 Duclos J.C., Bergeret A., Normand J.C., Prost G.
Le bruit [in French]
Noise is a complex issue. For occupational physicians, it often implies hearing loss and compensation. However, it is a much broader public hygiene issue. It is generally accepted that noise causes discomfort. There is often a cumulative effect of exposure to occupational and environmental noise, caused for example by noisy leisure activities. Topics covered: physical aspects of noise and technical means of noise attenuation, noise perception, effects of noise on the body, regulatory aspects. Although considered primarily from the occupational perspective, the various aspects of noise are also discussed with reference to their possible environmental impact.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 1999, No.123, 8p. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 00-1430 Sułkowski W., Kowalska S., Lipowczan A., Prasher D., Raglan E.
Tinnitus and impulse noise-induced hearing loss in drop-forge operators
Tinnitus is frequently accompanied by noise-induced hearing loss, particularly in people exposed to impulse noise. A group of 261 drop-forge operators exposed to impulses with peak levels of 135dB and 169 age-matched controls underwent otological and audiometric examination, and complaints for tinnitus in both groups were analysed. Tinnitus, most common in operators with long exposure (> 10 years), was found in 184 operators (70.4%) versus 6 (3.5%) in controls. The findings closely corresponded with the degree of impulse-noise induced hearing loss. Since the maximum audiometric notch was mostly localized at 6kHz and rarely at 4kHz, the approximate pitch of the tinnitus was related to the frequencies where hearing was most affected. It is concluded that impulse-noise induced tinnitus may be sometimes more severe in its effects than is hearing loss, thus creating an additional reason for strict hearing protection programmes.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.12, No.2, p.177-182. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 00-830 Irle H., Hinzmann G., Strasser H.
Hearing threshold shifts associated with impulse noise - Influence of the number and duration of pulses
Hörschwellenverschiebungen nach Impulsschall - Einfluß der Impulsanzahl und Impulsdauer [in German]
Acoustic pulses such as those experienced in weapon firing, pyrotechnics, ramming and riveting have a deafening effect measured in terms of the temporary threshold shift (TTS, in dB), the TTS decay time (in min) and the integrated restitution (IR) of TTS. At equivalent acoustic load levels, it was found by measuring all three parameters in test subjects that shorter (and more frequent) pulses cause significantly more deafening. After 5ms pulses, the decay time was as long as 10h. A doubling of pulse frequency causes far more deafening than a doubling of pulse duration. Thus, acoustic loads cannot reliably be expressed as a noise dose (dB) or recalculated by using equivalent energies, and the noise exposure guidelines should be revised accordingly.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Aug. 1999, Vol.53, No.2, p.83-94. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 00-520 Lankford J.E., Meinke D., Hotopp M.
Need for hearing loss prevention for agricultural aerial application service personnel
Agricultural aerial applicator services utilize fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters which generate noise levels that may produce noise-induced hearing loss in pilots and support personnel. Cockpit noise levels (Leq) ranged from 98 to 110dBA. Pilot noise doses for fixed-wing aircraft averaged 954% and for helicopters averaged 407%. The hearing sensitivity of 12 pilots surveyed was worse than would be predicted for individuals in a non-noise exposed environment. It is recommended that all pilots working in agricultural aerial applications be included in an effective hearing conservation programme. Some support personnel (chemical handlers) might also be at risk and should be considered for the programme.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.2, p.25-39. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 00-224 Skogstad M., Haldorsen T., Kjuus H.
Pulmonary and auditory function among experienced construction divers: A cross-sectional study
Pulmonary and auditory function was studied in 26 experienced construction divers. Assessment of lung function included dynamic lung volume and flow and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (Tlco). Auditory examination measured air conduction thresholds in a cabin. Results showed a significantly higher mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 6.01L in divers compared with 5.67L in controls, and an alveolar volume (VA) of 7.74L in divers compared with 7.35L in controls. There was a non-significant reduction in forced mid-expiratory flow rate and a significant reduction in forced expiratory flow rate at 50% of FVC among divers (4.69L compared with 5.76L among controls). There were no differences in FEV, and Tlco between the two groups. Divers showed reduced auditory function in their left ear compared with their right ear in the 3kHz and 8kHz range. Results indicate that long-term construction diving may be associated with changes in pulmonary function with a tendency to reduction in small airway conductance, and that the left ear may be more vulnerable than the right ear to hearing impairment.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 1999, Vol.70, No.7, p.644-649. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 99-978 Matéfi L.
Prevention of hearing damage among musicians
Gehörschadenprophylaxe bei Musikern [in German]
Prophylaxie des lésions de l'ouïe chez les musiciens [in French]
Topics: age-linked differences; hearing loss; hearing protection; musicians; noise level measurement; noise level; sex-linked differences.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, Spring 1999, No.71, p.5-9. Illus.


CIS 01-861 Engel Z., Augustyńska D.
Noise control '98 - Proceedings - 2-4 June, 1998
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Noise Control held in Krynica, Poland, 2-4 June 1998. Main topics covered: general problems (noise assessment, noise and vibration control, detection threshold of low-frequency pure and complex tones, high-frequency hearing loss in percussion players); sources of noise at work and occupational exposure; environmental noise; transportation noise (aircraft, tramways, highways); tire and road noise measurement; protection against noise (sound absorption); active noise and vibration control; economic aspects of noise control; protection against hand-arm vibration; noise measurement and analysis.
Central Institute for Labour protection, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1998. 650p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-217 Richoux C., Loth D., Teyssou M.
Impact on hearing of the exposure of classical orchestra musicians to sound
Conséquences auditives de l'exposition sonore de musiciens d'orchestres de musique classique [in French]
Topics: age-linked differences; hearing loss; musicians; noise charts; noise dosimetry; noise level measurement; noise level; questionnaire survey; theatres; vibration.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1998, No.76, p.351-357. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 99-727 Order No.608 of 5 Aug. 1998 approving a technical standard on neuro-sensorial hearing loss caused by continuous exposure to high levels of occupational noise [Brazil]
Ordem de serviço n°608 de 5 de agosto de 1998 - aprova norma técnica sobre perda auditiva neurossensorial por exposição continuada a níveis elevados de pressão sonora de origem ocupacional [in Portuguese]
Topics: audiometric tests; Brazil; diagnosis; hearing loss; hearing protection; length of exposure; medical examinations; medical treatment; noise; risk factors; sound attenuation; standard.
Diário Oficial, 19 Aug. 1998, No.158, p.44-53. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 99-893 Fernandes Teixera C., de Fátima Brandão M.
Effects of pesticides on the auditory system of agricultural workers
Efeitos dos agrotóxicos no sistema auditivo dos trabalhadores rurais [in Portuguese]
Topics: agriculture; audiometric tests; Brazil; developing countries; hearing disorders; hearing loss; pesticide poisoning; pesticides; questionnaire survey.
Revista CIPA, Jan. 1998, Vol.19, No.218, p.46-54. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 99-642 Solecki L.
Occupational hearing loss among selected farm tractor operators employed on large multiproduction farms in Poland
45 farm tractor drivers from multiproduction farms were examined in order to estimate the degree of occupational hearing loss. Hearing loss of over 20dB was noted for 56% of operators within the highest frequency range of 3, 4 and 6 kHz, and for 22% of operators in the medium frequency range of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz. No hearing loss was observed in the control group. In the group of operators under 35 years of age a statistically significant correlation was observed between hearing loss and the length of employment in agriculture, whereas in the group of workers over 35 years of age hearing loss was more strongly correlated with age, although this was not statistically significant. Results confirmed that detected hearing loss among operators of farm tractors was caused by exposure to occupational noise on farms. Topics: age-linked differences; agricultural operations; audiometric tests; epidemiologic study; hearing loss; hearing threshold; length of service; noise level; noise; Poland; sound frequency; tractors.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol.11, No.1, p.69-80. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 99-630 Reilly M.J., Rosenman K.D., Kalinowski D.J.
Occupational noise-induced hearing loss surveillance in Michigan
From 1992-1997, 1378 individuals with occupational noise-induced hearing loss were reported to the Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services and interviewed about their exposures to noise at work. Over 70% of workplace noise exposure was in manufacturing, where approximately 46% of individuals reported that the most recent company at which they worked did not provide regular hearing testing. 96% of construction workers had no regular hearing testing at their most recent job, although hearing protection such as earplugs or earmuffs was provided for approximately half of these jobs. Of the 43 companies where state enforcement inspections were conducted, 23 had noise levels above 85dBA, and 17 of those had either no hearing conservation programme or had one that was cited as incomplete. The surveillance system identified workplaces with hazardous noise levels and no hearing protection programme, thereby protecting similarly exposed workers from further noise exposure and hearing loss. Topics: audiometric tests; construction industry; enforcement; hearing loss; hearing protection; hearing threshold; job-exposure relation; labour inspection; manufacturing industries; Michigan; noise level; noise; survey; USA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.40, No.8, p.667-674. 11 ref.

CIS 99-629 Ishii E.K., Talbott E.O.
Race/ethnicity differences in the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss in a group of metal fabricating workers
In a retrospective study of cumulative noise exposure and hearing loss in 216 white and 70 non-white male metal fabricating workers, non-whites reported a higher proportion of time using hearing protection, while whites had a slightly higher number of years worked and a substantially greater average decibel hearing loss. After adjusting for years of employment, race/ethnicity was the major-effect variable. Occupational noise exposure alone does not account for the racial hearing differences. Topics: audiometric tests; exposure evaluation; hearing level; hearing loss; hearing protection; hearing threshold; length of exposure; long-term study; metalworking industry; race-linked differences.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.40, No.8, p.661-666. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 99-272 Lusk S.L., Kerr M.J., Kauffman S.A.
Use of hearing protection and perceptions of noise exposure and hearing loss among construction workers
Topics: construction industry; deafness; exposure evaluation; hearing loss; hearing protection; noise; perceived noise level; questionnaire survey; subjective assessment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1998, Vol.59, No.7, p.466-470. 21 ref.

CIS 98-1712 Nguyen A.L., Nguyen T.C., Le Van T., Hoang M.H., Nguyen S., Jonai H., Villanueva M.B.G., Matsuda S., Sotoyama M., Sudo A.
Noise levels and hearing ability of female workers in a textile factory in Vietnam
Topics: age-linked differences; audiometric tests; epidemiologic study; hearing loss; hearing threshold; noise level; textile industry; Vietnam D.R.; weaving; women.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1998, Vol.36, No.1, p.61-65. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 98-542 Noise: Danger to health
Al-dajīj - Khatar (ala al-sihha [in Arabic]
Topics: deafness; earmuffs; health hazards; hearing conservation; hearing protection; noise level; noise; personal protective equipment; safety and health training; training manuals; training material; Tunisia.
Institut de santé et de sécurité au travail, 5 bd. M. Khaznadar, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 8p. Illus.


CIS 99-1531 Marcuccilli A., Detry H., Faure M., Hamel F., Metras E., Saenz. F., Campion S.
Analysis of the risk of occurrence of pulmonary and acute and subacute ear, nose and throat effects in woodworking shops - Data from January 1994 to January 1996
Analyse des risques de manifestations pulmonaires et ORL aiguës et subaiguës en ateliers de menuiserie bois - Receuil des données de janvier 1994 à janvier 1996 [in French]
Topics: airborne dust; chips; cross-sectional study; diseases of ear and mastoid process; diseases of nose and sinuses; dust measurement; exotic woods; exposure evaluation; hazard evaluation; laryngeal diseases; one-second forced expiratory volume; questionnaire survey; respiratory diseases; risk factors; ventilatory capacity; wood dust; wood; woodworking industry.
Centre Interservices de Santé et de Médecine du travail en Entreprise, 31, rue Médéric, 75832 Paris Cedex 17, France, 1997. 55p. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 99-974 Malchaire J., Piette A.
A comprehensive strategy for the assessment of noise exposure and risk of hearing impairment
A comprehensive strategy is presented for the evaluation of daily noise exposure level and the assessment of risk of hearing impairment. The risk is defined as the probability for a worker with a given noise exposure history of developing hearing deficit above a given threshold. The strategy uses the concepts of homogeneous groups of exposure and stationarity interval, defined as the period over which the exposure distribution is the same for the members of the group. The number of workers to sample, the number of samples to take for each worker and their duration are discussed. Semi-random sampling is recommended, excluding periods with low noise exposure. Formulae are presented to estimate the daily noise exposure level, its standard error and the corresponding risk of hearing impairment. Topics: exposure evaluation; hazard evaluation; hearing loss; length of exposure; noise level measurement; noise level; prediction.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1997, Vol.41, No.4, p.467-484. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 99-593 Morata T.C., Fiorini A.C., Fischer F.M., Colacioppo S., Wallingford K.M., Krieg E.F., Dunn D.E., Gozzoli L., Padrão M.A., Cesar C.L.G.
Toluene-induced hearing loss among rotogravure printing workers
124 workers exposed to various levels of noise and to an organic solvent mixture of toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanol underwent pure-tone audiometry and immittance audiometry testing. 49 percent had hearing loss. Of the numerous variables analyzed, age and hippuric acid (the biological marker for toluene in urine) met the significance level criteria for their contribution to the development of hearing loss. The odds ratio estimates for hearing loss were 1.07 times greater for each increment of one year of age and 1.76 times greater for each gram of hippuric acid per gram of creatinine. The findings suggest that exposure to toluene has a toxic effect on the auditory system. Topics: age-linked differences; audiometric tests; toluene; ethyl acetate; ethanol; cross-sectional study; determination in air; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; hearing loss; length of exposure; noise level; noise; organic solvents; photogravure printing; synergism.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1997, Vol.23, No.4, p.289-298. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 98-1717 Bariod J., Théry B.
Medical effects of being suspended in harnesses
Medizinische Auswirkungen des Hängens in Sicherheitsgurten [in German]
Topics: arrhythmia; cold stress; experimental determination; France; harnesses; human experiments; protection against falls from heights; pulse rate; shock following injury; unconsciousness; vertigo.
Die BG, Jan. 1997, No.1, p.8-11. 16 ref.

CIS 98-892 Gunderson E., Moline J., Catalano P.
Risks of developing noise-induced hearing loss in employees of urban music clubs
Topics: hearing loss; hearing protection; musicians; noise dosimetry; noise level; noise; questionnaire survey; tinnitus; USA; waiters, waitresses and bartenders.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1997, Vol.31, No.1, p.75-79. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 97-1682 Irwin J.
Occupational noise-induced hearing loss
This short report outlines a method for the clinical assessment of employees' hearing based on audiometric testing in the workplace. Guidance is given on carrying out the tests and on the interpretation of results.
Occupational Medicine, July 1997, Vol.47, No.5, p.313-315. 19 ref.


CIS 99-1328 Alvarez Brime C., López Muñoz G.
Workplace exposure to noise
La exposición laboral al ruido [in Spanish]
Topics: comment on standard; hearing damage risk criteria; hearing loss; hearing protection; noise control; noise level measurement; noise; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1996. 52p. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 97-268 Schardt F.W., Moser L., Rosenfeld J.
The effects of noise and physical workload on the temporary threshold shift (TLS)
Wirkungen von Lärm und körperlicher Arbeit auf die temporäre Lautheitsverschiebung (TLS) [in German]
The effect of exposure to noise with sound pressure level of 80dB and frequency 4kHz alone and in combination with 20 minutes of physical exercise at 40% VO2 max on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and on the hearing sensitivity of 12 healthy male volunteers was studied. A loudness scaling hearing test was used to measure the changes in hearing sensitivity. The combined exposure to noise and physical exercise significantly changed the systolic blood pressure by 5mmHg. It increased the diastolic pressure by 3.5mmHg. Hearing sensitivity decreased more than by noise or physical exercise alone. The decrease in hearing sensitivity after the combined exposure lasted more than 240 seconds.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, July 1996, Vol.31, No.7, p.276-280. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 96-2274 Yearout R., Kwiatkowski C., Lisnerski D., Sprague K., Davis S.
Continuous exposure to noisy work environments does affect preferred leisure noise levels
This is a two-phase study comparing leisure noise preferences for workers who were exposed to either a 'loud' (greater than or equal to 85dB(A)) or 'not loud' (< 85dB(A)) work environment. Phase 1 examined 110 subjects' noise level preferences that were recorded before and after work during a one-day period. Phase 2 recorded 12 additional subjects' preferences for five consecutive days. Results determined that leisure noise levels prior to work were not significantly different. Those exposed to the 'loud' environment preferred noise levels significantly higher than their noise levels before work. The authors' conclusion is that 'loud' work environments and consecutive daily exposure to these environments do influence preferred leisure noise levels. It is essential for any organization safety awareness programme to educate employees about hearing loss due to leisure as well as work activities.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 1996, Vol.17, p.499-511. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 96-1874 Jones C.M.
Occupational hearing loss and vibration induced disorders
This article is a synopsis of information on the medical aspects of occupational hearing loss and vibration-induced disorders. The incidence of hearing loss in the United Kingdom is reported (an estimated 13,000 received compensation benefits in 1992). The causes of deafness, its clinical presentation and diagnostic procedures together with audiometric screening in industry are summarized. The calculation of compensation benefits for disability from hearing loss is explained. The procedure for assessing noise exposure and the prevention of hearing loss, i.e. the appropriate ear protectors are described. Hand-arm vibration syndrome is presented together with its classification (Stockholm Workshop Scale). Diagnosis, prognosis and risk assessment aspects are also surveyed.
British Medical Journal, July 1996, Vol.313, p.223-226. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 96-835 Kuo W., Bhattacharya A., Succop P., Linz D.
Postural stability assessment in sewer workers
In a study to assess central nervous system effects in workers at a wastewater treatment plant, postural stability was measured in 28 workers performing postural sway tests on a microcomputer-based force platform. Exposure to airborne organic solvents was determined by means of a photo-ionization detector. A positive correlation was demonstrated between postural sway and organic solvent exposure. The workers also had increased postural sway compared with a nonexposed population. Given the very low exposures measured, it is possible that solvent exposure may not be the causative agent, but that the solvent levels may correlate with some other causative exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1996, Vol.38, No.1, p.27-34. 23 ref.

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