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Carbon monoxide - 248 entries found

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CIS 95-625 Protection from exhaust gases in motor vehicle repair shops
Schutz vor Autoabgasen in Kfz-Werkstätten [in German]
In many vehicle repair shops in Germany, high carbon monoxide concentrations in excess of the exposure limit were measured. Noise levels during engine tests were found to amount to about 95dB(A). An instruction manual was issued which recommends protective measures such as: exhausting the vehicle exhaust gases at the various workplaces, providing separate rooms for noisy tasks, wearing hearing protectors and reducing vehicle movements inside the repair shops. Formulae are presented for quickly assessing the carbon monoxide pollution and the fresh air volume needed to comply with the exposure limit.
G+S - Gesund und Sicher, June 1994, No.6, p.180-182.


CIS 96-990 Charuel C., Mercier-Gallay M., Stoklov M., Romazini S., Perdrix A.
Environmental stresses and strains in an extreme situation - The repair of electrometallurgy furnaces
During the replacement of an electrode element from a 20MW continuous casting furnace, excessive temperatures and CO levels were found. The wet bulb globe temperature in the furnace centre was 55°C. In the furnace periphery the WBGT measured 34°C. These temperatures did not change significantly during the 6h of replacement work. The mean CO levels of 110 to 145ppm in the furnace centre exceeded the exposure limit. The average pulse rate was measured at 150/min. It reached 65 to 83% of the maximum theoretical rate. The protective clothing worn by the workers was found to provide no protection against radiant heat and did not allow evaporation. It is recommended that this kind of repair work be limited to 2h and that an insulated floor be used to limit thermal radiation. Recommendations for periodical medical examinations are presented.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.4, p.253-258. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 94-1702 Materna B.L., Koshland C.P., Harrison R.J.
Carbon monoxide exposure in wildland firefighting - A comparison of monitoring methods
Three methods for assessing carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of wildland firefighters were tested and compared, and the activities and conditions under which this population may be exposed to hazardous CO levels were examined. Full-shift time-weighted average CO exposures, determined using passive diffusion monitors, were low for all employees monitored, with a mean of 8.2ppm (n=51). Real-time CO exposures for 12 individuals were monitored using electronic dataloggers. Two firefighters had one-minute exposures of, respectively, 339 and 212ppm, which exceeded the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ceiling limit of 200ppm. Full-shift TWAs measured with the dataloggers agreed fairly well with those determined using the passive dosimeters. There was a small but statistically significant increase in CO in end-exhaled air across the shift (mean change was 2.2ppm). Change in CO concentration in end-exhaled air across the shift did not correlate well with average airborne exposure.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 1993, Vol.8, No.5, p.479-487. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 94-330 Wibowo A.A.E.
Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid
Health-based recommended occupational exposure limit for carbon monoxide
In the report (an update of the document published in 1979: RA 2/79) the health hazards of exposure to carbon monoxide are evaluated. Attention is given to: previous document and recommendations; present guidelines and standards; toxicodynamics, with special attention to effects reported in recent studies (effects on the cardiovascular system, the central nervous system, offspring, and carcinogenicity); previous evaluation by international bodies; evaluations of human health risks. Analysis of the data available resulted in a health-based recommended exposure limit of 25ppm (29mg/m3), 8h-TWA (thereby maintaining the present occupational exposure limit). This recommendation is only applicable for work conditions of light to moderate physical exertion. An exclusive directive is given for cigarette smokers (Annex in previous report). Detailed summary in Dutch.
SDU Uitgeverij Plantijnstraat, Afdeling Verkoop Publikaties Arbeidsinspectie, Postbus 20014, 2500 EA Den Haag, Netherlands, 1993. 40p.


CIS 96-2054 Carbon monoxide poisoning
Fact sheet on carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning: workers at risk; toxicity of CO (high concentrations are lethal); prevention of poisoning; US federal standards (35ppm 8h-TWA; 15min ceiling: 200ppm).
OSHA Publications Office, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Room N3101, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 1992 (also: INTERNET 1 doc.

CIS 96-533 Poisoning and explosion hazards in motor car repair workshops, garages and car-wash tunnels
Risques d'intoxication et d'explosion dans les ateliers de réparation d'automobiles, dans les garages et dans les tunnels de lavage [in French]
Vergiftungs- und Explosionsgefahren in Autoreparaturwerkstätten, Autoeinstellräumen und Autowaschstrassen [in German]
Rischi di intossicazione e di esplosione nelle officine di riparazione automobili, nelle autorimesse e nelle corsie di lavaggio automobili [in Italian]
This booklet (previous version, see CIS 74-1764) deals principally, in its first part, with the poisoning hazards of exhaust gases from running engines (composition of exhaust gases, carbon monoxide toxicology and monitoring, ventilation, etc.). The hazards inherent in cleaning engines and engine parts with soluble oils, petrol or chlorinated hydrocarbons and in operating car-wash tunnels are also discussed. The second part deals with explosion hazards and their causes (ignition of air/petrol mixtures by electrical installations, welding, heating or naked flame). Explosive mixtures are especially liable to accumulate in motor-car repair pits.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Jan. 1992. No.114, 34p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 94-874 Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region - Proceedings of the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de Bordeaux et de sa région - Séances du 24 mai, du 15 novembre et du 13 décembre 1991 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region (France): Health and safety in the use of composite materials in the aircraft industry; comments on the problems associated with the notification of occupational diseases under the French Scheme (example of Schedule 64 (intoxication due to carbon monoxide); repercussions of work on perinatal problems in rural settings (survey of 534 women); conditions of work; comparison of the results of objective and subjective analysis; work in tropical countries: update of specific preventive measures; medical problems due to laser check-out workstations in supermarkets; problem of aptitude to apprenticeship in the case of a subject suffering from tuberous sclerosis: a case study; survey of occupational deafness cases diagnosed in the unit of occupational diseases in Bordeaux; the concept of occupational risk (danger, risk, cyndinics); compulsory vaccination against hepatitis B (Law of 18 Jan. 1991; Order of 15 March 1991: CIS 91-1754).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.426-442.

CIS 94-62 Carbon monoxide
Monoxyde de carbone [in French]
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: highly flammable; toxic. Short-term exposure effects: displacement of oxygen in blood; effects on the central nervous system; anorexia; behavioural changes; asphyxiation. Long-term exposure effects: behavioural changes; lower reaction time; cardiovascular disorders; possible reproductive effects. EC identification number and labelling codes: 006-001-00-2; F, T; R12-23; S7-16. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 1016 (2; subsidiary risks: 3 and 6.1).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 93-1606 Peterson J.E.
Limitations of ambient air quality standards in evaluating indoor environments
Analysis of the kinds of data used for the derivation of ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) for carbon monoxide and ozone shows that these values are based on the toxicology of the materials and thus are suitable for evaluating potential health effects of indoor environments, especially on the very young, the aged, and the infirm. A similar analysis shows that the AAQSs for suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are strictly empirical and that they should not be used for any but their first, intended purpose. The AAQSs for non-methane hydrocarbons are based on photochemical smog production, not injury of any kind, and have no utility for indoor environment evaluation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.216-220. 29 ref.

CIS 93-211 Fawcett T.A., Moon R.E., Fracica P.J., Mebane G.Y., Theil D.R., Piantadosi C.A.
Warehouse workers' headache - Carbon monoxide poisoning from propane-fueled forklifts
The study examines 17 patients treated for acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning resulting from the indoor use of propane-fuelled forklifts. All patients had neurological symptoms or persistent headache and were given hyperbaric oxygen to relieve their symptoms. The concentration of CO in the exhaust emissions of 12 forklifts at five separate sites was investigated. The average CO concentration in the exhaust during engine idling was 36,000ppm (3.6%). This value decreased slightly to 30,000ppm (3.0%) at working engine speed. Measurements of exhaust flow indicate CO production rates of approximately 60L/min at working engine speed. These quantities of CO constitute a significant occupational risk to workers using propane-fuelled forklifts in unventilated indoor environments.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No. 1, p.12-15. 7 ref.

CIS 92-1951 Dutkiewicz T., Rolecki R., Kończalik J., Świątczak J.
The impact of the chemical industry on the human environment
This article describes the emission of dust and gases into the atmosphere, and of liquid and solid wastes produced by the chemical industry into the environment in general. The impact of the chemical industry on the environment is analysed. Some hazardous agents occurring in the work environment and the resulting morbidity and sickness absenteeism rates among workers in the chemical industry are discussed.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.1, p.13-26. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 92-931 Oguchi H., Matsunobu K., Ohtsuka T.
Application of carbon monoxide passive dosimeter tubes to short-term exposure measurements
Issanka tanso passhibu doshimēta no tanjikan sokutei e no ōyō [in Japanese]
A new passive dosimeter tube, similar to a detector tube, consists of a glass tube of 5mm inside diameter, porous plastic plugs through which gases can diffuse into the tube and a detecting reagent filling the glass tube. A porous plastic rod of the same length as that of the packed bed of detecting reagent fills part of the glass tube. The test results for carbon monoxide passive dosimeter tubes conformed fairly closely with Fick's first law of diffusion. The stain length was related to the exposure time and concentration. Also, the stain length was proportional to the square root of the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the porous plastic rod and the whole glass tube. To obtain accuracy within 25%, the necessary exposure time was 30min for concentrations >50ppm and longer than 60min for lower concentrations. Carbon monoxide passive dosimeter tubes are applicable to measurements of relatively short exposure (around 1h).
Journal of Working Environment, 1 Jan. 1992, Vol.13, No.1, p.49-55. Illus. 13 ref.


CIS 93-1544 Ulfvarson U., Alexandersson R., Dahlqvist M., Ekholm U., Bergström B.
Pulmonary function in workers exposed to diesel exhausts: The effect of control measures
To assess the protective effect of exhaust pipe filters or respirators on pulmonary function, 15 workers in a tunnel construction site were studied. The total and respirable dust, combustible matter in respirable dust, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were measured for each subject during entire work shifts. The effect of the exposure on the lung function variables was measured by dynamic spirometry, carbon monoxide single breath technique, and nitrogen single breath wash-out. The exhaust pipe filtering had a protective effect, directly discernible in the drivers on vital capacity and FEV1.0 and for the whole group on FEV% and transfer factor. The dust respirators had no effect, probably because of the difficulties in correctly using personal protection under the circumstances in the tunnel. In the absence of a true exposure assessment, control measures for diesel exhaust can be tested by medical effect studies. Catalytic particle filters of diesel exhausts are one method of rendering the emissions less irritant, although they will not remove irritant gases. An indicator of diesel exhaust exposure should include the particle fraction of the diesel exhausts, but a discrimination between different sources of organic dust must be possible.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1991, Vol.19, No.3, p.283-289. 8 ref.

CIS 93-1594 Particulate filter against Diesel soot
Partikelfilter contra Dieselruss [in German]
A filter for the removal of soot from the exhausts of industrial trucks, such as fork-lift trucks, is described. It is composed of three ceramic filter-sets housed in a steel casing. For additional conversion of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in the exhaust a precious metal catalyst-coated version is available. The filter is regenerated usually after 8 hours by burning the collected soot. It is connected to the 220V mains for this purpose.
Unfall-Stop - Mitteilungsblatt der Grosshandels- und Lagerei-Berufsgenossenschaft, Sep. 1991, No.5, p.4-6. Illus.

CIS 92-199 Cobb N., Etzel R.A.
Unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States, 1979 through 1988
A review of data from 56,133 death certificates implicating carbon monoxide as a contributing cause of death showed 11,547 deaths classified as unintentional between 1979 and 1988. The number of unintentional deaths decreased steadily from 1,513 in 1979 to 878 in 1988. Motor vehicle exhaust gas caused 57% of the unintentional deaths, 83% of which were associated with stationary vehicles. It is concluded that the decrease in the rate of unintentional death from carbon monoxide poisoning may be attributable to improvements in automobile pollution control systems and improved safety of cooking and heating appliances. Prevention programmes should target young drivers, males and the elderly.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 7 Aug. 1991, Vol.266, No.5, p.659-663. Illus. 19 ref.


CIS 92-1616 El Kholti A., Choudat D., Ohl G., Galamand O., Gelle J.M., Chanut J.C., Conso F.
Carbon monoxide levels in ambient air and in exhaled breath - A study of chronic occupational exposure in garages
Intérêts respectifs des dosages de l'oxyde de carbone dans l'air atmosphérique et dans l'air expiré - A propos de l'exposition professionnelle chronique dans les garages [in French]
Carbon monoxide (CO) levels in ambient air and in exhaled breath were measured respectively for 17 non-smoking exposed workers in four automobile repair shops of the Paris area. CO levels in exhaled breath were measured every 30 minutes. CO levels in ambient air fluctuated between 0 and 100ppm according to the job and the effectiveness of the ventilation. CO levels in exhaled breath rose steadily during the shift from 5 to 20ppm.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.4, p.267-270. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 91-1653 Norman C.A., Halton D.M.
Effect of carbon monoxide on pregnancy
Effets du monoxyde de carbone sur la grossesse [in French]
Contents of this information note: workplace sources of carbon monoxide; effects of exposure on pregnant women and their fetuses; first aid measures in case of carbon monoxide poisoning.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 7p. 14 ref.

CIS 91-1221 Norman C.A., Halton D.M.
Is carbon monoxide a workplace teratogen? A review and evaluation of the literature
Sixty case reports of carbon monoxide exposures involving pregnant women are reviewed. The circumstances under which carbon monoxide exposures adversely affected pregnancy and the types of effects seen are summarised. Severe acute exposures to carbon monoxide caused foetal death or toxic effects, including anatomical malformations and functional alterations. Foetal outcome was related to two major indices of carbon monoxide exposure: maternal blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels and maternal toxicity.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1990, Vol.34, No.4, p.335-347. 44 ref.

CIS 91-35 Carbon monoxide
Monoxyde de carbone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Short-term effects: carboxyhaemoglobinaemia; lethal within minutes above 5,000ppm. Long-term effects: slight changes in behaviour and reaction time, heart disorders.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Oct. 1990. 1p. Illus.

CIS 90-1452 Carbon monoxide
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: highly flammable; toxic. Short-term exposure effects: displacement of oxygen in blood; effects on the central nervous system; anorexia; behavioural changes; asphyxiation. Long-term exposure effects: behavioural changes; lower reaction time; cardiovascular disorders; possible reproductive effects. EC identification number and labelling codes: 006-001-00-2; F, T; R12-23; S7-16. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 1016 (2; subsidiary risks: 3 and 6.1).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.


CIS 92-579 Alessio L., Berlin A., Boni M., Roi R.
Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals: beryllium, carbon monoxide, ethylbenzene, methylstyrene, isopropylbenzene, inhalation anaesthetics, selenium
The information provided for each substance includes physico-chemical properties, industrial and environmental exposure, health effects, metabolism, biological indicators, monitoring techniques, analytical methods, conclusions and research needs. Biological monitoring for anaesthetic agents covers nitrous oxide, halothane (fluothane), enflurane (ethrane), forane (isoflurane) and methoxyflurane (penthrane).
Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Telecommunications, Information Industries and Innovation, Jean Monnet Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1989. xii, 93p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 90-1952 Kleinman M.T., Davidson D.M., Vandagriff R.B., Caiozzo V.J., Whittenberger J.L.
Effects of short-term exposure to carbon monoxide in subjects with coronary artery disease
A study was made among 24 male subjects (mean age 58.8 yrs, mean weight 90.26kg) with stable angina pectoris to determine the effects of short-term exposure to carbon monoxide (CO). Following CO exposure, blood carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels were increased from a baseline level of approximately 1.5% to 3% of saturation. The goal of the study was to determine if low-level CO exposure compromised the ability of these individuals to perform work. The time of onset of angina was significantly reduced among CO-exposed subjects, so that work capacity was indeed affected by exposure.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1989, Vol.44, No.6, p.361-369. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 90-1343 Bunnell D.E., Horvath S.M.
Interactive effects of heat, physical work, and CO exposure on metabolism and cognitive task performance
The simple and interactive effects of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure and prior physical work on cognitive performance were evaluated in 16 subjects in two hot (WBGT = 30°C) environments. Three levels of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) (0, 7, 10%) and three workloads were crossed resulting in 9 repeated measures conditions per subject. Following administration of CO, subjects either exercised or rested for 50min, then performed five cognitive tasks. The only cognitive impairment associated with an elevated COHb was seen in performance of the second of two sequentially presented Stroop test versions using the same stimuli but with competing instructions. Heat exposure per se had no significant effects on cognitive performance based on comparisons with controls in a thermoneutral environment. Elevated COHb was associated with greater reporting of exertion and eye, ear, nose, and throat symptoms during heavy exercise concomitant with greater minute ventilation and heart rate. Except for the latter, these effects were not seen in thermoneutral conditions.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, May 1989, Vol.60, No.5, p.428-432. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 90-943 Schirmacher P., Zander R.
CO-burden of personnel and users of underground parking garages
CO-Belastung bei Personal und Benutzern von Tiefgaragen [in German]
COHb-levels were determined in blood samples of employees and users of four underground parking garages in Mainz, Germany (Fed.Rep.). Samples were taken before and after exposure. Slight increases were found after exposure. Questionnaires filled out by all persons examined yielded uncharacteristic subjective complaints.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1989, Vol.24, No.1, p.5-8. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 90-832 Coppola L., Giunta R., Grassia A., Misso L., Verrazzo G., Violano P.F., Grandillo F., Tirelli A.
Air pollution by gasoline exhaust fumes: Effect on platelet function and blood viscosity
Twelve healthy, non-smoking volunteers were exposed for 30min in a closed room to automobile fumes. At the end of the test, HbCO levels were significantly increased, P50 STD was significantly reduced and an impairment of platelet function and blood viscosity was observed in the volunteers. There were no significant changes in cardiovascular parameters.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1989, Vol.80, No.3, p.187-191. 20 ref.

CIS 90-572 Zindler G., Staufenbiel R.
Mandatory pollutant monitoring in casting areas in foundries - carbon monoxide as indicator
Überwachungspflicht der Schadstoffsituation an Giessplätzen in Eisengiessereien - Kohlenmonoxid als Leitkomponente [in German]
The carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations at pouring stations in 10 foundries were measured by 4 different methods. In addition, the benzene concentrations in the breathing zone of workers were determined by personal sampling and capillary gas chromatography. It is concluded that CO can be used as an indicator for mandatory monitoring of exposure to carcinogenic substances such as benzene.
Giesserei, Oct. 1989, Vol.76, No.21, p.726-727. Illus.


CIS 91-265 Vasil'ev N.F., Hohlov N.N.
Detection of underground fires by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration change monitoring in return ventilation streams
Obnaruženie podzemnyj požarov po izmeneniju koncentracii okisi ugleroda v ishodjaščih strujah vozduha [in Russian]
The proposed Soviet system, SIGMA-SO, is based on the continuous monitoring of CO levels in coal mine return ventilation streams, with data presentation on a recorder chart. CO build-up may result from a multitude of factors other than a fire, such as coal or wood oxidation, mining processes (blasting, coal transport, etc.), spontaneous combustion of coal, etc. An equation obtained for deriving total CO levels in return air as a sum of different variables, has thus to be computer-processed in order to eliminate the interfering factors, (a) mean CO level does not exceed the mine's natural background of the working being monitored, a seat of fire is non-existent; (b) the mean level grows steadily for a long period at a slow, steady rate, spontaneous combustion of coal is evolving; (c) CO concentration builds up rapidly and, after having reached a certain limit value, persists as such for a certain period, an exogenous underground fire is developing.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Dec. 1988, No.12, p.35. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 90-1664 Ševčenko N.I., Marčenko A.A., Argučinskij V.I.
Pneumatic tubing gas monitoring system
Vozdušno-kanal'naja sistema gazovogo kontrolja [in Russian]
A gas monitoring system (description, schematic diagram and specifications are given) was developed and tested for the continuous automatic remote sampling and analysis of coal mine air both in normal and emergency conditions. The main purpose of the system is early detection of spontaneous coal combustion and incipient fires. Air is sampled at multiple locations of the facility (mine, working, etc.) and is pumped via special tubes, which are taped together in looms, to a central surface station, where it is analysed by automatic gas analysers. The system can be used for: routine mine air monitoring for gas (CO and methane) volume; air composition monitoring in isolated mine workings in cases of emergency (underground fires, outbursts of coal and gas); methane level monitoring inside coal bins at concentrating mills, etc. The main limitation of the system is a transport time lag, which may reach 2-3hrs when the sampling point and analyser are 5km apart.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Oct. 1988, No.10, p.35-36. Illus.

CIS 90-918 Thériault G.P., Tremblay C.G., Armstrong B.G.
Risk of ischemic heart disease among primary aluminium production workers
The risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) has been studied in relation to working conditions encountered in a primary aluminium smelter employing over 6,000 men. During the period 1975-1983, 306 new cases of IHD were identified which were matched with 575 referents. Results showed that white collar workers had a significantly lower risk of IHD (odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.70). Among blue collar workers, a significantly higher risk was observed for workers in the reduction division of the plant (OR = 1.72, CI = 1.09-2.97) including, in particular, Soderberg (OR = 1.71, CI = 1.07-2.72) and prebake (OR = 2.26, CI = 1.27-4.02) potroom workers. The risk of IHD did not increase with the length of time worked in these occupations. The search for associations (among blue collar workers) of risk with 9 specific contaminants (benzene soluble material, fluoride, total dust, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, thermal stress, noise, physical load, and mental load) proved inconclusive, with no association reaching statistical significance.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.6, p.659-666. 11 ref.

CIS 90-685 Douglas R.B., Blanks R., Crowther A., Scott G.
A study of stress in West Midlands firemen, using ambulatory electrocardiograms
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a fireman's work may subject him to cardiovascular stresses and to identify those areas of a fireman's duties which are most stressful. The West Midlands Fire Brigade (United Kingdom) was selected as being suitable for the study because it has a large number of full-time men (over 2000) engaged in various degrees of activity. A stratified sample of 100 officers and men was drawn from 12 stations to include busy and less busy stations. Long runs of ECG (63 hours each for the men, 48 hours each for the residential officers) were examined for ventricular ectopic beats and classified for severity according to a modified Lown grade scale (Lown and Wolf 1971) and then integrated over time to reflect frequency of occurrence as well as severity. This was called the ventricular cardiac strain score (VCSS). Higher scores were found in those under stress due to number of call-outs, level of seniority and diary-recorded stressful events.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1988, Vol.2, No.4, p.309-318. 8 ref.

CIS 90-34 Carbon monoxide
Tlenek wegla [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 20mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1988. 2p.

CIS 90-269 Brandt-Rauf P.W., Fallon L.F., Tarantini T., Idema C., Andrews L.
Health hazards of fire fighters: Exposure assessment
To assess the types and levels of exposure encountered by firefighters, members of the Buffalo Fire Department (USA) were monitored during firefighting activities with personal, portable, ambient environmental sampling devices. The results indicate that firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, benzene, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane, and particulates. In many cases of the worst exposure to these materials, respiratory protective equipment was not used owing to the visual impression of low smoke intensity. Many of these materials have been implicated in cardiovascular, respiratory, or neoplastic diseases. This may provide an explanation for the alleged increased risk of developing such diseases among firefighters.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1988, Vol.45, No.9, p.606-612. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 89-851 Blanc P.D., Golden J.A., Gamsu G., Aberle D.R., Gold W.M.
Asbestos exposure - Cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers
The roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers were studied with the view to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analysed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 15 Jan. 1988, Vol.259, No.3, p.370-373. 36 ref.

CIS 89-597 Schmidt P.
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsmedizin der DDR
Biological monitoring methods in occupational medicine
Biologische Kontrollmethoden in der Arbeitsmedizin [in German]
Manual for occupational health care personnel and inspectors. Chapters cover: the value of laboratory diagnosis to the occupational physician; biological exposure tests as a component of medical surveillance of workers exposed to harmful substances; toxicological bases of exposure assessment; exposure to substances in the general environment as a part of total exposure; principles of genetics applicable to the evaluation of exposure tests; recognition and evaluation of carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and embryotoxic substances; variations in the pollution of workplace air; sampling; the analytical laboratory; assessment of the reliability and validity of biological exposure tests; properties, analysis and monitoring of 21 substances or groups of substances.
VEB Volk und Gesundheit, Berlin, German Democratic Republic, 1988. 464p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 88-1913 Kosler F.
Fatal accidents caused by camping refrigerators in drivers' cabs of trucks
Tödliche Unfälle durch Camping-Kühlschränke in Lkw-Führerhäusern [in German]
Carbon monoxide poisoning is stated as the cause of death of 3 truck drivers. Propane gas-operated refrigerators in the drivers' cabs were identified as the CO-source. In one case a technically defective burner led to oxygen deficient combustion. In the other two cases oxygen deficiency in the closed driver's cab was attributed solely to the lack of fresh air supply from the outside. It is recommended to use electricity for operating the refrigerators.
Verkehrs-Rundschau, Mar. 1988, Special issue: Mitteilungen Berufsgenossenschaft für Fahrzeughaltungen No.10, p.3-5. Illus.


CIS 89-1652 NIOSH Alert - Reprints: October 1980 - December 1986
Thirteen alerts requesting assistance are reprinted: 2-nitropropane; benzidine-, o-tolidine-, and o-dianisidine-based dyes; controlling carbon monoxide hazard in aircraft refuelling operations; electrocutions of workers in fast food restaurants; injury of workers by robots; electrocutions from contact between cranes and power lines; deaths and injuries from excavation cave-ins; hazards in the use of water spray (fog) streams to prevent or control ignition of flammable atmospheres; occupational facilities in confined spaces; grain auger electrocutions; fatalities due to fires and explosions in oxygen-limiting silos; electrocutions due to damaged receptacles and connectors; fatalities of workers who contact electrical energy.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1987. 105p. Bibl.

CIS 89-877 Kustov V.V., Jastrebov V.E., Razinkin S.M.
Basis for a maximum allowable concentration of carbon monoxide on short-term exposure
Materialy k obosnovaniju maksimal'no dopustimoj koncentracii okisi ugleroda pri kratkovremennom vozdejstvii [in Russian]
Human experiments on 6 male volunteers to establish maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide on short-term exposure. After 10min exposure to concentrations of 600mg/m3 and especially of 800mg/m3, initial symptoms of light poisoning (disappearing after 24 hours) were observed. Objective signs of carbon monoxide poisoning develop earlier than subjective symptoms: increasing carboxyhaemoglobin levels in blood (up to 10%), decreasing adaptive capacity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and increasing times of simple sensorimotor reflexes which indicate disorders in the nervous system. The maximum allowable concentration of carbon monoxide on one-time exposure for 10 minutes should not exceed 600mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1987, No.4, p.34-36. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 88-1971 Barčan G.P., Levkovič M.M., Testoedova S.I., Steblecova V.D.
Gas chromatographic method for determination of carbon monoxide and dioxide
Gasohromatografičeskij metod opredelenija oksida i dioksida ugleroda [in Russian]
The characteristic feature of the method is the preliminary separation of CO and CO2 at room temperature on a short column (45 x 3.5mm), filled with SKT activated carbon (0.25-0.50mm) outside the chromatograph. The separated oxides are converted to methane on a nickel catalyst at approx. 500°C and analysed with a flame-ionisation detector. Hydrogen was used as carrier gas and reducing agent. The minimum detectable amount of oxide is 0.5mg/m3 in a sample volume of 2mL. The method was used to analyse products of out-gassing from coatings containing phenol-formaldehyde resins.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1987, No.1, p.49-50. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 87-1340 Tikuisis P., Madill H.D., Gill B.J., Lewis W.F., Cox K.M., Kane D.M.
A critical analysis of the use of the CFK equation in predicting COHb formation
Fifteen healthy young males, nine at rest and six at exercise, were exposed to high transient levels of carbon monoxide (CO) to simulate the breathing environment measured in an armoured vehicle during weapons firing. Depending on the dosage, the CO exposures raised the subjects' carboxyhaemoglobin saturation (%COHb) from 1.7% to 17.3%. The measured % COHb levels compared favourably (regression coefficient b=1.04) with those predicted by the theoretical model of Coburn et al. When the same model was applied to a method proposed by NIOSH, however, a significant overprediction was found (b=1.28). It appears that this overprediction results primarily from the failure to take into account the presence of water vapour in the lungs when the inspired pressure of CO is considered, and from the use of incorrect values for alveolar ventilation. These results demonstrate the errors that may arise from the incorrect utilisation of the equation by Coburn et al. and the effect that this may have upon the calculation of the limits for safe occupational exposure to CO.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1987, Vol.48, No.3, p.208-213. Illus. 14 ref.


CIS 89-1324
Sovet Ėkonomičeskoj Vzaimopomo¿či
Occupational Safety and Health - Methods for determining chemical substances in workplace air
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija - Metody opredelenija himičeskih veščestv v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Methods for the determination of the following hazardous substances in workplace air: dimethyl sulfate, norbornene polychlorinated biphenyls, benzidine, p-chlorophenol, carbon monoxide, chloroacetophenone, water-soluble chromium compounds, tetraethyllead, oil aerosols, epichlorohydrin, volatile hydrocarbons from cutting fluids, solvent naphtha. The gas chromatographic and photometric methods have been adopted as official methods of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.
Izdatel'skij otdel, Upravlenija delami Sekretariata SĖV, prospekt Kalinina 56, 121205 Moskva, USSR, 1986. 49p.

CIS 88-1787 Carbon monoxide
Monoxyde de carbone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Highly flammable gas. Exposure limit (ACGIH, 1986-87): TLV-TWA = 55mg/m3. Toxicity: displaces oxygen in blood; asphyxiant; chronic heart diseases.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1986. 17p. 23 ref.

CIS 87-599 Balev A.I., Kul'pa L.S., Jančuk V.F.
Development of a two-zone exhaust system for removing gases from low-capacity arc furnaces
Razrabotka processa dvuhzonnogo gazootbora dugovyh pečej maloj vmestimosti [in Russian]
When one metric ton of steel is refined in an electric arc furnace, 80-90kg of carbon monoxide, approx. 10kg fine dust, as well as sulfur monoxide, nitrogen and other substances are set free. The effectiveness of exhaust hoods rarely exceeds 70%. Description of a two-zone system which enables an effectiveness of 93-95% to be attained by exhausting 16,000-18,000m3/h (t=80°C): In the first zone, the gases are drawn from the charging door, and in the second, through the openings in the roof round the electrodes, from where the gases pass into a telescopic and articulated duct allowing the furnace to be tilted. While the gases are exhausted, air penetrates into the furnace and helps to burn part of the carbon monoxide.
Litejnoe proizvodstvo, July 1986, No.7, p.24.

CIS 87-74 Carbon monoxide
Chemical identity; potential exposure; exposure limits; properties; health effects; industrial hygiene practices and control; personal protective equipment; fire, explosions; dangerous combinations; storage, spillage, disposal, transport.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, Aug. 1986. 2p.


CIS 86-1931 Sedov A.V., Surovcev N.A., Mazneva G.E., Lukičeva T.A., Byčkov S.V., Bobrov A.F.
Effect of air temperature and physical load on the toxicity of carbon monoxide
O vlijanii temperatury vozduha i fizičeskoj nagruzki na toksičnost' okisi ugleroda [in Russian]
Healthy subjects were exposed in a test chamber to temperatures of 20-40°C, relative humidities of 40-60% and carbon monoxide concentrations of 300mg/m3. The toxic effects of the gas were measured in terms of carboxyhaemoglobin concentration, pulse rate, hand tremor and body temperature. Whereas it was possible for a person at rest to be exposed for 120min at 20°C, 90min at 30°C and 60min at 40°C, the expenditure of energy at a rate of 400 kilogram-meter per minute lowered the permissible durations of exposure to 60min at 30°C and 30min at 40°C.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1985, No.9, p.9-11. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 86-1595 Ėjtengon A.I.
Predicting the toxic effect of combustion products of polymers
Prognozirovanie toksičeskogo ėffekta produktov gorenija polymernyh materialov [in Russian]
Adequate mathematical models for predicting the toxicity of combustion products of polymers were developed on the basis of mathematical analysis of experimental data. The compounds contributing most to the lethal effect of burning polymers were determined: polyvinyl chloride gave hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide; aromatic polyamide and elastic polyurethane gave hydrocyanic acid; materials based on styrene-nitrile copolymers emitted carbon monoxide and hydrocyanic acid; fluorinated organic compounds gave hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1985, No.4, p.20-23. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 85-1893 McConnaughey P.W., McKee E.S., Pritts I.M.
Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide
These colorimetric stain length personal dosimeters, known by the trade name Vapor Guard, have been developed by the Mine Safety Appliances Company, Pittsburgh, PA 15208, USA. Calibration tests indicate that the tubes are accurate to ±25% and that temperature (5-40°C) and relative humidity (20-90%) do not significantly affect the results.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1985, Vol.46, No.7, p.357-362. Illus. 64 ref.


CIS 86-507 Petr J.
Hygienic aspects of work with one-man power saws
Hygienická hlediska práce s jednomužnými motorovými pilami [in Czech]
Nonauditory illness due to noise seems to be more frequent than a compensable degree of hearing loss. A risk of illness is induced by vibration transmitted to the hand, arm and spinal cord. Approximately 1% of forestry workers contract a compensable occupational disease. Carbon monoxide from exhaust gases reaches higher concentrations only when the wind is still in low, dense growths. Injuries by power saws occur most frequently during trimming and felling and affect primarily the hand and lower extremities.
Lesnictví, Sep. 1984, Vol.30, No.9, p.824-827. 8 ref.

CIS 85-1927 Ėjtingon A.I., Šašina T.A., Poddubnaja L.T., Ulanova I.P., Veselovskaja K.A., Naumova L.S.
Setting of emergency exposure limits for pyrolysis products of polyvinyl chloride materials
Obosnovanie avarijnyh predelov vozdejstvija produktov gorenija polivinilhloridnyh materialov [in Russian]
Description of a method for determining the "saturation point" of materials (SP), i.e. the maximum amount of materials which, when burning, will not yield enough combustion products to cause death or serious injury to people during their emergency evacuation, and the emergency exposure limits (EEL) for the main substances produced by the combustion of these materials. The SP for polyvinyl chloride is 7.3g/m3 and the EELs are 60±10mg/m3 for carbon monoxide, 950±290mg/m3 for carbon dioxide, 124±49mg/m3 for hydrogen chloride.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1984, No.8, p.52-54. 7 ref.

CIS 85-1621
Health and Safety Executive
Carbon monoxide
Contents of this guidance note: properties and toxic effects of carbon monoxide ; sampling and analysis; exposure limits; sources of exposure (open flame heaters, internal combustion engines, iron and steel manufacture and metal treatment, the chemical industry); preventive measures (substitution, total enclosure, ventilation, safe systems of work, personal protection); first aid; gas monitoring; legal requirements. The appendix contains tables showing effects of various blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels and showing carboxyhaemoglobin levels in blood as a function of time, exposure level and type of work (sedentary, light and heavy physical).
HM Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, Aug. 1984. 9p. 13 ref. Price: £2.50.

CIS 85-736 Harto Castaño A., Pingarrón Carrazón J.M.
Thiocyanate determination in blood as an aid in the diagnosis of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning, and as an indicator of tobacco smoking. Description of three determination methods
La tiocianuremia como ayuda al diagnóstico del oxicarbonismo crónico e indicador del tabaquismo. Descripción de tres métodos para su determinación [in Spanish]
Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels are quite high in smokers; therefore, their determination cannot always be used for the evaluation of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in the workplace. Hydrogen cyanide, a component of cigarettes, is transformed into thiocyanates by smokers, so that the presence of thiocyanates in blood can be used to distinguish smokers from non-smokers. 3 determination methods for thiocyanates are described, 2 using spectrophotometry, and the 3rd using cathode desorption. Analysing COHb levels and thiocyanate levels as a function of number of cigarettes smoked per day, it is shown that even at 5 cigarettes a day, approx. 50% of the COHb in workers exposed to CO is due to smoking, while at over 30 cigarettes a day, almost all of it is. The level of thiocyanates being directly proportional to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, the level of CO exposure can be calculated from the 2 sets of data.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan. 1983-Mar. 1984, Vol.31, No.121, p.1-8. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 85-455 Radziszewski E., Guillerm R.
A method for the determination of carbon monoxide in 100µL blood samples and for the determination of the carboxyhaemoglobin level
Une microméthode pour la mesure du volume de monoxyde de carbone dans un échantillon de sang de cent microlitres et évaluation de la carboxyhémoglobine [in French]
Micromethod developed for the accurate determination of carbon monoxide in blood samples of 100µL, using infrared absorption spectrometry. Blood is collected from an earlobe with a capillary tube. 5% of the sample is used for the determination of haemoglobin concentration with a high-precision microphotometer, which allows the result of the analysis to be converted to carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) concentration. The method has been tested for HbCO levels in the range of 0.5% to 100%. The technique is recommended for toxicokinetic and epidemiologic studies because of its simplicity and the possibility of on-site sampling with later analysis.
Journal de toxicologie médicale, Oct.-Dec. 1984, Vol.4, No.4, p.305-316. Illus. 11 ref.

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