Carbon monoxide - 248 entries found
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Respirator use and protection from exposure to carbon monoxide.
Studies on the protective effect of respirators in fire fighters are presented. While the continuous use of respirators offers significant protection, this is not absolute. Intermittent use of the face mask offers as little protection as non-use.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1979, Vol.40, No.9, p.832-834. 3 ref.
Přerovská I., Pícková J.
Influence of carbon monoxide on the development of arteriosclerosis in occupationally exposed persons
Vliv kysličníku uhelnatého na rozvoj arteriosklerózy u profesionálně exponovaných osob [in Czech]
Report of an occupational hygiene survey (medical examination, ECG, fundus examination, blood serum lipid tests) carried out between 1965 and 1977 in 50 chemical industry workers exposed to CO, and an equal number of controls. At the first examination (1965) no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups. Initial manifestations of arteriosclerosis began to appear with advancing age in members of both groups. At the last check-up, slight pathological findings (raised blood pressure, ECG and fundus changes, increased serum lipid levels) were manifestly more frequent among the exposed subjects, but the proportion of such changes did not exceed the incidence among the general male population of the same age. A factor to be taken into account in job allocation is that CO causes tissue hypoxia, which may aggravate metabolic changes accompanying ateriosclerosis, even if CO may not be a basic aetiological factor in the development of this disease.
Pracovní lékařství, May 1979, Vol.31, No.5, p.166-171. 28 ref.
Nováček E., Maruškaničová V.
Solving the problem of 3,4-benzopyrene and irritants given off in the thermal decomposition of mineral oils in heavy-section rolling mills
Řešeni problému 3,4 benzpyrenu a dráždivých látek ze spalování minerálnich olejů na pracovišti válcoven těžkých profilů [in Czech]
Following on workers' complaints and a high incidence of upper respiratory disease, a plant physician investigated the working conditions in a rolling mill. Excessive amounts of carbon monoxide and 3,4-benzopyrene were found in the fumes given off when lubricating the grooves with a mineral-oil emulsion. Various health engineering measures adopted (exhaust ventilation of fumes, remote control of lubrification) considerably improved the workplace environment, and the plant management subsequently developed a new heavy-section rolling technology requiring only one rolling operation, in a vertical mill stand followed by a horizontal one, obviating the need for emulsion lubrification.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1979, Vol.31, No.3, p.96-98.
Formation of carbon monoxide in air compressors.
(Summary report). The use of synthetic oils does reduce the pollution caused by pyrolysis and oxidation of lubricants. Exhaust gases from the combustion engines driving the compressors are the major threat to the quality of the compressed air.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1979, Vol.40, No.6, p.548-551. Illus. 12 ref.
Apparatus for production and monitoring of carbon monoxide
Pribor dlja polučenija i dozirovanija okisi ugleroda [in Russian]
Description of a simple apparatus developed for the production and volumetric determination of carbon monoxide. The gas is produced by the reaction of concentrated sulfuric acid with diluted formic acid. Concentrations varying from 1/20 to 5 times the TLV (20mg/m3 in the USSR) can be obtained. Precision is ± 2 to 5%. The apparatus is useful for plotting the calibration curve in determining the CO content of the air, and it may be modified for the production and volumetric determination of other gases.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1979, No.1, p.45-46. Illus. 1 ref.
GOST 12.4.053-78 to 12.4.056-78, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet po standartam), Moskva, 27 Oct. 1978.
Mine air - Analytical methods
Vozduh rudničnyj - Metody analiza [in Russian]
These 4 standards (effective 1 Jan. 1980) describe methods of determining nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon monoxide by indicator tube. Rules are given for sampling and apparatus used, and for preparation and execution of the analysis.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, Moskva D-557, USSR, 1978. 16p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.05.
Tessier J.F., Freour P., Bernadou M., Courbin J.A., Dones J.P., Serise M., Coudray P., Labadie J.C., Gachie J.P.
Carbon monoxide pollution in Bordeaux - Study of the CO impregnation of traffic police
La pollution par le monoxyde de carbone à Bordeaux - Etude de l'imprégnation oxycarbonée des gardiens de la paix. [in French]
Analysis of carboxyhaemoglobin by determining CO concentrations in exhaled air in Bordeaux traffic police was used as an indicator of atmospheric pollution. Measuring methods are described, followed by a commentary on the results, which are presented in relation to workplace, hours of work (morning or afternoon) and smoking habits. The authors recorded significant CO impregnation due to motor vehicle exhaust (HbCO>8% in 10 out of 29 policemen), with the level constantly rising, the initial level on commencing duty depending on smoking habits. Over 4 years there was an HbCO increase of around 39%.
Pollution atmosphérique, Apr.-June 1978, No.78, p.123-127. 9 ref.
Boudène C., Belegaud J., Jouany J.M., Truhaut R.
"In vivo" carbon monoxide production following exposure to dichloromethane
Sur la production "in vivo" d'oxyde de carbone après exposition au dichlorométhane. [in French]
Report on 3 series of experiments involving dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) inhalation by rabbits. In the first series the animals were exposed for 1h to increasing (500, 3,500, 5,000 and 7,000ppm) CH2Cl2 concentrations: all these concentrations were followed by abnormally high blood CO levels; the rate of increase confirmed the hypothesis of formation of CO being due to metabolic process. The second series (exposure to decreasing CH2Cl2 concentrations - from 200 to 80ppm, and exposure to 50ppm CO) suggested that blood CO levels approximating to those resulting from exposure the maximum allowable CO concentration (50ppm) are produced by exposure to a 100ppm CH2Cl2 concentration. This would be an argument in favour of reviewing and reducing the present TLV for this substance (200ppm). The third series invalidates the hypothesis of CH2Cl2 interfering with the affinity of haemoglobin with CO.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1978, Vol.39, No.12, p.657-669. Illus. 26 ref.
Air pollution exposures to five target health hazards.
A programme established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1972 to study the hazards of asbestos, carbon monoxide, cotton dust, lead and silica, to control them and prevent hazards in their use is reported. 6,000 inspections were performed, involving 125,000 workers. Outlines are given of the present and proposed OSHA standards for these hazards. The National Emphasis Programme, which has been set up to improve earlier OSHA programmes, is briefly described.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1978, Vol.39, No.11, p.928-931. Illus.
Carbon monoxide, maximum allowable concentration in workplace air
Oxyde de carbone, concentration maximale admissible en ambiance professionnelle. [in French]
MD thesis consisting of a literature survey of chronic CO poisoning in the workplace, with chapters devoted to: general considerations on the definition of maximum allowable concentrations and how they are determined; background information on CO; overview of sources of poisoning and degree of poisoning; biological and analytical toxicology of CO; study of the biological effects of CO, which are mainly cardiovascular (ischaemic heart disease) and neurological, and are complicated by many other factors (carboxyhaemoglobinaemia, endogenous or linked to smoking, confined spaces or atmospheric pollution); analytical synthesis of animal experiments on the effects of CO and comparison with epidemiological data on man; study of associated sensitising factors (environment, smoking habits, working conditions and individual factors); reconsideration of the maximum allowable concentration, which might be reduced from 50 to 30ppm to give a wider safety margin. The no-smoking rule in workplaces is an effective safety measure. Medico-legal conclusions, in the light of French legislation.
Université Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Xavier Bichat, Paris, France, 1978. 276p. 179 ref.
Claude J.R., Lellouch J., Truhaut R.
Epidemiological survey of changes in carboxyhaemoglobinaemia in relation to tobacco smoking in 1,414 human males
Etude épidémiologique des variations de la carboxyhémoglobinémie en rapport avec la consommation de tabac chez 1414 sujets humains du sexe masculin. [in French]
The results of this study, which covered a homogeneous group as regards social background and occupation, showed the essential role of inhalation (voluntary or not) of CO, either through cigarette smoking or through chronic occupational exposure to atmospheres laden with cigarette smoke, and the phenomenon of a persistence of CO after discontinuance of exposure. This persistence has an influence on screening for occupationally-induced CO poisioning, and explains to some extent not only the harmful effects of smoking, but also those of occupational exposure to CO as a ischaemic heart disease risk factor.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June 1978, Vol.39, No.6, p.333-337. 10 ref.
Rogowsky M., Vander Putten M., Baudoux A.
Critical study of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) formation in welders working in a low level carbon monoxide (CO) environment
Etude critique de la formation de carboxyhémoglobine (HbCO) chez les soudeurs travaillant en atmosphère à faible concentration d'oxyde de carbone (CO). [in French]
The authors studied carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) levels, after 6h work, in 35 welders. Sections of the report are devoted to: basic chemical data; occupational disease due to CO exposure; research method and equipment used. Results: in non-smoking welders HbCO levels increased only slightly after 6h work (1.49%), and this increase was very similar to that observed in controls, who were non-welders and non-smokers (12.9%), whereas a significant increase in HbCO levels was observed in cigarette-smoking welders (5.25% in average smokers, 8.43% in heavy smokers). It would appear that the significant increase in HbCO levels is much more the result of cigarette smoking than that of CO inhalation involved in the welding process.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Mar. 1978, Vol.39, No.3, p.151-161. 12 ref.
Baretta E.D., Steward R.D., Graff S.A., Donahoo K.K.
Methods developed for the mass sampling analysis of CO and carboxyhemoglobin in man.
The analytical procedures and techniques used, and the statistics relevant to defining the accuracy and precision of the method used for determination of COHb saturation are presented. Gas chromatography was used to quantitate CO in air and also as an indirect means of determining COHb in blood. The blood was then used to calibrate 4 CO-Oximeters Model 182. Mean differences, both between the 2 methods of analysis and between pairs of CO-Oximeters, were less than 0.1% COHb saturation. COHb values obtained on consecutive days using one CO-Oximeter were repeatable with a standard deviation of 0.13% COHb.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1978, Vol.39, No.3, p.202-209. Illus. 17 ref.
Sanderson J.H., Sotheran M.F., Stattersfield J.P.
A new method of carboxyhaemoglobin determination.
This quick and accurate method of determining carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) concentrations in blood uses a dual wavelength double beam spectrophotometer in the 1st derivative mode, linked to a voltmeter, with the 2 beams 3nm apart around an isosbestic point of reduced haemoglobin and COHb at 579nm. The slope of the curve is proportional to the COHb concentration. Accuracy was 0.5% COHb over the whole range. The estimated output of 2 operators working together would be 150 samples/day.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1978, Vol.35, No.1, p.67-72. Illus. 15 ref.
General Directorate of Labour (Dirección general de trabajo), Madrid.
Statutory technical standard MT-12 on chemical and mixed carbon dioxide filters
Norma técnica reglamentaria MT-12 sobre filtros químicos y mixtos contra monóxido de carbono [in Spanish]
This standard sets out minimum specifications for chemical or mixed CO filters and lays down the methods for compliance tests. Contents: scope and general remarks (definition; types of filter: regular filters, filters for rescue breathing apparatus); characteristics and specifications for each type of filter (gas-tightness, retention capacity, pressure drop, limit concentrations, breakthrough, colorimetric or other indicator, service life, behaviour at low temperatures); detailed description of tests.
Salud y trabajo, Feb. 1978, No.11, p.20-23. Illus.
Hölz H.J., Neuhäusser R.
New instruments for greater safety at the workplace
Neue Geräte für höhere Sicherheit am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Two portable measuring and warning instruments are described for the continuous measurement, for up to 10h, of (1) carbon monoxide, and (2) hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, hydrocyanic acid and chlorine. The first is based on electrochemical oxidation of CO in a fuel cell, the second on an indicator tape. Design and operation are described. When the gas concentration in the air reaches a predetermined alert threshold, a continuous acoustic signal is emitted.
Drägerheft, Sep.-Dec. 1977, No.309. p.44-47. Illus.
Evaluation of the reliability of indicator tubes - VI. Carbon monoxide
Utvärdering av vissa analysampullers tillförlitlighet - VI. Kolmonoxid [in Swedish]
Nine types of tubes (Auer CO-10, Bacharach 19-195, Dräger CO-5/c and CO-10/b, Gastec CO-low and CO-Xlow, LKB 3268A, MSA CO 91 229 and MSA NBS-No. 47 134) were tested for accuracy, effects of temperature and humidity and interferences of other gases. The best accuracy was shown by the Dräger 5/c, Gastec low and MSA 91 229. Temperature and humidity did not affect any readings. The Gastec Xlow, LKB and MSA 47 134 were not acceptable; the Bacharach, Dräger 10/b were nearly acceptable and the others acceptable. English summary.
Undersökningsrapport 1977:36, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1977. 32p. 8 ref.
Fournel E., Gouilloux C., Raviart A., Remillieux L., Le Grignou A.
Use of centralised remote safety monitoring systems
Utilisation des télévigiles. [in French]
An introduction taking stock of the present-day situation in French mines is followed by a study, in 2 separate parts, of centralised information systems using information from remote-controlled monitoring devices for production purposes and for safety. The part devoted to safety systems of this kind considers the latest trends in equipment development, particularly as regards firedamp and carbon monoxide monitoring, and present and future trends in French, Belgian and British coalfields. Appendix: 5 tables showing typical information transmitted by remote control monitoring.
Publications techniques des Charbonnages de France, 1977, No.5, p.229-285. Illus. 4 ref.
Aichinger H., Anton B., Böse H., Hoffmann J.
Conditions and safety installations for operation of gas-fired industrial furnaces
Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen und Einrichtungen für den Betrieb gasbeheizter Industrieöfen [in German]
A review of the factors involved (carbon monoxide, density of heating gases, lower flammability limit) and West German regulations concerning safe operating of gas-fired furnaces, is followed by a description of the devices and measures preventing entry of the gas into the furnaces without immediate combustion. Application of safety measures is illustrated by 3 practical examples of reheating and heat treatment furnaces in the metallurgical industry. All furnaces are fitted with an automatic shut-off device which comes into operation in the event of failure of the gas, air or electric power supply. These furnaces, which have a working temperature below 650°C, are equipped with a flame failure protection device. Approximate cost of safety installations. Instructions for use, information of personnel.
Stahl und Eisen, 30 June 1977, Vol.97, No.13, p.620-627. Illus. 10 ref.
Gobbato F., Mangiavacchi C.
Prediction of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning hazard - Nomogram for calculating blood HbCO from air CO concentration, exposure time, and pulmonary ventilation
Previsione del rischio di ossicarbonismo acuto. Nomogramma per il calcolo della carbossiemoglobina nel sangue in funzione della concentrazione del CO in aria, del tempo di esposizione e della ventilazione polmonare [in Italian]
After a study of the kinetics of CO absorption an equation is proposed for calculation of blood carboxyhaemoglobin, and nomograms presented for its application.
Lavoro umano, Sep. 1977, Vol.24, No.5, p.129-140. 16 ref.
End-expired air technic for determining occupational carbon monoxide exposure.
Fluctuating CO levels in the ambient air and recent smoking can lower the accuracy of the end-expired air sampling technique in COHb estimation. Data collected under laboratory and field conditions suggest that accuracy of COHb estimation is increased by allowing volunteers who have just smoked or are working in an atmosphere of fluctuating ambient CO levels to breathe a low CO atmosphere (<10ppm) for a least 2min before sampling, preferably an atmosphere with a CO level close to that in which originally the blood and breath samples were collected to establish the regression equation.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1977, Vol.19, No.11, p.766-769. 8 ref.
The role of exertion as a determinant of carboxyhemoglobin accumulation in firefighters.
Heart rate and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) were monitored in 20 firefighters during a search-and-rescue exercise in a smoke-filled building. CO levels were 200-1,000ppm. Heart rates increased to 90% of maximum within minutes, and COHb levels increased at more than 1%/min. Breathing apparatus provided full protection from COHb uptake but was associated with significantly increased heart rates. Exertional levels and therefore ventilatory rates may be so great during firefighting that even in moderate or low CO levels the COHb can rapidly rise to dangerous levels. No firefighter should be allowed to work in a burning or smoke-filled building without breathing apparatus.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1977, Vol.19, No.11, p.759-761. 12 ref.
Dupuit J., Goze M.
Detection of carbon monoxide by Unor multidirectional analyser
Détection de l'oxyde de carbone par analyseur Unor multidirectionnel. [in French]
Mine fires are very difficult to extinguish, thus it is necessary to detect oxidation and heating at the very onset, and monitoring of CO levels seems to be one of the best ways of doing so. The authors give background information and describe monitoring systems used in the Central France coalfields, with particular emphasis on a system whereby gas samples taken at a number of carefully chosen sites are pumped to a central Unor analysing unit, which analyses the samples one after another according to a predetermined cycle. CO concentrations are read off above ground by telemetering.
Industrie minérale, May 1977, No.2-77, p.111-120. Illus. 2 ref.
H57, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Protection Association, London.
Carbon monoxide (cylinders).
Details are given of uses of CO, hazards (flammability, toxicity), fire fighting, precautions (storage, ambient heat, handling, enclosed systems, British standards for flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus and light fittings, electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres, etc.), source of further information, relevant British regulations, physical and chemical properties.
Fire Prevention, June 1977, No.119, p.45-46.
Carbon monoxide (CO).
Synonyms; properties; industrial uses; hazards (local and systemic effects; paths of entry; acute and chronic poisoning; high risk groups; fire and explosion); occupational exposure levels; TLVs; effects of various CO blood saturations; preventive measures (general precautions; personnel selection; pre-employment and periodic medical examinations; monitoring and air sampling; chemical analysis; instructions to fire department and to personnel; personal protective equipment; maintenance; ventilation (e.g. for fork lift trucks); disposal); transportation; storage.
Data Sheet - Occupational Safety and Health No.B-1, Canada Safety Council, 1765 St. Laurent Boulevard, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3V4, Canada, 1977. 16p. Illus. 15 ref.
Burgess W.A., DiBerardinis L.J., Speizer F.E.
Health effects of exposure to automobile exhaust: V. Exposure of toll booth operators to automobile exhaust.
Exposures were monitored throughout the years 1972-1974 in the Boston area. The highest CO concentrations were found at in-city toll booths, and the highest lead concentrations at suburban booths. Biological monitoring for CO and lead exposure corresponded to airborne levels. The study supports the need for environmental control for toll booths at busy highways and tunnels.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1977, Vol.38, No.4, p.184-191. Illus. 8 ref.
Bisby J.A., Ouw K.H., Humphries M., Shandar A.G.
Absorption of lead and carbon monoxide in Sydney traffic policemen.
Policemen exposed to motor vehicle traffic had slightly higher blood lead levels than controls, but within normal limits. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were unrelated to occupational exposure.
Medical Journal of Australia, 26 Mar. 1977, Vol.1, No.13, p.437-439. 2 ref.
Goldstein B.D., Marks C.E., Goldring R.M.
Red cell 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and methemoglobin levels in workmen occupationally exposed to automobile exhaust.
The effect of occupational exposure to automobile exhaust gases on a number of parameters of blood oxygen delivery was indirectly assessed in persons working at 2 tunnels and 1 bridge in New York City (toll and maintenance personnel with different exposure levels). Directly exposed workers had a slight but statistically significant elevation in methaemoglobin levels compared with their colleagues in less exposed areas. Red cell 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid levels also tended to be elevated in the groups with greater exposure. Cigarette smoking may have contributed to the increase in red cell methaemoglobin and 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid levels. No difference in haematocrit was observed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 25 Feb. 1977, Vol.38, No.4, p.295-300. 11 ref.
Burgess W.A., Sidor R., Lynch J.J., Buchanan P., Clougherty E.
Minimum protection factors for respiratory protective devices for firefighters.
CO and O2 concentrations were measured with personal air samplers in 72 structural fires. CO levels exceeded 500ppm 29% of the time, and 5,500ppm in 10% of the fires. The maximum CO level was 27,000ppm. O2 concentrations were generally above 18%. A minimum protection factor of 100 is proposed for breathing apparatus for structural fire fighting.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1977, Vol.38, No.1, p.18-23. 4 ref.
Garcia I., Rylander R.
Humoral immune response of the lung after exposure to carbon monoxide
Réponse immune humorale du poumon après exposition au monoxyde de carbone. [in French]
Research aimed at developing a method of evaluating the effects of a pollutant on the immunological defence of the lung. Several groups of 10 guinea pigs were exposed to 200ppm CO for 5 weeks. The humoral immune response of the free lung cells was studied, using the haemolytic plaque forming technique, after immunisation by intraperitoneal administration and by inhalation. The number of cells producing antibodies (IgM and IgG) diminished: this is attributed to the action of CO.
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift - Journal suisse de médecine, 12 Feb. 1977, Vol.107, No.6, p.203-205. Illus. 8 ref.
British Cast Iron Research Association
Carbon monoxide hazards in the foundry
This data sheet describes the hazards from carbon monoxide (CO) in foundries, methods for measuring CO concentration, and measures to be taken to prevent exposure.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1976. 3p. Illus. 5 ref.
Development of new apparatus for measuring CH4 and CO
Entwicklung neuartiger CH4- und CO-Messgeräte [in German]
Review of the state of the art concerning stationary and portable apparatus for determining methane and carbon monoxide levels, followed by an overview of apparatus being tested, or recently approved, in the Fed. Rep. of Germany: fixed apparatus and portable instruments for determining CH4 levels (telemetric installation with multiple probes and intrinsic safety, methanometers for CH4 levels from 0 to 2% and 0 to 100%); instruments for determining CO levels (metallic oxide detectors; installations for automatic checking and calibration of apparatus).
Glückauf, Oct. 1976, Vol.112, No.20, p.1162-1163. 5 ref.
Delsey J., Joumard R., Vidon R.
Carbon monoxide pollution inside a moving car
Pollution par le monoxyde de carbone à l'intérieur d'une voiture en circulation. [in French]
Study of parameters which may influence CO levels to which professional drivers (taxi drivers, sales representatives, etc.) and commuters, who are obliged to drive in urban areas, may be exposed inside their vehicle, and of toxicological aspects of repeated exposure of this kind. At different times in a given 24h period (night, off-peak or peak traffic hours) overall CO exposure may vary in a ratio of 1:6 between off-peak and peak traffic times, and 1:60 between night hours and peak traffic period. Concentrations inside the vehicle were equal to or higher than those measured on the roadside. Driving during the peak period causes carboxyhaemoglobin levels of 1.7% (minimum) and 2.4% or over if the driver was previously exposed to CO pollution; at these levels sensorimotor imbalance may result if exposure is repetitive.
Pollution atmosphérique, Oct.-Dec. 1976, Vol.18, No.72, p.313-319. 6 ref.
Gas poisoning hazard from blast-furnace operation
Zur Gasgefahr im Hochofenbetrieb [in German]
Austrian statistics indicate that nowadays, among cases of this type of occupational poisoning, only cases of carbon monoxide poisoning are still numerically significant. This study commences with a roundup of the toxicological and physical characteristics of CO, considers the principles on which a blast furnace operates, the mechanisms involved in the production of various gases and the principal points where these gases can escape. This is followed by a review of reported cases of poisoning over the period 1948-1975 in 2 blast furnaces, describing the incidents and the site of their occurrence. Conclusions concerning safety engineering, occupational safety and health planning and organisation.
Tätigkeit der Arbeitsinspektion im Jahre 1975, Verlag des Zentral-Arbeitsinspektorates, Stubenring 1, Wien I, Austria, 1976. p.93-104. Illus.
Stewart R.D., Hake C.L.
Experimental exposures with paint-remover containing methylene chloride and methanol are described. As a result of the rapid formation of CO from methylene chloride, blood carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels were high. COHb continued to rise for several hours after exposure, and this is attributed to alteration by methanol of the usual degradation of methylene chloride.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 26 Jan. 1976, Vol.235, No.4, p.398-401. 13 ref.
Putz V.R., Johnson B.L., Setzer J.V.
Effects of low level carbon monoxide on divided attention, pitch discrimination, and the auditory evoked potential.
30 subjects were exposed to 5, 35 or 70ppm carbon monoxide (CO). The performance measures were hand-eye coordination, light intensity and tone discriminations; the auditory evoked response components comprised the neurological assessment. Statistically significant decrements in performance were noted at 5% carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) level (the recommended exposure limit): the hand-eye coordination was impaired 30% during the fourth hour of exposure at 70ppm CO (compared with 5 and 35ppm) when 5% COHb was approached; response times to the peripheral light intensity increased; and tracking accuracy and peripheral light detection decreased. There were no significant effects noted from the auditory monitoring task, but the evoked responses showed that 5% COHb significantly affected the brain potential levels.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-124, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Nov. 1976. 58p. Illus. 36 ref.
Radford E.P., Levine M.S.
Occupational exposures to carbon monoxide in Baltimore firefighters.
Findings in this study of 519 firefighters who developed higher blood COHb levels than controls, independently of smoking habits; neither the severity of the fire nor duration of exposure allows the firefighter to predict his level of toxic exposure; continuous use of self-contained compressed-air breath apparatus offers adequate protection; intermittent use has no added advantages; medical monitoring can be valuable for determining variations in individual exposures to toxic agents.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1976, Vol.18, No.9, p.628-632. 13 ref.
Notification No.16/1976, concerning the unloading of new motor cars
Meddelelse nr.16/1976 om losning af nye biler [in Danish]
These directives (entry into force: 24 Aug. 1976) are intended to limit exposure to exhaust gases when new cars imported by sea are unloaded by being driven directly ashore from the car deck or hold. Starting up the engines when they are cold produces high CO concentrations, which must be monitored. If the concentration rises above 50ppm, unloading must be discontinued until it falls below 20ppm. When the CO concentration reaches 35ppm alternating work periods and work breaks of 10-15min each are tolerated.
M 16/1976, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2100 København, Denmark, 24 Aug. 1976. 2p. Gratis.
Manz A., Zimmer U., Krusche D.
Blood CO in oven workers at a modern coking plant
CO-Gehalt des Blutes bei Ofenblockarbeitern einer modernen Kokereianlage [in German]
The purpose of this study was to determine whether and to what extent work in modern coking plants raises the blood carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) level. 51 coke oven workers and 31 office personnel, classified as smokers and non-smokers, were studied. The air CO level at the workplace did not exceed 10ppm. HbCO levels before and after work and daily average concentrations were very significantly affected by smoking habits, but occupational exposure played a negligible role. Conclusions: periodic medical examinations are desirable, in spite of technical progress and improved hygiene conditions; measurement of HbCO levels before and after work is important; attention must be paid to the accuracy of measurement methods; examinations should be more frequent in heavy smokers; smoking should be prohibited near coke ovens.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, July 1976, Vol.26, No.7, p.121-127. 28 ref.
The first part of this data sheet covers the properties, uses and hazards of carbon monoxide, including symptoms of poisoning and threshold limit values. Blood saturation percentages of carboxyhaemoglobin and the corresponding symptoms are tabulated. The second part deals with detection methods, hazard control, medical examinations and first aid.
National Safety News, Data Sheet 415, Revision B(extensive), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 1976. Chicago, USA, Feb. 1976, Vol.113, No.2, p.73-76. Illus. 10 ref.
Manz A., Siemsen C.H., Opp J.
Carbon monoxide content of the workplace atmosphere at gas-producing ovens
Kohlenmonoxidgehalt der Arbeitsatmosphäre am Gaserzeugungsofen [in German]
The CO concentrations at the oven batteries of coking plants were measured, with particular attention to gas leaks from the chamber. At the top of the ovens the level is normally 10ppm; during filling, concentrations of up to 350ppm can occur, and up to 1,200ppm inside the resulting fume clouds. Various factors increasing or reducing the risk of acute poisoning are referred to. Under normal conditions respiratory protection is not considered necessary.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Jan. 1976, Vol.26, No.1, p.10-15. 14 ref.
Hernberg S., Kärävä R., Koskela R., Luoma K.
Angina pectoris, ECG findings and blood pressure of foundry workers in relation to carbon monoxide exposure.
An occupational health study was carried out by questionnaire and measurements on 1,000 workers with exposure time exceeding 4.2 years. The workers were divided into groups with definite carbon monoxide exposure, with slight or occasional exposure and without exposure. Smoking habits were considered. Angina showed a dose-response relation with regard to CO exposure from occupation, smoking or both, but no such trend was found with ECG suggestive of coronary heart disease. Blood pressures of the exposed workers were higher than those of other workers. Angina and ECG findings suggestive of coronary disease were more prevalent in the exposed workers than in the general population or in other non-exposed industrial workers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.54-63. 26 ref.
Virtamo M., Tossavainen A.
Carbon monoxide in foundry air.
The concentration of carbon monoxide in the air of 67 iron, steel, or copper alloy foundries using sand moulding was measured. About 1,100 carbon monoxide determinations were made. High concentrations of carbon monoxide were found in the area around the cupolas and the casting sites in iron foundries. The blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels of 145 workers from iron foundries were measured. The carboxyhaemoglobin level of 6% was exceeded in 26% of the non-smokers and in 71% of the smokers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.37-41. Illus. 8 ref.
Steel J., Wald N., Howard S., Jones J.G., Sinclair A., Davies D.M., Silk S.J., Harrison N., Luft K.F., Bergman I., Firth J.G., Jones A., Jones T.A., Commins B.T., Bolton C.B., Muir D.C.F., Lawther P.J.
Carbon monoxide, industry and performance.
Papers presented at the 3rd Joint Meeting of the British Occupational Hygiene Society, the Ergonomics Research Society and the Society of Occupational Medicine at Swansea, United Kingdom, Sep. 1974. The subjects covered included: smoking, carbon monoxide (CO) and arterial disease; arterial disease amongst blast furnace workers; the application of threshold limit values for CO under conditions of continuous exposure; the threshold limit value for CO; a review of techniques for the measurement of CO in the atmosphere; infrared techniques for the measurement of CO; electrochemical CO sensors based on the metallised membrane electrode; solid state detectors for CO; measurement of CO in the blood: review of available methods; warning levels and alarm instrumentation for CO in the atmosphere; ergonomics of aircrew respiratory apparatus; protection from CO in coal mines; pollution by CO and its effects.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1976, Vol.18, No.1 (special issue). 94p. Illus. 200 ref.
Truhaut R., Boudène C., Jouany J.M.
Toxicity of the combustion and pyrolysis products of materials employed in the building industry - I. Acute inhalation toxicity of major toxins produced during fires
Etude de la toxicité des produits de combustion et de pyrolyse de matériaux utilisés dans le bâtiment - I. Etude de la toxicité aiguë, par voie aérienne, des toxiques majeurs pouvant être libérés lors d'incendies. [in French]
Animal study of the hazards of the most powerful toxins produced by pyrolysis or combustion: CO, CO2 (with and without oxygen deficiency), HCl and HCN. "Physiograms" (3-coordinate diagrams) were established for these different types of poisoning, permitting comparisons of the various substances and different dose levels. Oxygen insufficiency, CO and HCN produce different types of cell hypoxia; HCl is very aggressive, but its toxicity depends on the degree of penetration of the respiratory tract.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1975, Vol.36, No.12, p.707-738. Illus. 4 ref.
Aleksieva C., Bojadžieva Ž., Ivanova S., Marinova E.
Some criteria for early diagnosis of the chronic effect of carbon monoxide
Njakoi ranni kriterii pri diagnostikata na hroničnoto văgleokisno văzdejstvie [in Bulgarian]
Clinical examinations and haematological, biochemical and enzyme studies in 100 coking plant workers exposed to CO concentrations close to the TLV showed the most valuable indices for early diagnosis of chronic CO poisoning to be: increased alkaline phosphatase and aldolase activity, raised fibrinogen levels, and inhibition of leucine aminopeptidase.
Problemi na higienata, 1975, Vol.1, No.1, p.73-78. 15 ref.
Yvert J.P., Ricordel I., Schmit J.M.
Criteria for the selection of a method of determining blood CO levels in a biochemical laboratory
Critères de choix d'une méthode de détermination de l'oxycarbonémie au laboratoire de biochimie. [in French]
In an endeavour to find a method using classical techniques and available to biochemists, the authors examined the validity of Conway's method at widely varying blood CO levels, comparing it with the gas chromatography method (used as a reference) and with other relatively simple methods (Wolff's colorimetric method and Heilmeyer's spectrophotometric method). Conway's method requires only one blood dilution; its reproductibility is excellent; it gives results comparable to those obtained with the gas chromatography method. On account of its simplicity it should be suitable for non-specialised laboratories. Heilmeyer's method is much too imprecise; Wolff's method is unsuitable for analysing low blood CO levels.
European Journal of Toxicology - Journal européen de toxicologie, Mar.-Apr. 1975, Vol.8, No.2, p.81-86. 17 ref.
Chovin P., Alquier J.P.
Rapid determination of blood carbon monoxide levels
Dosage rapide du monoxyde de carbone dans le sang. [in French]
Simplification of the selective infrared absorption method developed in 1954 by Moureau, Chovin, Truffert and Lebbe for determining blood carbon monoxide levels. The principle of the new method is as follows: destruction of the blood sample by phosphoric acid directly in the tube to be placed in the scavenging circuit of the non-dispersive infrared analyser, sensitive to CO. Comparison of the results with those of the earlier method. Advantages: simplification; reduction of analysis time from 7 to 5min; possibility, as demonstrated by Boudène, Godin and Roussel, of reducing blood sample to 0.3cm3.
Pollution atmosphérique, Oct.-Dec. 1975, Vol.17, No.68, p.299-302. Illus. 3 ref.
Thomsen H.K., Kjeldsen K.
Aortic intimal injury in rabbits.
Rabbits were exposed to 50, 100 or 180ppm of carbon monoxide for periods of 30min to 11 days. Details of findings obtained by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron micoscopy are given. A significantly higher incidence of focal oedema of the aortic intima was present in the animals exposed to 180ppm for 4 hours or more than in those with lesser exposure.
Archives of Environmental Health, Dec. 1975, Vol.30, No.12, p.604-607. Illus. 15 ref.
Blast furnace gas
Les gaz de hauts fourneaux. [in French]
After describing briefly how blast furnace gas is formed, the author describes the circumstances in which it can leak out (hazard during normal operation and, above all, hazard due to wear). The chief hazard is due to the fact that this gas has a high CO content. Description of the poisoning syndrome, which may be progressive or chronic. Lifesaving and first aid methods, safety engineering (at the planning stage, during construction (quality and strength of wedded joints of blast furnace shell, of refractory brick lining, accessibility and manoeuverability of valves) and during production); personal protective equipment (compressed air fed respirators); staff information.
Regional Sickness Insurance Fund for Northern France (Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France), 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, May 1975. 9p. Gratis.
Carbon monoxide, industry and performance - Third Joint Meeting of the British Occupational Hygiene Society, the Ergonomics Research Society, and the Society of Occupational Medicine.
This Meeting, held at Swansea in Sep. 1974, covered the following aspects: arterial disease among blast furnace workers (Jones J.G., Sinclair A.); threshold limit values (TLVs) under conditions of continuous exposure (closed environment of nuclear submarines) (Davies D.M.); discussion of TLV for CO (Silk S.F.); methods of CO determination in air (Harrison N.); the infrared gas analysis (Luft K.F.); electrochemical CO sensors based on the metallised membrane electrode (Bergman I.); solid state detectors (Firth J.G., Jones A., Jones T.A.); measurement of CO in blood (comparative review of methods) (Commins B.T.); warning levels and alarm instrumentation (Jones J.G.); also: ergonomics of aircrew respiratory apparatus (Bolton C.B.).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1975, Vol.18, No.1, p.1-90. Illus. 200 ref.
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