Carbon monoxide - 248 entries found
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Radziszewski E., Guillerm R.
A method for the determination of carbon monoxide in 100µL blood samples and for the determination of the carboxyhaemoglobin level
Une microméthode pour la mesure du volume de monoxyde de carbone dans un échantillon de sang de cent microlitres et évaluation de la carboxyhémoglobine [in French]
Micromethod developed for the accurate determination of carbon monoxide in blood samples of 100µL, using infrared absorption spectrometry. Blood is collected from an earlobe with a capillary tube. 5% of the sample is used for the determination of haemoglobin concentration with a high-precision microphotometer, which allows the result of the analysis to be converted to carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) concentration. The method has been tested for HbCO levels in the range of 0.5% to 100%. The technique is recommended for toxicokinetic and epidemiologic studies because of its simplicity and the possibility of on-site sampling with later analysis.
Journal de toxicologie médicale, Oct.-Dec. 1984, Vol.4, No.4, p.305-316. Illus. 11 ref.
Equilibrium of CO between the pregnant mother and the foetus
Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels in foetal blood after maternal exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) are investigated. Because of poor solubility of CO in plasma and because of resistance by the placental membranes, the half-time of CO diffusion across the placenta is approx. 2h. The Ontario TLV for CO is 35ppm (time-weighted average exposure), at which exposure level maternal COHb concentration is 5.3%, with foetal COHb concentration rising to 15% above maternal levels after 36-48h of steady-state exposure. At higher levels of exposure (e.g. 100ppm for 4h), greater than expected incidence of foetal neurological damage, lower birthweight, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths and later learning problems has been reported. No margin of safety should be assumed for the foetus even at maternal exposures at or below the TLV level.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Jan. 1984, Vol.5, No.1, p.10-22. Illus. 39 ref.
Ėjtingon A.I., Šašina T.A., Veselovskaja K.A.
Basis of a methodical approach to establishing emergency exposure limits for chemicals
Obosnovanie metodičeskogo podhoda k ustanovleniju avarijnyh predelov vozdejstvija himičeskih veščestv [in Russian]
Rats were exposed to carbon monoxide concentrations ≤10mg/L for periods up to 168h, and their activity, reflexes and carboxyhaemoglobin levels were determined at intervals. The apparent threshold for suppression of activity and for hyperventilation was 4mg/L for 5min exposure. Whereas studies on the kinetics of carboxyhaemoglobin formation and dissociation suggest that the exposure limit for the rat is directly applicable to humans, other studies suggest that humans are 2-4 times more sensitive to carbon monoxide than are small animals. It seems reasonable to take 4mg/L (4000mg/m3) as an emergency exposure limit and 1mg/L (1000mg/m3) as a maximum allowable concentration for 5min exposure. Measurement of features of behaviour which correspond to workers' ability to escape from contaminated areas is a principle which can be extended to other chemicals.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1983, No.8, p.87-88. 7 ref.
Žiharev M.N., Drjahlov A.S., Tananaev K.I., Danilov A.N., Stepanov T.K., Papirov A.M.
Using kinetics to render carbon monoxide harmless
Obezvreživanie okisi ugleroda s ispol'zovaniem kinetiki [in Russian]
The rate and extent of hopcalite-catalysed oxidation of carbon monoxide were measured under various conditions. The results show that a one-pass reactor containing the catalyst would be adiabatic, with the catalyst heating itself to high temperatures, whereas a recirculating reactor would operate isothermally near room temperature; the designer can choose the mode of operation that best suits the requirements of a particular application. Design considerations are illustrated for the cases of welding-fume purification and crane-cabin air supply.
Mašinostroitel', Oct. 1983, No.10, p.18-19. Illus.
Ėl'natanov A.I., Andreeva N.V., Striževskij I.I.
Flammability limits of mixtures containing carbon monoxide
Predely vosplamenenija smesej, soderžaščih okis' ugleroda [in Russian]
Increasing interest in the recovery of carbon monoxide from industrial waste gases makes it important to evaluate the hazards associated with the processing of mixtures containing carbon monoxide, oxygen and inert gas(es). Tables give the compositions of flammable mixtures in which the inert gas is carbon dioxide, argon or nitrogen. Minimum ignition temperatures were observed with mixtures containing maximum proportions of carbon monoxide, i.e., with mixtures containing the smallest amount of oxygen that would support combustion.
Himičeskaja promyšlennost', 1983, No.5, p.45-46. 7 ref.
Lindahl R., Nilsson C.A., Norström Ĺ., Hagberg M., Kolmodin-Hedman B.
Sampling and analysis of chain saw exhaust. I. Exhaust emissions measured under controlled laboratory conditions. II. Exposure levels during logging. III. Lung function, carboxyhemoglobin and complaints among chain saw operators...
Provtagning och analys av motorsĺgsavgaser. I. Avgasemissioner under kontrollerade betingelser i laboratoriemiljö. II. Exponeringsstudier under skogsarbete. III. Lungfunktion, koloxidhemoglobin och upplevda besvär hos skogsarbetare efter exponering för motorsĺgsavgaser [in Swedish]
I. There was no difference in the emission compositions and levels of different brands of chain saws, and none between new and used saws. Lean fuel-air mixtures gave higher proportions of aldehydes and nitrogen oxides and lower proportions of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons than did rich mixtures. Methanol containing fuel gave twice as much formaldehyde as did normal gasoline, and methanol was a major component of the exhaust. II. Lumberjacks complained of cough and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Complaints and exposure levels were aggravated by deep snow, thick stands of timber and calm weather. Felling gave higher exposure than did limbing or cutting. Exposure can be reduced by improved working methods, which are described. III. Clinical and field studies confirmed the observations of Part II. Average exposures were well below Swedish TLVs. The correlation of carboxyhaemoglobin concentration with CO exposure was too poor to permit its use as an indicator of exposure.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 104p. Illus. Bibl.
Oxyde de carbone [in French]
Contents: historical information; analytical methods (determination in air and in biological tissues); natural and man-made sources (automobile emissions, tobacco smoking); exposure; metabolism; effects on health; adaptation to CO exposure; interactions; groups at risk; acute and chronic toxicity; evaluation; objectives and criteria of air quality.
Public Affairs, Health and Welfare Canada, Brook Claxton Building, Ottawa K1A OK9, Ontario, Canada, 1983. 131p. Bibl.
Gliner J.A., Horvath S.M., Mihevic P.M.
Carbon monoxide and human performance in a single and dual task methodology
15 subjects underwent 2 different 2.5h exposures to either filtered air or to 100ppm CO, performing 2 tasks singly and in combination: a central compensatory tracking task with 3 levels of difficulty and a peripheral signal detection task with 3 probabilities of signal occurrence. When carboxyhaemoglobin levels reached 5%, performance on the signal detection task was altered, but only when the task was performed alone.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.54, No.8, p.714-717. Illus. 13 ref.
Consideration about residual states after acute carbon monoxide poisoning - particularly around mnesic disturbances
Study of the defects (e.g. disturbances of fixation), which can persist for decades, following acute carbon monoxide poisoning and which can occur without associated evidence of physical, neurological or psychic abnormalities. Presentation of a case study and discussion of the symptoms observed.
Brain and Nerve, Apr. 1983, Vol.35, No.4, p.331-336. Illus. 20 ref.
Effects of CO on the cardiovascular apparatus
Effetti del CO sull'apparato cardiovascolare [in Italian]
The literature is reviewed in a survey of the mechanisms of CO (carbon monoxide) poisoning, and electrocardiographic studies in iron and steel workers occupationally exposed to CO are reported. Carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) levels were higher in smokers, rendering evaluation of the quantity of inhaled ambient CO difficult. Changes in cardiac activity consisted primarily in increased heart rate. To protect subjects exposed to CO from an increased atherosclerosis risk, atmospheric concentrations should be maintained such that the steady-state HbCO level does not show more than an 8% increase. This corresponds to an environmental concentration of approximately 50ppm.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Jan.-Mar. 1983, Vol.7, p.8-27. 50 ref.
British Cast Iron Research Association
Gas explosions in cupolas and how to prevent them
Data sheet on the dangers and prevention of gas explosions during foundry operations. Aspects covered: risk, occurrence (when, how), prevention in conventional cupolas and divided blast cupolas.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1983. 2p. Illus.
Beretta E., Scotti P.G., Zecchi L., Leurini D.
Diagnostic significance of the study of steady-state pulmonary carbon-monoxide diffusion capacity in asbestos workers
Il contributo diagnostico dello studio della capacitŕ di diffusione polmonare del monossido di carbonio in regime stabile nei lavoratori dell'amianto [in Italian]
A study of the effectiveness of the pulmonary carbon monoxide (CO) diffusion index as a diagnostic tool for asbestosis. 110 asbestos workers had lung examinations, by x-ray and by various pulmonary function tests (VC, FEV1, DCOss, DuCO). No correlation was found between the CO diffusion index changes (as measured by DCOss and DuCO) and the presence of asbestosis, revealed by the other tests. Thus CO diffusion measurements cannot be used for early diagnosis of asbestosis.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1983, Vol.74, No.2, p.143-156. 48 ref.
Canada Safety Council
Carbon monoxide - CO
Contents of this revised data sheet: identification and physical properties; uses and sources of emission; hazards (health, fire); emergency action information (first aid, fires, leaks); occupational exposure limits (ACGIH TLV-TWA: 50ppm); preventive measures (personal protective equipment, monitoring, process control); medical monitoring; transportation; storage and handling; personnel selection, training and supervision; glossary; 2-page summary for poster display.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3V4, Canada, 1982. 14p. 20 ref.
Improved monitoring of atmospheric CO in underground mines
Soveršenstvovanie kontrolja soderžanija okisi ugleroda na šahtah [in Russian]
Description of the operation of a continuous automatic spectrophotometric apparatus (SIGMA-CO) for determining the CO content of mine air. The monitor has been in use with success since 1979. A probe takes atmospheric samples up to 200m from the analyser (for which a schematic diagram is given). The device is connected by cable to a recorder on the surface. In tests in the Vorożilov coal mine, initial stages of spontaneous fires were detected by the apparatus and extinguished.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, May 1982, No.5, p.22-23. Illus.
Pezzagno G., Imbriani M.
Monitoring methods for carboxyhaemoglobin. Applications in various professional and experimental situations.
Metodi di monitoraggio della carbossiemoglobinemia. Applicazioni in diverse situazioni professionali e sperimentali [in Italian]
Comparative study of 5 methods measuring HbCO%, one measuring it directly in the blood (using spectrophotometry), the others measuring the fractional concentration of carbon monoxide in alveolar or mid-expiratory air. The relation of HbCO% with cigarette consumption is discussed.
Lavoro umano, Nov.-Dec. 1982, Vol.30, No.3, p.135-157. Illus. 60 ref.
Sakakibara K., Takahashi H., Kobayashi S.
The significance of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to prevent the later manifestations of acute carbon monoxide poisoning
One of the most important problems in treating the victims of acute CO poisoning is prevention of delayed effects. 82 patients were given hyperbaric oxygen until normal EEG findings were obtained. Recovery was complete in 75 of them.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1982, Vol.30, No.3, p.204-216. Illus. 16 ref.
Oxygenated carbon derivatives
Dérivés oxygénés du carbone [in French]
Update of this encylopaedia article on carbon monoxide: main physical and chemical properties; natural occurrence and industrial production of CO; fate in body; mode of action; clinical signs and symptoms of acute poisoning (warning signs, neurological, cardiovascular and biological signs), insidious effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system, action to be taken in the event of acute poisoning, detection of CO in blood and expired air, technical safety measures and safety and health regulations. A brief review of the occupational health aspects of CO2 is also given.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France, 1982. 4p. 7 ref.
Hallne U., Hallberg B.O.
Problems of the work environment due to welding - Part 21. Nickel carbonyl, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from arc welding cast iron using nickel containing electrodes
Arbetsmiljöproblem vid svetsning - Del 21. Mätning av nickelkarbonyl, kolmonoxid och kväveoxider vid svetsning i gjutjärn med nickelhaltiga elektroder [in Swedish]
The gases given off when arc welding cast iron with electrodes containing nickel were measured. Nickel carbonyl (NC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NO) concentrations were determined using infrared spectroscopy, direct reading electrolytic cells and chemiluminescence instruments during welding of cast iron or graphitic iron using 95% nickel electrodes. NC and NO concentrations were very low. The CO concentration just exceeded the threshold limit value and was thought to originate from oil on the workpiece.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 20p. 13 ref.
Weir F.W., Fabiano V.L.
Re-evaluation of the role of carbon monoxide in the production or aggravation of cardiovascular disease processes.
Literature survey of the effects of CO on the cardiovascular system. Chronic CO exposure does not increase the risk of developing clinically significant atherosclerotic disease. The action of acute, low-level CO exposure in reducing exercise performance is attributed not to the specific toxic action of CO but instead is considered a consequence of induced hypoxia. Low to moderate levels of CO exposure do not adversely affect cardiac rhythm in man.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July l982, Vol. 24, No. 7, p. 5l9-525. 56 ref.
Girard-Wallon C., Ripault J., Proteau J.
Experimental toxicity study during exposure to thermolysis products of natural and synthetic materials
Etude expérimentale de la toxicité lors de l'exposition aux produits de thermolyse de matériaux naturels et synthétiques [in French]
Mouse studies on poisoning due to carbon monoxide and related products given off during the thermolysis of natural or synthetic materials (solid poplar, particle board, cotton upholstery fabric, polyurethane foam, polypropylene sheet, PVC-coated cotton fabric, woven polyamide, woven glass fibre). The major hazard of carbon monoxide inhalation is pointed out. Findings: carbon monoxide was responsible, wholly or partly, for all animal deaths; among the survivors, cerebral cellular respiration was reduced in the case of 3 materials, and an increase in hepatic cellular respiration for 1 material. Optical microscopy showed major pulmonary lesions in the deceased animals due to 3 materials. For 6 materials, charactristic particles were found in the respiratory tracts of both the dead and surviving animals.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1982, Vol.43, No.2, p.87-96. Illus. 12 ref.
Van Gorcum H.J.
Poisoning by carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion products in exhaust gases
Koolmonoxydevergiftiging door onvoldoende verbranding uitlaatgassen [in Dutch]
Case of carbon monoxide poisoning in the driver of a forklift truck powered by LPG, after 30-45min work in a poorly ventilated ship's hold (2.25 x 2.25m hatchway at one end of the hold). The LPG truck, which was being used as a replacement for a defective electric truck, was fitted with an afterburning device of poor reliability; the CO content of the exhaust gases was 10-25% higher than that specified by the importer of the device, both with the motor idling and under load. Lessons to be drawn from the accident: need for good maintenance and correct tuning of the fuel supply and ignition; need to keep CO concentration below 50ppm.
De veiligheid, Jan. 1982, Vol.58, No.1, p.21-22. Illus.
Šamarin A.A., Jurasova O.I., Goev G.B.
Assessing the state of the blood-brain barrier in studies of the neurotoxic action of carbon monoxide
Ocenka sostojanija gematoėncefaličeskogo bar'era pri izučenii nejrotoksičeskogo dejstvija okisi ugleroda [in Russian]
High concentrations of carbon monoxide (400 mg/m3, 1h exposure) raised the incorporation of 32P and 65Zn from the blood into the brain tissue of experimental animals. As zinc does not normally penetrate the blood-brain barrier, this indicates a disruption of the barrier in addition to the metabolic changes produced by carbon monoxide, a common atmospheric pollutant. The phosphorus isotope appeared in both phospholipid and non-lipid fractions of the brain. Carbon monoxide exposure at 200 mg/m3 for 1 and 2h altered the ratio of satellite cells to neurons in the cerebral cortex of the animals. Low levels (20 mg/m3) of carbon monoxide, even after 2 months exposure, produced no important morphololgical change or increase in zinc uptake by the brain, although elevated 32P levels in the brain were found. Metabolic responses to toxic chemicals do not necessarily entail structural or functional changes in the blood-brain barrier.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1981, No.10, p.33-35. 5 ref.
Sedov A.V., Surovcev N.A., Mazneva G.E., Ševkun O.N., Vissonov Ju.V., Byčkov S.V.
Combined effects of certain vital activity products during work in isolating personal protective equipment
O kombinirovannom dejstvii nekotoryh produktov žiznedejatel'nosti pri rabote čeloveka v izolirujuščih sredstvah individual'noj zaščity [in Russian]
The dead-space air inside isolating protective suits contains oxygen, carbon monoxide, methane, phenol and other substances in proportions which vary with the duration and type of work performed. To evaluate the combined toxic effect of various mixtures, 36 experiments were carried out with volunteers performing exercise tests in controlled atmospheres. Biological indices monitored included body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and minute volume, energy expenditure, serum cholinesterase activity, etc. Gaseous mixtures containing CO, methane and phenol in proportions of 15, 150 and 3mg% had independent effects similar to mixtures where these proportions were 30, 350 and 5mg/m3, respectively. These concentrations are considered to be maximum permissible ones under the conditions studied.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1981, No.4, p.15-17. 8 ref.
Pankow D., Ponsold W.
Mechanism of carbon monoxide induced increase in total haemoglobin count
Zum Mechanismus der durch Kohlenmonoxideinwirkung induzierten Erhöhung der Gesamthämoglobinkonzentration [in German]
Research on the action of carbon monoxide (CO) is a prime requisite in the effective prevention of CO poisoning. As a part of studies on biological reactions to CO, increases in total haemoglobin (Hb) count in rats following repeated CO exposure were examined. There is a reversible dose-related increase in Hb concentration during the first weeks of exposure. It is hypothesised that CO increases erythropoietin secretion and a stimulation of erythropoeisis and Hb synthesis. The findings are discussed in the light of other studies.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Mar. 1981, Vol.27, No.3, p.208-214. Illus. 102 ref.
Effect of atmospheric conditions on microclimate and carbon monoxide concentrations in foundries
Vliv atmosférických podmínek na mikroklima a koncentrace kysličníku uhelnatého ve slévárně [in Czech]
Measurement of atmospheric CO concentrations and microclimatic conditions in a modern foundry showed that the mean CO concentration for the whole shift significantly exceeded the maximum allowable concentration. During the warm season, the climatic conditions deteriorate, and the CO concentrations are 4 times higher than the threshold level, increasing on average 50-100% in comparison with the transient period - depending on the atmospheric conditions. It is proposed that the natural ventilation should be supplemented by local exhaust ventilation at the pollution source, and ventilation apertures should be provided to ensure a fresh-air supply to the areas of the foundry distant from the exterior walls. The dynamics of CO concentration fluctuations justify the requirement that measurements be taken regularly for at least 5h per shift.
Pracovní lékařství, Oct. 1981. Vol.33, No.9, p.323-325.
Toxicology of carbon monoxide
Toxikologie des Kohlenmonoxids [in German]
Monograph giving a roundup of CO toxicology data from the literature (toxicological and analytical aspects). Current research is targeted on: effects of very low CO concentrations, effects of CO other than haemoglobin-fixation, and the combined action of CO and other factors. Contents: physical and chemical properties, production and uses; sources and environmental toxicology; basic carboxyhaemoglobin values; absorption and distribution in the body, elimination; classification of poisonings; mechanism of CO effects; toxicity; effects of CO on the organs and body systems; principles of therapy; combined effects (potentiation) of CO and other biological activity factors; CO and patho-physiological factors; TLVs; prophylaxis and rehabilitation; rare or exceptional poisoning case studies; effects of CO on plants; methods for CO analysis in air and gases, blood, expired air and body tissue; analytical aspects.
Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Neue Grünstrasse 18, DDR-1020 Berlin, 1981. 288p. Illus. 1987 ref. Price: M.50.00.
Effects of low carbon monoxide concentrations on the cardiovascular system
Wirkungen niedriger Kohlenmonoxidkonzentrationen auf das Herzkreislaufsystem [in German]
The possible modification of the threshold limit value for carbon monoxide is discussed with a review of current knowledge as to the effects of low CO concentrations (equivalent to a maximum COHb level of 6%) on the cardiovascular system: mechanism of blood oxygen transport inhibition, incidence of CO in industry, animal experiments and human studies. COHb levels between 3 and 10% produce functional lesions; higher levels (9-15%) produce morphological lesions in the cardiovascular system. The threshold limit value for CO should be such that the COHb level remains 3% in order to eliminate all possible hazard. Review of relevant factors such as the method of determining CO and COHb levels, the objective of the threshold limit value, the type of exposure, the species of animal, and smoking.
Staub, Aug. 1981, Vol.41, No.8, p.296-300. Illus. 34 ref.
Claude J.R., Efthymiou M.L.
Subacute and chronic occupational carbon monoxide poisoning
Intoxication professionnelle subaiguë et chronique par l'oxyde de carbone [in French]
Review of the natural and artificial sources of carbon monoxide contamination of the workplace. Improvements in engineering control of chronic CO exposure (e. g. local exhaust ventilation of sources of emission) often mean that poisoning due to equipment failure will be acute and involve a number of workers. A distinction is made between subacute poisoning with clinically observable signs and symptoms (clinical picture, diagnosis, course) and chronic poisoning which is detectable only by biological testing (circumstances and hazards). Survey of methods for the determination of CO in air and blood; significance of carboxyhaemoglobin and total blood CO levels. The occupational nature of CO poisoning can be certified only after having unequivocally eliminated non-occupational CO exposure, the effects of smoking or poisoning due to various solvents. Presentation of safety measures. In France, workmen's compensation if available only in cases where the atmospheric concentration at the workplace has been > 50ml/m3 and where blood CO levels of > 1.5ml/100ml have been measured.
Revue du praticien, Mar. 1981, Vol.32, No.17, p.1137-1143. 20 ref.
Rylander R., Vesterlund J.
Carbon monoxide criteria
This report summarises the properties, occurrence and effects of carbon monoxide (CO) as reported in a number of criteria documents. Contents: environmental sources of CO and concentrations in Sweden; effects of CO exposure of humans; effects on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and foetus in terms of studies on humans and animals and epidemiologic studies; evaluation (exposure strategies, conditions in Sweden, exposure criteria, further research).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1981, Vol.7, Supplement 1, 39p. Illus. 94 ref.
Gillanders T.G.E., Bennett A.
An investigation of air pollution experienced by toll-collectors at a major road bridge toll
Breathing zone samples of airborne gaseous and particulate pollutants to which 33 toll-collectors, seated in booths at a road bridge, were exposed in the period Oct. 1978 to Apr. 1979, were collected and analysed. Blood lead levels of these workers were also determined. The average values found for carbon monoxide, total nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide were higher than those of the general urban environment but were lower than established TLV. This exposure has not produced any acute effects and is unlikely to produce chronic effects.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1981, Vol.24, No.3, p.267-272. Illus. 9 ref.
McCammon C.S.Jr., Halperin W.F., Lemen R.A.
Carbon monoxide exposure from aircraft fueling vehicles
Carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured in the cabs of 17 aircraft fuelling vehicles on which the exhaust system was vented under the front bumper to minimise contact between the hot exhaust gases and the jet fuel. The cabs were examined with windows closed and heaters on in different positions relative to the wind.Average CO levels of 300ppm were measured in one truck, >100ppm in 2, >50ppm in 5, and ≤500ppm in the remaining 9. Levels of CO depended on the mechanical condition of the vehicle and its orientation to the wind. Stringent maintenance is recommended for this exhaust design.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1981, Vol.36, No.3, p.136-138. 7 ref.
Stern F.B., Lemen R.A., Curtis R.A.
Exposure of motor vehicle examiners to carbon monoxide: A historical prospective mortality study
A modified life table technique was used to calculate the cause-specific expected deaths, adjusted for age and calendar time periods, of a cohort of 1558 male workers employed as motor vehicle examiners for ≥6 months between 1944 and 1973. The examiners were exposed to carbon monoxide at a TWA calculated as 10-24ppm. The exposure level recommended by NIOSH is 35ppm TWA. The expected deaths were compared to the number of observed deaths through August 1973. 124 deaths due to cardiovascular disease were observed in the cohort compared with 118.4 expected, and a more pronounced excess was observed within the first 10 years following employment (28 observed, 20.9 expected). A statistically significant excess of cancer mortality was found after 30 years latency (13 observed, 6.9 expected). This excess was not confined to any particular organ site.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1981, Vol.36, No.2, p.59-66. Illus. 26 ref.
Sannolo N., Nota G., Miraglia V.R., Acampora A.
Determination of thiocyanates in serum of smokers and non-smokers by gas chromatography
Determinazione dei tiocianati nel siero di fumatori e non fumatori mediante gas-cromatografia di spazio di testa [in Italian]
Every smoker's body manufactures thiocyanates, which are the metabolites of cyanides which are among the combustion products of tobacco. Determination of thiocyanate levels is used as a criterion for evaluating exposure to tobacco smoke and to distinguish smokers from non-smokers. On the other hand, persons exposed occupationally to CO have high carboxyhaemoglobin levels. A correlation between the thiocyanate level and the carboxyhaemoglobin level enables the percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin due to CO exposure to be established.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Aug.-Dec. 1980, Vol.4, p.337-343. Illus. 11 ref.
Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of carbon monoxide measurement methods in the region of the MAC
Vergleichende Betrachtung der Leistungsfähigkeit von Messmethoden für Kohlenmonoxid im MAK-Bereich [in German]
The possibilities of use and limitations of indicator tubes are discussed, and the analytical methods and installations used in industrial toxicology laboratories are described and compared: chemical methods, gas chromatography, infrared absorption. Photometric methods have good reproductibility and are suitable for routine analysis. For gas chromatography, the thermal conductivity detector with previous enrichment of the CO is preferred. The infrared absorption technique deserves greater attention.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, June 1980, Vol.26, No.6, p.409-414. Illus. 31 ref.
Robbins M.C., Hross M.S.
Continuous monitoring for carbon monoxide.
Description of a sophisticated system for continuous monitoring of CO levels by monitors fixed at 18 locations around 2 basic oxygen furnaces in a large U.S. steel mill. Apart from warning lights in a continuously manned central control room, high-visibility lights set above each monitoring point indicate conditions (green: CO detector is operating; yellow: CO is present; red: high CO level - leave area immediately).
National Safety News, May 1980, Vol.121, No.5, p.53-55. Illus.
Dmitriev M.T., Kolesnikov G.M.
Determination of carbon monoxide in air by gas chromatography
O gazohromatografičeskom opredelenii okisi ugleroda v atmosfernom vozduhe [in Russian]
Description of a perfected method by which CO is converted into methane on a nickel catalyst placed immediately upstream from the separation phase (CaA molecular filter, fraction 0.25-0.30mm) in the chromatographic column. Between 500 and 600 determinations can be made with only one catalyst filling of the column. The time taken for each analysis is 1.5-2min; precision: 5%; sensitivity: 0.1mg/m3.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Mar. 1980, No.3, p.53-54. 3 ref.
Jabara J.W., Keefe T.J., Beaulieu H.J., Buchan R.M.
Carbon monoxide: Dosimetry in occupational exposures in Denver, Colorado.
Monitoring of breath carbon monoxide concentration and breathing zone air samples showed that traffic control personnel, working on the street, experienced greater carbon monoxide exposure than workers in downtown offices. The greatest source of carbon monoxide to the sample population was cigarette smoking, followed by occupational exposure, and finally, the ambient levels. Data were collected on breathing zone air samples during 8h shifts; carbon monoxide breath samples before and after a shift; and ambient carbon monoxide levels from Sep. 1978 to Jan. 1979. Personal dosimeter readings and COHb levels were closely associated in exposed individuals.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1980, Vol.35, No.4, p.198-204. Illus. 6 ref.
Carbon monoxide poisoning - Treatment by hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Intoxicaçăo por monóxido de carbono - Tratamento pela oxigenioterapia hiperbárica [in Portuguese]
The typical circumstances leading to occupational CO poisoning are reviewed together with the clinical signs and symptoms. The importance of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as the main method of treatment is stressed. It permits immediate oxygenation of the tissues and rapid return of consciousness while requiring only short hospitalisation.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Oct.-Nov.-Dec. 1980, Vol.8, No.32, p.53-56. Illus. 4 ref.
Stetter J.R., Rutt D.R.
Instrumental carbon monoxide dosimetry.
A portable electrochemical instrument capable of measuring personal exposure to CO is described and its performance characteristics detailed. Effective dosimetry can be performed with an accuracy greater than 15%. Smoking made a significant contribution to exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1980, Vol.41, No.10, p.704-712. Illus. 9 ref.
Takano T., Sasaki J., Maeda H., Ugai H., Kawada T.
Occupational exposure of firefighters to carbon monoxide.
Carbon monoxide concentrations in the exhaled air were determined in 186 firefighters experimentally and during usual conditions. CO levels increased markedly after fire-fighting, especially in smokers. The demand for oxygen during fire fighting and the effects of CO exposure are discussed.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Public Health, June 1980, Vol.35, No.2, p.461-466. Illus. 18 ref.
Kustov V.V., Litau V.G., Obuhova M.F., Juhnovskij G.D., Žarov V.V.
Role of carbon monoxide in toxicity of gas-air mixtures
Issledovanie značenija okisi ugleroda v formirovanii toksičeskogo ėffekta mnogokomponentnyh gazovozdušnyh smesej [in Russian]
Mice were exposed to mixtures of pyrolysis products from combustion of mineral oils at 850°C. The content of CO and other compounds was monitored chromatographically. The toxic effect of the gas mixtures with a low or normal oxygen content was more pronounced than that of CO alone combined with oxygen in the same proportions. This difference is attributed to the synergistic effect of esters, ketones and aldehydes contained in the mixtures which irritate the respiratory tract. A retention of respiration and reduction in the ventilatory volume result.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.26-28. 15 ref.
An installation for early detection of mine fires
Eine Anlage zur Früherkennung von Grubenbränden [in German]
A CO monitoring installation designed for up to 16 measuring points and 4 air shafts is described. The system operates like a process control computer, but can be put into service directly, without programming. It does not indicate the natural CO concentrations in the inlet air nor in blasting fumes. Of modular design, it has a slide-in cassette for each measurement point. The data are recorded by a print unit. The system has been successfully used in underground worksites.
Glückauf, 8 May 1980, Vol.116, No.9, p.441-443. Illus. 4 ref.
Exposure to carbon monoxide in foundries
Exposition for koloxid i gjuterier [in Swedish]
Investigation following complaints of headache and excessive fatigue in foundry workers. 103 workers in 7 foundries were interviewed; their carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels were determined before and after their shift. Results: no complaints in workplaces where exposed workers had <5% COHb levels; complaints, mainly of headache, in workplaces where non-smoking workers sometimes had COHb levels in excess of 5% COHb. Frequency of complaints increased in proportion to COHb levels.
Undersökningsrapport 1980:4, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1980. 18p. 15 ref.
Work Group of Experts of the Netherlands Commission on Maximum Allowable Concentrations (Werkgroep van Deskundigen van de Nationale MAC-Commissie)
Report on threshold limit values for carbon monoxide
Rapport inzake grenswaarde koolmonoxyde [in Dutch]
Contents of this report: physical and chemical properties of CO; sources of exposure; measurement of exposure; toxicokinetics; toxicodynamics; groups at risk; little-or-no effect limits of the HbCO content; evaluation of CO concentration and duration of exposure not leading to a HbCO>4%; current recommended TLVs in the Federal Republic of Germany, USSR, USA, (ACGIH, NIOSH), and as recommended by the International Association on Occupational Health (including short-term exposure limits); TLVs recommended by the Netherlands Commission (150ppm for 15min, 120ppm for 30min, 60ppm for 60min; 25ppm as TWA value). Effects of CO on cardiovascular system and on mental functions in vigilance tasks; and effects of smoking habits on CO uptake are also dealt with.
Ministerie van Sociale Zaken, Directoraat-Generaal van Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, July 1979, No.2/79. 77p. Illus. 92 ref.
Nordic Group of Experts for TLV Documentation - 12. Carbon monoxide
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 12. Kolmonoxid [in Swedish]
Literature survey on the toxicity of CO: metabolic model (ingestion, distribution, metabolism and elimination, biological half-life); toxic mechanisms (haemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome oxidase, cytochrome P-450); effects on liver, kidneys, blood and haematopoietic system, cardiovascular system, central nervous system; genetic effects; reduction of work capacity); synergistic effects with smoking; exposure indices; effects of chronic exposure and adaptation to exposure; evaluation of data. Appended: TLVs adopted in 20 countries; sampling and analysis methods.
Arbetarskyddsverket, 17184 Solna, Sweden, 1980. 50p. Illus. 113 ref.
Sedov A.V., Surovcev N.A., Mazneva G.E., Ševkun O.N.
Establishment of exposure limits for carbon monoxide in the atmosphere of a self-contained respirator
Materialy po gigieničeskomu normirovaniju okisi ugleroda v gazovoj srede izolirujuščego snarjaženija [in Russian]
Results of exercise tests with this equipment are reported: a concentration of 10mg/m3 CO had no effect; mild effects appeared at 15mg/m3, which is recommended as exposure limit. Exceptional exposure limits for rescue personnel in the event of a disaster are set at 30mg/m3 for a maximum of 4h, 60mg/m3 for 2h, 100mg/m3 for 1h, and 300mg/m3 for 30min.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.79-80.
The summary to this report highlights the major issues and makes recommendations for further research; the results on which the health criteria are based are: physical and chemical properties; analytical methods; biological monitoring; natural and man-made sources of CO; environmental levels and exposures; metabolism; effects on experimental animals and on man (carboxyhaemoglobin levels resulting from exposure to methane-derived halogenated hydrocarbons); smoking; high-risk groups; evaluation of health risks. Where applicable, chapters contain information on occupational exposure. A French version may be obtained from: World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1979. 125p. 357 ref. Price: SF.11.00.
Erahmilevič V.I., Dmitrenko N.N., Zajvyj V.R., Bondarčuk A.I.
LSG-CO carbon monoxide microconcentration analyser
Gazoanalizator mikrokoncentracij okisi ugleroda LSG-CO [in Russian]
The infrared analyser characterised by simplified control and correction of the reference zero value, and digital display of the CO concentration (in ppm), is described. The optical and pneumatic diagram and an electrical circuit diagram are shown.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, May 1979, No.5, p.38-39. Illus.
Bartual J., Berenguer J., Guardino X., Pérez de la Ossa R.
Comparative analysis of methods for determination of carbon monoxide in air.
Estudio comparativo de métodos para la determinación de monóxido de carbono en aire [in Spanish]
Detailed comparison of methods for determining CO concentrations in air: gas chromatography (sampling by pressure tube or flexible bag made of inert material), infrared spectroscopy, detector tubes, direct-reading portable analyser. The results are shown in numerous tables. Plastic-bag sampling and chromatography seems to be the most reliable method.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1979, Vol.27, No.105, p.36-39. 2 ref.
Kelman G.R., Davies J.T.
Carboxyhaemoglobin levels in workers in Leicestershire garages.
Blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels (HbCO%) were measured in 61 workers in 35 garages. In large garages, 44% of non-smokers and 20% of smokers had increased HbCO%; the corresponding figures in smaller garages were 43% and 14%. The possible relevance of these findings to coronary heart disease in garage workers is discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1979, Vol.36, No.3, p.238-241. Illus. 15 ref.
Respirator use and protection from exposure to carbon monoxide.
Studies on the protective effect of respirators in fire fighters are presented. While the continuous use of respirators offers significant protection, this is not absolute. Intermittent use of the face mask offers as little protection as non-use.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1979, Vol.40, No.9, p.832-834. 3 ref.
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