Carbon monoxide - 248 entries found
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Carbon monoxide, industry and performance - Third Joint Meeting of the British Occupational Hygiene Society, the Ergonomics Research Society, and the Society of Occupational Medicine.
This Meeting, held at Swansea in Sep. 1974, covered the following aspects: arterial disease among blast furnace workers (Jones J.G., Sinclair A.); threshold limit values (TLVs) under conditions of continuous exposure (closed environment of nuclear submarines) (Davies D.M.); discussion of TLV for CO (Silk S.F.); methods of CO determination in air (Harrison N.); the infrared gas analysis (Luft K.F.); electrochemical CO sensors based on the metallised membrane electrode (Bergman I.); solid state detectors (Firth J.G., Jones A., Jones T.A.); measurement of CO in blood (comparative review of methods) (Commins B.T.); warning levels and alarm instrumentation (Jones J.G.); also: ergonomics of aircrew respiratory apparatus (Bolton C.B.).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1975, Vol.18, No.1, p.1-90. Illus. 200 ref.
Drasche H., Funk L., Herbolsheimer R.
Gas chromatography in blood carbon monoxide monitoring
Gaschromatographisches Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Kohlenoxidgehaltes im Blut [in German]
Description of a gas chromatography method for monitoring blood carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) levels in a very small quantity (100mcl) of capillary blood: reagents and apparatus, procedures, calculation of results. To calculate HbCO content, an aliquot portion of water-diluted blood is saturated with CO; this saturation obviates the need to determine the haemoglobin or iron blood levels.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, May 1975, Vol.25, No.5, p.129-132. Illus. 7 ref.
Where the hazard lies in fires - Combustion gases and their effects
Wo liegen die Gefahren beim Brennen - Brandgase und ihre Auswirkungen [in German]
This article illustrates by examples the dangerous effects of CO, CO2 and lack of oxygen in the event of fire, and examines other toxic gases given off by burning polyacrylonitrile, wool, polyvinyl chloride, etc. and their physiological effects. CO and CO2 are the most dangerous combustion gases, because they are the first to be given off and their presence is undetectable. In comparison the other gases given off play a relatively minor role. Tables: ignition temperatures of natural and synthetic materials; decomposition temperatures for polymers; smoke density from various substances.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, May 1975, Vol.25, No.5, p.133-139. 6 ref.
Köhl U., Lob M.
Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning hazards in garages - Results of an investigation in the Lausanne area
Risques d'oxycarbonisme chronique dans les garages - Résultats d'une enquête dans la région lausannoise. [in French]
A survey was carried out in 7 garages with varying working conditions. Conclusions: a significant correlation exists between CO concentration in the atmosphere and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), on the one hand, and the number of cigarattes smoked per day and COHb, on the other; symptoms appear more frequently in badly ventilated garages; determination of the COHb level among the staff as a whole, combined with case history studies, generally enable the chronic CO poisoning hazard to be evaluated.
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift - Journal suisse de médecine, 11 Jan. 1975, Vol.105, No.2, p.50-56. 44 ref.
Hazard of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning in garages - Results of an investigation in the Lausanne region
Les risques d'oxycarbonisme chronique dans les garages - Résultats d'une enquête dans la région lausannoise. [in French]
MD thesis. Physiopathological and clinical data concerning chronic CO poisoning, with a literature survey, are followed by the results of an investigation carried out in 5 garages to determine the relation between ventilation, CO concentration and incidence of chronic CO poisoning. CO levels were monitored continuously and recorded with a portable MSA apparatus, and daily and hourly average levels were calculated. Garage staff replied to a questionnaire and underwent a medical examination (including a digital blood sample for haematocrit and COHb measurement). The correlation between atmospheric CO concentration and COHb, on the one hand, and between number of cigarettes smoked daily and COHb, on the other, is statistically significant.
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de médecine, Institut de médecine sociale et préventive, Lausanne, Switzerland, 1974. 53p. Illus. 81 ref.
Pankow D., Ponsold W.
Combined effects on the organism of carbon monoxide and other biologically active noxae
Kombinationswirkungen von Kohlenmonoxid mit anderen biologisch aktiven Schadfaktoren auf den Organismus [in German]
The biological effects of carbon monoxide combined with the following substances and agents are reported: carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sodium nitrite, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, methane, benzene, iodine acetate, cholesterol, benzopyrene, barbiturates and other drugs, insecticides and physical agents (ambient temperature, air pressure, ionising radiation, noise, vibration).
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Sep. 1974, Vol.20, No.9, p.561-571. Illus. 138 ref.
Butt J., Davies G.M., Jones J.G., Sinclair A.
Carboxyhaemoglobin levels in blast furnace workers.
Carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) levels in the expired air before and after a work shift were estimated over 5 days at an integrated steelworks in 100 blast furnace workers and a control group of 87 men without CO exposure. The method proved simple, accurate, and very suitable for this type of investigation. The findings of a 1962 study, showing that irrespective of smoking habits blast furnace workers had significant increases in HbCO levels in end-of-shift samples as against controls, were confirmed. It was deduced that similar exposure to small CO concentrations occurred over the intervening period. Smokers had HbCO levels of 5% or more before exposure. Difficulties arising from the NIOSH recommendations of a time-weighted average (8h) of 35ppm CO are considered in the light of the findings obtained.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1974, Vol.17, No.1, p.57-63. 10 ref.
Chaiken R.F., Cook E.B., Ruhe T.C.
Toxic fumes from explosives: Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixtures.
Experimental and theoretical studies were carried out on prilled and pulverised ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) mixtures to quantify the effects of stoichiometric composition, non-ideal detonation behaviour, and expansion volume on production of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide fumes. Results included: (a) the nitrogen oxide fume amounts agreed with those from standard Crawshaw-Jones results; (b) the theoretical calculations based on an equilibrium detonation code (called TIGER) predicted production of toxic fumes; (c) post-detonation oxidation of carbon monoxide causes difficulties for extrapolation of laboratory measurements to mine conditions; (d) the detonation velocity decay rate is a useful experimental parameter for correlating toxic fumes production with non-ideal detonation behaviour.
Report of investigations 7867, Bureau of Mines, 4800 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA, 1974. 24p. Illus. 24 ref.
Atmospheric sample pumps - A possible source of error in total hydrocarbon, methane, and carbon monoxide measurement.
Errors in air pollutant measurements due to the use of pressure sampling pumps are discussed. Modifications recommended are use of a vacuum pump, toggle valve, and by-pass in line remote from the instrument.
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, Oct. 1974, Vol.24, No.8, p.983-984. Illus.
Parker C.D., Strong R.B.
Evaluation of portable, direct-reading carbon monoxide meters.
An investigation on 6 types of marketed portable CO meters sensitive to CO concentrations in the 10-500ppm range was carried out under contract for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The investigation covered: market survey; accuracy of manufacturer's calibration; performance (humidity and temperature effects, interferences, etc.) and physical characteristics; recommended construction performance and standards; recommended quality control standards.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-106, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Post Office Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA, Sep. 1974. 148p. Illus. 3 ref.
Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R.R., Roels H.
Comparison of three techniques for carboxyhaemoglobin determination.
In order to select a precise method for determining low carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) concentrations, the microdiffusion technique of Vignoli et al. (1960), the CO selective infrared absorption technique of Boudène et al. (1973), and the spectrophotometric technique of Commins and Lawther (1965) were compared. The experiments were performed with human and cow blood. The absolute differences found between the results obtained with the 3 techniques are small and whichever is used, the results are comparable. However, the Commins and Lawther technique has several advantages: sensitivity below 1% HbCO, blood volume as small as 10µl, results within 30min, one calibration only.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 1974, Vol.33, No.4, p.269-275. 13 ref.
CO, CO2, SO2 - Occurrence, effects on man, and determination
CO, CO2, SO2 - Vorkommen, Wirkung auf den Menschen und Messung [in German]
Industrial sources of these gases are listed, and the acceptable and dangerous concentrations in the air are indicated. Reference is made to the detector tubes available.
Drägerheft, July-Sep. 1974, No.297, p.6-11. Illus. 6 ref.
Rapid method of determination of carbon monoxide in the air of industrial premises
Bystryj metod opredelenija okisi ugleroda v vozduhe proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij [in Russian]
Description of a rapid colorimetric method based on the reduction by carbon monoxide of the silver contained in ammoniac solutions of silver nitrate. The sensitivity is 0.1mg per sample (5-6l of air). Aldehydes and hydrogen sulfide do not affect the assay.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.54-56. Illus. 4 ref.
Capellini A., Tomasini M., Limonta A.
Clinical and ECG investigations in subjects with acute carbon monoxide poisoning
Indagine clinico-elettrocardiografica in soggetti acutamente intossicati da ossido di carbonio [in Italian]
Research carried out on more than 100 workers hospitalised for acute CO poisoning at the Milan Clinica del Lavoro and some 50 subjects undergoing treatment at the Milan polyclinic. The purpose of the research was to investigate the incidence and frequency of myocardial and coronary impairment in cases of acute CO poisoning. The authors concluded from their clinical and ECG findings that myocardial and coronary impairment in subjects suffering from acute CO poisoning was rarely serious or irreversible unless there was preexistent coronary disease.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1974, Vol.65, No.7-8, p.285-292. 31 ref.
Pankow D., Ponsold W., Grimm I.
Potentiation of the hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride by carbon monoxide
Zur Potenzierung der Tetrachlorkohlenstoff-Hepatotoxizität durch Kohlenmonoxid [in German]
Experiments with rats have shown that the hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is enhanced by carbon monoxide. The mechanism of this potentiation has not been demonstrated; it is probably linked to the functional capacity of the adrenal glands. CO contamination, frequent among heavy smokers, is an aggravating factor to the potentiation hazard for CCl4 exposed persons.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, 1974, Vol.29, No.18, p.853-856. 32 ref.
Ministry of Public Health and Social Security (Ministère de la santé publique et de la sécurité sociale), Paris.
Circular No.22 SS of 3 May 1974 on application of the Decree No.74-354 of 26 April 1974 supplementing the tables of occupational diseases
Circulaire n°22 SS du 3 mai 1974 relative à l'application du décret n°74-354 du 26 avril 1974 complétant les tableaux des maladies professionnelles. [in French]
This circular gives details of diseases due to carbon monoxide, added in the Decree of 26 Apr. (CIS 74-2091) to the schedules of occupational diseases, and of the characteristics of hazard exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1974, No.76, Note No.920-76-74, p.440-441.
Miller A.T., Woods J.J.
Effects of acute carbon monoxide exposure on the energy metabolism of rat brain and liver.
Exposure of rats to carbon monoxide (500 or 1,000ppm in air for 2.5h) reduced the surface oxygen tension of liver to zero but brain oxygen tension only by one-half. Metabolic changes were similarly much greater in liver than in brain but were less in both organs than might have been expected from the magnitude of the surface oxygen tension changes. The validity of assessing oxygen availability from surface oxygen tension measurements is questioned.
Environmental Research, Aug. 1974, Vol.8, No.1, p.107-111. Illus. 5 ref.
The management of acute carbon monoxide intoxication.
The treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning is primarily directed towards dissociation of CO from haemoglobin and simultaneous reassociation of oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin. Treatment is dependent upon the degree of carboxyhaemoglobin formation which can be readily assessed on the basis of clinical observation. The diagnosis and specific treatment of this condition are dealt with and summarised in tabular form.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1974, Vol.16, No.10, p.662-664. Illus. 4 ref.
Ogawa M., Katsurada K., Sugimoto T., Sone S.
Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.
Clinical study aimed at classifying the pulmonary radiographs of persons with acute CO poisoning and at elucidating pulmonary oedema development. Chest radiographs and arterial oxygen partial pressures were studied in 61 patients with acute CO poisoning. 22 patients showed abnormalities on chest X-rays taken at the time of admission; 4 of these had clinical symptoms of pulmonary oedema. Possible mechanisms of pulmonary oedema development are discussed.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 10 July 1974, Vol.33, No.2, p.131-138. Illus. 15 ref.
Coret L., Van de Hoek C., Vroege D.
Carbon monoxide problems when unloading car ferries
Koolmonoxyde-problemen bij het lossen van autoschepen [in Dutch]
Results of carbon monoxide monitoring carried out on 5 car ferries. CO concentrations in the ship holds occasionally exceeded the TLV of 50ppm and reached 200 and 250ppm on ships with inadequate ventilation. The carboxyhaemoglobin levels determined in 89 dock workers were proportional to the CO concentrations and reached 12.6% in one case. Smoking during working hours had a noticeable influence on carboxyhaemoglobin levels. Carbon monoxide would not be a problem on car ferries if ventilation were adequate and if car queuing were avoided.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 14 June 1974, Vol.52, No.12, p.427-431. Illus.
Decree No.74-354 dated 26 April 1974 to supplement the schedule of occupational diseases annexed to Decree No.46-2959 dated 31 December 1946
Décret n°74-354 du 26 avril 1974 complétant les tableaux des maladies professionnelles annexés au décret n°46-2959 du 31 décembre 1946 [in French]
This decree, which entered into force on 26 Apr. 1974, adds a new table (No.64) to the schedule of occupational diseases. This table concerns carbon monoxide poisoning. The processes which may involve exposure to this substance are listed.
Journal officiel de la République française, Ministry of Public Health and Social Security (Ministère de la santé publique et de la sécurité sociale) and Ministry of Labour, Employment and Population (Ministère du travail de l'emploi et de la population), Paris. Paris, France, 3 May 1974, No.105, p.4726.
Thomsen H.K., Kjeldsen K.
Threshold limit for carbon monoxide-induced myocardial damage - An electron microscopic study in rabbits.
Rabbits were exposed to carbon monoxide at varying concentrations and for varying lengths of time in order to estimate the threshold limit value for myocardial damage. Degenerative changes were seen in rabbits exposed for more than 4h to CO concentrations higher than 100ppm. This high sensitivity of the myocardium to CO is explained by the combination of the binding of CO to myoglobin and the prevailing low oxygen tension in the normal myocardium. The study suggests that the CO content in tobacco smoke and in polluted air may be deleterious to persons with ischaemic heart disease. A reevaluation of the recommended threshold limit for industrial CO exposure is proposed.
Archives of Environmental Health, Aug. 1974, Vol.29, No.2, p.73-78. Illus. 21 ref.
Sammons J.H., Coleman R.L.
Firefighters' occupational exposure to carbon monoxide.
36 men from the Oklahoma City Fire Department were investigated and paired with a control group of non-firefighters as to age, weight, height, race, smoking habits and family history of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Blood specimens from each test and control subject were taken and analysed every 28 days throughout a 5-month period. Carboxyhaemoglobin and reduced haemoglobin saturations were measured and serum enzyme activities determined. It was concluded that: (1) the non-smoking firefighter by virtue of his occupation has already achieved the maximum allowable carboxyhaemoglobin concentration; and (2) as a group, the test population manifested changes in enzyme activities indicative of myocardial damage.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1974, Vol.16, No.8, p.543-546. 9 ref.
Poisoning and explosion hazards in motor car repair workshops, garages and car-wash tunnels
Vergiftungs- und Explosionsgefahren in Autoreparaturwerkstätten, -einstellräumen und -waschstrassen [in German]
Risques d'intoxication et d'explosion dans les ateliers de réparation d'automobiles, dans les garages et dans les tunnels de lavage. [in French]
This booklet deals principally, in its first part, with the poisoning hazards of exhaust gases from running engines (composition of exhaust gases, carbon monoxide toxicology and monitoring, ventilation, etc.). The hazards inherent in cleaning engines and engine parts with soluble oils, petrol or chlorinated hydrocarbons and in operating car-wash tunnels are also discussed. The second part deals with explosion hazards and their causes (ignition of air/petrol mixtures by electrical installations, welding, heating or naked flame). Explosive mixtures are especially liable to accumulate in motor-car repair pits.
Schweizerische Blätter für Arbeitssicherheit - Cahiers suisses de la sécurité du travail, Mar. 1974, No.114, 32p. Illus. Gratis.
Poyart C., Bursaux E., Fréminet A.
Pollution of work environments by carbon monoxide - Effect on the blood transport of oxygen
Pollution des ambiances de travail par l'oxyde de carbone - Retentissement sur le transport de l'oxygène par le sang. [in French]
The determination of several parameters (alveolar CO, blood CO, etc.) in 43 persons (20 smokers and 23 nonsmokers) working in underground car parks and garage workshops pointed to a definite risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. In some cases, the cardiac output required to compensate for the effect of the presence of CO in the atmosphere on the blood transport of oxygen was 35% higher than in a person not exposed to CO. The study established a correlation between CO content in alveolar air and in the blood, which may occasionally make blood sampling at workplaces unnecessary.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1974, No.74, Note No.883-74-74, p.91-96. Illus.
Carrol H.B., Armstrong F.E.
Accuracy and precision of several portable gas detectors.
Commercially available portable instruments for detection of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane were evaluated for performance at 50% and 80% relative humidities and 75°F in simulated industrial work atmospheres. The instruments were gas detection tubes (length-of-stain and colour intensity), catalytic detector, liquid absorption detectors, paramagnetic oxygen detector, and "pelement" or hot-wire methane detectors. The gas concentrations were 0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 times the threshold limit value. The test and standard instruments were correlated by plotting regression, prediction and confidence limits and correlation coefficients for each system. The relative humidity was not significant. There was considerable deviation in detection precision especially at lower concentrations. The main inconsistencies in toxic gas concentrations determined with the length-of-stain tubes resulted from the observer's interpretations rather than from the tubes. Necessary precautions for accurate results include zero checks, calibration, and standardisation at ambient temperatures.
Report of Investigations 7811, Bureau of Mines, Publications Distribution Branch, 4800 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA, 1973.
Methods for the determination of HbCO in the blood and of CO in expired air
Metody stanovení COHb v krvi a CO ve vydechovaném vzduchu [in Czech]
Literature survey of the advantages and disadvantages of various methods for the determination of HbCO in blood and CO in air. The correlation between HbCO level and CO concentration in expired air is also discussed.
Pracovní lékařství, Nov. 1973, Vol.25, No.10, p.441-444. 25 ref.
Boudène C., Godin J., Roussel A.
Method for determining CO in blood without prior separate extraction by selective infrared absorption
Méthode de dosage de l'oxyde de carbone dans le sang sans extraction séparée préalable, par absorption sélective dans l'infra-rouge. [in French]
Description of a variation of the method for determining CO blood levels by infrared selective absorption. Its advantage lies in the development of a procedure for cold gas extraction by adding successively haemolysing and haematinising potassium ferrocyanide reagents in a neutral medium. This considerably simplifies the extraction of blood gases and calibration, consequently improving performance as compared with the classical method of hot extraction of blood gases. The new process is convenient for easy application in routine CO blood level determination in epidemiological surveys in the field of occupational or environmental health.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, July-Aug. 1973, Vol.34, No.7-8, p.449-456. Illus. 18 ref.
Volkov S.A., Rastjannikov E.G., Tarasova L.N.
Microdetermination of atmospheric carbon monoxide by gas chromatography
Gazo-hromatografičeskoe opredelenie mikrokoncentracij okisi ugleroda v atmosfernom vozduhe [in Russian]
Description of a method for the determination of small concentrations of carbon monoxide by means of ordinary gas chromatography equipment. The sensitivity limit of the method is 3mg CO/m3 (peak amplitude: 5mm); it could reach 1 mg/m3 if the zero line is very stable. The duration of analysis is 15min (including sample preparation) for an air volume of 300ml.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1973, No.10, p.62-64. 1 ref.
Petržela K., Stýblová V., Pechan J., Janech J., Hošek K.
The health status of workers frequently exposed to high concentrations of carbon monoxide
Sledování zdravotního stavu pracujících s častějsím výskytem zvýšených koncentrací kysličníku uhelnatého ve vzduchu [in Czech]
The authors examined 52 operators of blast-furnace gas blowers exposed for long periods to CO concentrations of up to 0.04 vol.%. In all the workers examined, the COHb level persisted up to 24 h after cessation of exposure. The authors found a higher proportion of pathological neurologic and EEG findings in the exposed subjects when compared to a control group of 47 metallurgists, even after excluding cases of acute poisoning. They also found among them a slowing down of psychomotor reactions to light and sound stimuli and a greater rate of neurotic symptoms, for which acute poisoning is not an adequate explanation. The authors are inclined to attribute these symptoms to the long-term effect of CO concentrations higher than 0.01 vol.%.
Pracovní lékařství, June 1973, Vol.25, No.6, p.229-234. Illus. 31 ref.
Pankow D., Pfordte K., Ponsold W.
Combined effects of carbon tetrachloride and carbon monoxide on the activities of leucine aminopeptidase and transaminases in plasma of rats.
As simultaneous exposure of workers to CO and CCl4 is possible, an investigation was carried out on rats to evaluate the effects of combined administration. Various enzyme activities in plasma were used to assess the degree of hepatotoxicity; carbon monoxide showed distinct potentiating ability.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, June 1973, Vol.25, No.2, p.310-313. 24 ref.
Howlett L., Shephard R.J.
Carbon monoxide as a hazard in aviation.
A review of the occupational hazards presented by carbon monoxide in the aviation environment. Taxi drivers, baggage handlers and aircraft service personnel may encounter very high concentrations. Aircrews are exposed to lower concentrations but because of synergistic stresses and severe task demands are at higher risk. Exposure should not exceed 40 ppm for 1 h, or 15 ppm for 8 h. Methods of modifying operations to meet this standard are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1973, Vol.15, No.11, p.874-877. 60 ref.
Klimková-Deutschová E., Jandová D., Salcmanová Z., Schwartzová K., Titman O., Levý J.
The problem of chronic action of carbon monoxide on the nervous system
K otázce chronického vlivu kysličníku uhelnatého na nervový systém [in Czech]
Results of research carried out on 157 persons occupationally exposed to CO, classified into 6 groups: 1 group of 67 persons with acute poisoning, and 5 groups chronically exposed to weak doses for varying periods of time. The differences between patients with acute poisoning and those with chronic poisoning was only qualitative. The incidence of headache, fatigue, dizziness and emotional disorders was significantly higher in patients with acute poisoning than in those with chronic poisoning. Chronic poisoning was characterised by breathlessness, anorexia, insomnia, extrapyramidal and pyramidal disorders. Neruological and electroencephalographic examinations are recommended for the diagnosis of chronic poisoning.
Československá neurologie a neurochirurgie, Jan. 1973, Vol.36, No.1, p.1-12. Illus. 36 ref.
Fodor G.G., Prajsnar D., Schlipköter H.W.
Endogenous production of CO due to the absorption of halogenated hydrocarbons of the methane series
Endogene CO-Bildung durch inkorporierte Halogenwasserstoffe der Methanreihe [in German]
On the basis of experiments carried out on rats, it is stated that the absorption of dichloromethane leads to the endogenous production of carbon monoxide. After an exposure of only 3 h to a concentration lower than the TLV, a significant increase in carboxyhaemoglobinaemia was found. This endogenous production of carbon monoxide was also determined with diiodomethane, dibromomethane and tribromomethane.
Staub, June 1973, Vol.33, No.6, p.258-259. 5 ref.
Physiopathology and treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning
Physiopathologie et traitement de l'intoxication au monoxyde de carbone. [in French]
CO poisoning interferes with the tissue oxygen supply by decreasing available haemoglobin, altering the oxygen dissociation curve and inhibiting cell respiration after fixation upon myoglobin and the cytochromes. In severe poisoning, cell anoxia develops and induces lactic acidosis. The effects of simple oxygen therapy, carbogen and hyperbaric oxygen are discussed. Several clinical examples demonstrate the advantages of hyperbaric oxygen, which rapidly removes cell anoxia and ensures sufficient oxygenation. In a series of 36 patients, the overall mortality was 5.5%. The 2 deaths which occurred were the result of bronchial aspiration of gastric fluid.
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift - Journal suisse de médecine, 18 Aug. 1973, Vol.103, No.33, p.1161-1166. 13 ref.
Sidor R., Peterson N.H., Burgess W.A.
A carbon monoxide-oxygen sampler for evaluation of fire fighter exposures.
The primary respiratory hazards to fire fighters are high carbon monoxide concentrations and oxygen deficiency. A self-contained personal sampler was developed to monitor fire fighters' exposures to both hazards in actual fires. A hot-wire combustible gas detector was modified to be specific for CO measurements in the range of 0.02 to 10%, and a membrane sensor was used to measure oxygen in the range of 0 to 21%. The data are recorded on a small cassette tape recorder; the output signals of the CO and oxygen circuits are fed alternatively, by means of a timing microswitch assembly, to a voltage-to-frequency converting circuit, and the frequency signals recorded on tape. Tests conducted on various fire gases indicate mean errors of 14.0% and 3.2% in the carbon monoxide and oxygen measurements, respectively. The various advantages presented by this sampler are listed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1973, Vol.34, No.6, p.264-274. Illus. 29 ref.
Steward R.D., Newton P.E., Hosko M.J., Peterson J.E.
Effect of carbon monoxide on time perception.
27 healthy, adult, male and female volunteers were exposed to CO at concentrations of <2, 50, 100, 200 and 500 ppm for periods up to 5 h for the purpose of determining the effect of this gas on time perception. These exposures, which resulted in a range of carboxyhaemoglobin saturations as great as 20%, caused no detrimental effect on man's time-sense.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep. 1973, Vol.27, No.3, p.155-160. Illus. 16 ref.
Füllgrabe E., Degenhard G.
Continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide in an iron and steel works
Surveillance en continu de l'oxyde de carbone dans une usine sidérurgique. [in French]
French translation of an article abstracted under CIS 2121-1972, Cedb Fyq Qfx Ssk Xni: Kontinuierliche Überwachung gasgefährdeter Arbeitsbereiche durch automatische Dräger-CO-Mess-und-Warnanlagen in einem Hüttenwerk. Drägerheft, Lübeck, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1972, No.287, p.21-26. Illus. The works in question used blast-furnace gas (25-30% of carbon monoxide by volume) for industrial heating. In establishing the atmospheric monitoring programme, particular attention was paid to the relationship between carbon monoxide concentration in the respired air and blood carboxyhaemoglobin saturation. The monitoring system incorporates continuous carbon monoxide measuring instruments fitted with warning devices. A comparison of the cost of the installation and the cost of manual air sampling shows that the installation was amortised over a period of 2 years. There have been no gassing accidents since the installation was brought into service and faulty procedures in starting up gas-consuming plant have been detected. Experience obtained is described.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1973, No.72, Note No.856-72-73, p.333-338. Illus.
Smith S., Brandon S.
Morbidity from acute carbon monoxide poisoning at 3-year follow-up
A group of 74 survivors of acute CO poisoning were followed up for an average of 3 yrs. In 8 patients gross neuropsychiatric damage was directly attributable to the poisoning; 3 other patients had committed suicide and 8 had died from other causes. Morbidity and mortality among those deliberately and accidentally poisoned was approximately equal. Of 63 patients 8 showed personality improvement and 21 (33.3%) deterioration; 27 (43%) reported subsequent impairment of memory. Deterioration of personality and memory impairment were highly correlated; level of consciousness on hospitalisation in acute poisoning phase correlated significantly with development of gross neuropsychiatric sequelae. Prompt and efficient treatment are emphasised, plus follow-up in all cases.
British Medical Journal, 10 Feb. 1973, Vol.1, No.5849, p.318-321. 25 ref.
Experimental human exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide
Six human volunteers were exposed to various CO concentrations ranging from 1000ppm for 10min to 35,600ppm for 45s. The experimental procedure and the results are presented and discussed in detail (blood and breath analyses, subjective and cardiovascular responses, electroencephalographic records, visual evoked responses). CO was absorbed rapidly. It was found that the increase in percent carboxyhaemoglobin saturation in venous blood per litre of CO mixture inhaled can be accurately predicted by the equation log (Δ% COHb/L) = 1.036 log (ppm CO inhaled) - 4.4793.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan. 1973, Vol.26, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 9 ref.
Continuous monitoring of gas-hazard work zones in an iron and steel works using Dräger automatic carbon monoxide measurement and warning devices
Kontinuierliche Überwachung gasgefährdeter Arbeitsbereiche durch automatische Dräger-CO-Mess- und Warnanlagen in einem Hüttenwerk [in German]
The plant uses blast-furnace gas (25-30% by volume of carbon monoxide) for industrial heating. In establishing the atmospheric monitoring programme, particular attention was paid to the relation between carbon monoxide concentration in the respired air and blood carboxyhaemoglobin saturation. The monitoring system incorporates continuous carbon monoxide measuring instruments fitted with warning devices. A comparison of the cost of the instalation and the cost of manual air sampling shows that the installation was amortised over a period of 2 years. There have been no gassing accidents since the installation is in service and faulty procedures in starting up gas-consuming plant have been detected.
Drägerheft, Jan.-Mar. 1972, No.287, p.21-26. Illus.
Ševčík M., Nedbal J.
Carbon monoxide poisoning sequelae
Výskyt následků po akutních otravách kysličníkem uhelnatým [in Czech]
Results of medical examinations on 15 men and 7 women with a mean age of 36.3 years who had suffered acute carbon monoxide poisoning and had been unconscious for various lengths of time. Objective internal symptoms and the results of laboratory analyses showed that, provided there is early diagnosis and treatment, carbon monoxide poisoning produces no sequelae. In the cases studied, the mean carboxyhaemoglobin level was 16.3% and the maximum level, 56%. Follow-up was carried out from 1 to 23 months after intoxication. The authors report on the examination techniques employed (internal examination, neurological examination and EEG), and discuss the changes they observed.
Pracovní lékařství, 1972, Vol.24, No.5, p.178-181. 22 ref.
Some considerations in establishing divers' breathing gas purity standards for carbon monoxide
A brief review of the sources of human exposure to CO and its biological effects is followed by a discussion of the limits applicable to divers. The author points to the lack of data concerning the reaction of man to CO under elevated environmental pressures.
Aerospace Medicine, June 1972, Vol.43, No.6, p.633-636. 24 ref.
Peterson J.E., Stewart R.D.
Human absorption of carbon monoxide from high concentrations in air
Six healthy males were exposed to CO concentrations ranging from 1,000 to 35,600ppm for periods calculated to result in a rise in COHb saturation of less than 15%. The subjects were carefully monitored during and after the exposure. The results are presented and discussed in detail. A formula is proposed for evaluating the rate of increase of COHb in blood per liter of air breathed as a function of the concentration of CO inhaled (expressed in ppm).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1972, Vol.33, No.5, p.293-297. Illus. 5 ref.
The biologic effect from long-term exposure of primates to carbon monoxide
Two groups of 9 monkeys were exposed for 2yrs, 7 days/week and 22h/day, to CO concentrations of 20 and 65ppm, respectively. A 3rd group of 9 animals served as controls. The only observed dose-related difference between the exposed and control animals was in the blood carboxyhaemoglobin values, which were 1-1.5% higher in the group exposed to 20ppm and 6-8% higher in the group exposed to 65ppm. In 2yrs these elevated COHb levels did not lead to any biologically significant changes.
Archives of Environmental Health, Dec. 1972, Vol.25, No.6, p.381-387. Illus. 5 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to carbon monoxide
Recommendations are made for the control of occupational exposure to carbon monoxide. The time-weighted average exposure (8h) should not exceed 35ppm, and the ceiling concentration 200ppm. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, emergency procedures, information of employees, work practices and monitoring. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of he standard; compatibility with air quality standards. Procedures for the sampling of CO in air and the analysis of carboxyhaemoglobin and additional useful information are given in appendices.
National Institute for Occuaptional Safety and Health, 5600 Fischers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852, USA, 1972. 132p. Illus. 129 ref.
Intracranial circulation rheography in workers exposed to carbon monoxide
Reografia circulaţiei sanguine intracraniene la muncitorii expuşi la oxid de carbon [in Romanian]
The blood circulation of 69 workers exposed to CO and 11 unexposed controls in a formic acid and oxalic acid works was examined by cerebral rheography. In the exposed group, 28 subjects had a history of acute CO poisoning due to plant leakages, although the CO concentration at the workplace was generally less than 30mg/m3. Consequently, average carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations were below 6%, but reached 18% in a few cases. Intracranial perfusion index anomalies were found in 74% of the subjects in this group. In a second group of exposed workers without any history of acute CO poisoning, pronounced haemodynamic anomalies were found in 39% of the cases. The authors conclude that the observed intracranial-circulation anomalies are due to "micro-poisoning" without loss of consciousness, rather than to the usual CO concentration at the workplace.
Igiena, May 1972, Vol.21, No.5, p.277-284. Illus. 25 ref.
Van Sandt W., Sharenbroch I.
Modified welder's helmet using spillproof impingers
A welder's helmet was modified by adding a millipore filter holder, a tube for the sampling of carbon monoxide, and a Teflon tube for the sampling of nitrogen dioxide and ozone. The helmet is also equipped with a compressed-air plenum chamber for conducting tests with or without supplied air. The sampling tubes are connected to conventional midget impingers and bubbers modified in order to prevent loss of liquid in certain welding positions. The apparatus, which can be made in any glass-blowing shop, was found to be completely satisfactory in field tests.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1972, Vol.33, No.6, p.435-437. Illus.
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