Carbon dioxide - 61 entries found
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Anvisningar nr. 19:4, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Stockholm, Mar. 1975.
Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing plant - Directives for shipyards
Kolsyresläckningsanläggningar - Varvsanvisningar [in Swedish]
These directives apply to shipbuilding, repair, maintenance and alteration work and testing of vessels equipped with carbon dioxide fire extinguishing plant. Leakages of this gas may cause asphyxiation by displacing oxygen in confined spaces. Safety rules for shipbuilding, alterations, design and layout, ship repairs in dockyards and sea trials (safety locking of CO2 plant during all structural work, display of notices of locking for safety, custody of keys, responsibility, etc.). A model certificate of locking for safety and unlocking is appended.
Liber Förlag, Fack, 16289 Vällingby, Sweden, 1975. 11p. Price: Swe-cr.5.25.
Where the hazard lies in fires - Combustion gases and their effects
Wo liegen die Gefahren beim Brennen - Brandgase und ihre Auswirkungen [in German]
This article illustrates by examples the dangerous effects of CO, CO2 and lack of oxygen in the event of fire, and examines other toxic gases given off by burning polyacrylonitrile, wool, polyvinyl chloride, etc. and their physiological effects. CO and CO2 are the most dangerous combustion gases, because they are the first to be given off and their presence is undetectable. In comparison the other gases given off play a relatively minor role. Tables: ignition temperatures of natural and synthetic materials; decomposition temperatures for polymers; smoke density from various substances.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, May 1975, Vol.25, No.5, p.133-139. 6 ref.
Inspection and periodical checks of stationary carbon-dioxide extinguishing systems
Eftersyn og kontrol af stationære kulsyreslukningsanlæg [in Danish]
Carbon-dioxide extinguishing systems present a serious hazard in the event of leaks or other failures, because the carbon-dioxide concentrations required for fire extinguishing are rapidly fatal for man. The article recommends that checklists should be prepared for every system, and lists rules to be observed when designing new systems or changing existing ones. Procedures are set out for daily and periodic checks and for technical inspections at annual and 5-year intervals.
Dansk Brandværn, Nov. 1974, Vol.5, No.11, p.3-7. Illus.
Barginovskij A.D., Kuz'mina T.A., Beljakov V.B.
Rapid determination of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of mines by means of portable analysers
Ėkspressnyj analiz rudničnoj i šahtnoj atmosfery na kislorod i dvuokis' ugleroda portativnymi analizatorami [in Russian]
Description of an automatic analyser developed by a mining institute of the USSR for the rapid determination of oxygen and carbon dioxide by polarography and potentiometry. The gases for analysis are collected by an electrochemical probe with a polymer membrane, selective for the air constituents.
Gornyj žurnal, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.69-72. Illus. 6 ref.
CO, CO2, SO2 - Occurrence, effects on man, and determination
CO, CO2, SO2 - Vorkommen, Wirkung auf den Menschen und Messung [in German]
Industrial sources of these gases are listed, and the acceptable and dangerous concentrations in the air are indicated. Reference is made to the detector tubes available.
Drägerheft, July-Sep. 1974, No.297, p.6-11. Illus. 6 ref.
Taking the sand out of blasting.
Account of experience gained in a USA aircraft building company which uses a volatile blasting agent - dry ice - instead of sand to prepare surfaces for painting. The dry-ice pellets, which are made by extrusion at -32°C and a pressure of 23ata (325psia), are also suitable for cleaning concrete surfaces and for shot-peening metal surfaces in addition to cleaning them. Considerations on cost and silicosis prevention.
American Machinist, 14 Oct. 1974, Vol.118, No.21, p.67.
Carrol H.B., Armstrong F.E.
Accuracy and precision of several portable gas detectors.
Commercially available portable instruments for detection of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane were evaluated for performance at 50% and 80% relative humidities and 75°F in simulated industrial work atmospheres. The instruments were gas detection tubes (length-of-stain and colour intensity), catalytic detector, liquid absorption detectors, paramagnetic oxygen detector, and "pelement" or hot-wire methane detectors. The gas concentrations were 0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 times the threshold limit value. The test and standard instruments were correlated by plotting regression, prediction and confidence limits and correlation coefficients for each system. The relative humidity was not significant. There was considerable deviation in detection precision especially at lower concentrations. The main inconsistencies in toxic gas concentrations determined with the length-of-stain tubes resulted from the observer's interpretations rather than from the tubes. Necessary precautions for accurate results include zero checks, calibration, and standardisation at ambient temperatures.
Report of Investigations 7811, Bureau of Mines, Publications Distribution Branch, 4800 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA, 1973.
Fire prevention and protection - Carbon dioxide in fire extinguisher systems.
One of the hazards associated with the use of CO2 in fire extinguishers is the production of very high electrical charges during release, which may ignite explosive mixtures if such are present. Measurements showed that small solid particles of CO2 are produced containing static electricity with voltages of 10-20 kV and potential spark energies easily capable of igniting the lower paraffins. Nitrogen is preferred to CO2 in fire-fighting systems since it does not produce solid particles when releasing the pressure and the amount of static electricity is less pronounced, but the use of solid CO2 generators is suggested as a safe way to replace air by a non-explosive mixture in a reaction vessel.
Quarterly Safety Summary of the British Chemical Industry Safety Council, Apr.-June 1973, Vol.44, No.174, p.10. 1 ref.
Tschumatschenko A.M., Sasuchin I.N., Tschernowa J.I., Polandow N.D., Wagner D., Haderk G.
Measurement of the amount of oxygen-poor air in mines and continuous remote control monitoring of the oxygen concentration at the face
Bestimmung der Menge der sauerstoffarmen Luft in den Grubenbauen und die kontinuierliche automatische Fernkontrolle der Sauerstoffkonzentration vor Ort [in German]
The increase in CO2 concentrations and the corresponding decrease in oxygen concentrations in an East German copper mine led the mine management to halt production and to carry out a study and take countermeasures. The cause of the phenomenon seems to be the bacteriological oxidation of pyrite and the reaction of sulfuric acid with carbonates. A diagram illustrating the air-sampling technique and a table of results are given. Calculation of the ventilation required according to CO2 content. Diagram and description of an automatic installation for the continuous remote control monitoring of the oxygen concentration in air (gas analyser and flashing light warning of hazardous concentrations).
Neue Bergbautechnik, Dec. 1973, Vol.3, No.12, p.924-929. Illus. 8 ref.
Standard for carbon dioxide extinguishing systems.
This standard lays down minimum requirements for the design, installation, operation and maintenance of CO2 fire extinguishing systems. Chapters are devoted to: general information and requirements; total flooding systems; local application systems; hand hose line systems; standpipe systems and mobile supply. Appendix A explains and illustrates the development of some of the principles on which the standard is based. Appendix B gives typical examples of how fire hazards may be protected with fixed CO2 extinguishing systems.
NFPA No. 12-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 90 p. Illus. Price: US-$2.25.
Installation and repair of CO2 fire-extinguishing systems
Montering og reparasjon av CO2-anlegg for brannslukking [in Norwegian]
These rules were made under the Norwegian Workers' Protection Act of 1956 and entered into force on 19 Oct. 1973. They must be observed to prevent unintentional release of CO2 when installing, revising or repairing CO2 fire-extinguishing systems in buildings and on board ship.
Verneregler Nr.8, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Oslo-Dep., Norway, Apr. 1973. 5p. Gratis.
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