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Carbon monoxide - 248 entries found

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CIS 11-0240 Vyskocil A., Leroux T., Truchon G., Lemay F., Gagnon F., Gendron M., Boudjerida A., El-Majidi N., Viau C.
Effect of chemical substances on hearing - Interactions with noise
Effet des substances chimiques sur l'audition - Interactions avec le bruit [in French]
While noise is the main cause of occupational deafness, certain chemical substances can produce ototoxic effects that may make the ear more prone to acoustic assault, as opposed to noise alone. They are mainly solvents, asphyxiants, metals and pesticides, widespread in workplaces. In Quebec, over 400,000 workers are exposed to high noise levels, which raise concerns regarding the prevention of hearing impairments. This literature survey evaluated the effects of various chemical substances on hearing, and characterized the interactions between these chemical substances and noise at exposure levels respecting the current standards of the Occupational health and safety regulations. Strong interactions were found for toluene and carbon monoxide. Less solid evidence was found for other substances, with either lack of evidence or inconclusive results.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. v, 18p. Illus. 59 ref.
R-685.pdf [in French]


CIS 10-0390 Exposure assessment for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in German hard coal mining
Exposures of German hard coal miners to nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured in a cohort of 1369 miners from two German coal mines, and the data were used to estimate long-term exposures. For all three components, time weighted 8h shift values were determined for typical groups of coalminers according to the European measurement standard. An expert panel from the coal mining company estimated major potential long-term changes in the exposure situation. The main sources of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were diesel engines, while blasting fumes contributed to a lesser degree. The findings concerning CO are discussed in a separate publication. Among diesel engine drivers, current 8h average exposures were 1.35ppm for NO and 0.21ppm for NO2. For blasting workers, the corresponding values were 0.84ppm and 0.014ppm. By applying these data and the estimates of experts concerning retrospectives, cumulative exposures for NO and NO2 were determined from 1974 until 1998. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2009, Vol.92, No.10, p.1267-1279. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 09-1337 Dupont M.A., Handfield G., Beaudoin D., Côté E., Choukevitch S.
Coffee grains: A risk to workers' health?
Les grains de café: un risque pour la santé des travailleurs [in French]
An evaluation of the quality of air carried out by hygiene authorities in a coffee roasting plant highlighted the presence of carbon monoxide, not due to the burners as originally suspected but to the roasted coffee grains themselves. The problem was confirmed in other enterprises which were also inspected. Various measures are proposed, including in particular local exhaust, ventilation design and the layout of the premises.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.38-42. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 11-0076 Dhanjal A.S.
Health and Safety Executive
A review of carbon monoxide incident information, for 2005/06, produced from the full investigation of incidents which had resulted from the use of piped natural gas and LPG, within Great Britain
This report covers accidental carbon monoxide poisoning incidents resulting from the use of piped natural gas for the period 1 April 2005 to 31 March 2006 in the United Kingdom. The report analyses information obtained from the Downstream Incident Data Report. The report covers both domestic and industrial incidents. Tables and plots are provided for poisoning fatalities, poisoning incidents, and risks associated with the use of gas appliances, with trends from 1996/97. For domestic appliance-related incidents, data include room location, proximity to walls, fire resistance and electrical safety.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 76p. Illus. 4 ref.
Report_RR634.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-912 Martel R., Comeau G., Trépanier L., Parent G., Lévesque B.
Evaluation of carbon monoxide production and propagation following urban blasting work
Evaluation de la production et de la propagation du monoxyde de carbone suite à des travaux de dynamitage en milieu urbain [in French]
Explosives used for some types of civil engineering work can generate significant carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, which may spread through rock fissures to confined spaces such as sewers and manholes, or basements of buildings. This study was undertaken to define the precautionary measures to be adopted before carrying out blasting work, in order to prevent hazardous situations for workers as well as for neighbouring residents. A network of CO detectors was placed at and around the experimental blasting site, as well as in neighbouring buildings. Various recommendations are proposed for improving blasting practices in order to minimize CO emissions at these sites and in their vicinity.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. xi, 129p. Illus. 19 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]


CIS 08-1131 Dhanjal A.S.
Health and Safety Executive
A review of carbon monoxide incident information, for 2004/05, produced from the full investigation of incidents which had resulted from the use of piped natural gas and LPG, within Great Britain
The aim of this work was to identify common causes of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents related to appliance and system design, installation and maintenance, in order to further improve customer safety, target expenditure on incident prevention and to identify further research work. A national data collection scheme was established for piped natural gas and LPG CO incidents which occur within the United Kingdom. This report provides information on the 27 incidents collected in this national data collection scheme for the period 2004/05.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 83p. Illus. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-272
Health and Safety Executive
Gas appliances: Get them checked - Keep them safe
This leaflet aimed at users of gas appliances explains the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning when using defective equipment. It describes the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning, gives guidance on what should never be done and on the frequency of safety checks. It also recalls that gas appliances are covered by the Gas and Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998 (see CIS 00-924).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002, reprinted 2007. 8p. Illus. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1392 Roberge B.
Carbon monoxide emissions by propane-fed fork-lifts - Technical guide for health and safety specialists (Revised version)
Monoxyde de carbone émis par les chariots au propane - Fiche technique pour les intervenants en santé au travail (version révisée) [in French]
Existing Canadian regulations do not require a preventive maintenance programme for propane-powered forklift trucks and do not specify optimal ventilation conditions for industrial premises where they are used. A study was undertaken to establish a uniform strategy for evaluating carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from propane-powered forklift trucks and to highlight the importance of regular engine maintenance. CO concentrations were determined in forklift truck exhaust gases and in the workers' breathing zones at several companies, and their relationship with various conditions of engine maintenance was analysed. The results of this study are summarized in this technical guide that provides industrial hygienists with a proper tool to evaluate CO emissions from propane-powered forklift trucks.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal H3A 3C2, Quebec, Canada, 2007. 9p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: CAD 3.96. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]


CIS 08-655 Dhanjal A.S.
Health and Safety Executive
A review of carbon monoxide incident information for 2003/04
The aim of this work is to identify common causes of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents related to appliance and system design, installation and maintenance in order to further improve customer safety, target expenditure on CO incident prevention and identify further research work. Data on all piped natural gas and LPG CO incidents that occurred in the United Kingdom from 1st April 2003 to 31 March 2004 were collected and analysed. During this period, there were 36 domestic piped natural gas incidents and two LPG incidents reported. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 87p. Illus. 4 ref. [in English]


CIS 06-1170 Scarino A., Tardif R.
Modelling of carbon monoxide exposure
Modélisation de l'exposition au monoxyde de carbone [in French]
The Canadian standards review committee is questioning the possibility of revising downwards the regulations on exposure to carbon monoxide (CO). Many workers in Quebec are exposed to this substance, under many conditions, and a modification of the standard could have impacts on their health as well as economic consequences for the companies. Using a toxicokinetic model, this project studied the effect of various CO exposure scenarios on blood levels of carboxyhaemoglobin by taking into account peak exposures during a typical workday, the workload, the size of exposed individuals and their smoking habits. The results provide additional data for deciding upon a carbon monoxide exposure standard.
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. 20p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 06-650 Gwin K.K., Wallingford K.M., Morata T.C., Van Campen L.E., Dallaire J., Alvarez F.J.
Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: II. Chemical surveys
NIOSH conducted a series of surveys to evaluate occupational exposure to noise and potentially ototoxic chemical agents among members of a professional car racing team. Area samples were collected during visits to the team's shop. Exposures to these chemicals were all below their corresponding OSHA, NIOSH and ACGIH recommended exposure levels. Area and personal samples were also collected for organic compounds, lead and carbon monoxide (CO) in and around the racetrack pit area where the cars undergo race preparation and are refuelled before and during the race. Exposures to organic compounds and lead were either non-detectable or too low to quantify. Although some CO concentrations exceeded the recommended levels, exposures to potentially ototoxic chemicals are probably not high enough to cause hearing loss greater than that produced by the high sound pressure levels alone.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2005, Vol.2, No.8, p.406-413. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 05-639 Richard C., Alary R., Delaunay C., Leprince A.
Occupational carbon monoxide poisonings: Results of a survey
Intoxications oxycarbonées professionnelles: résultats d'une enquête [in French]
The objective of this project was to analyse data on incidents of occupational carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from the Paris police laboratory and from the medical literature. Topics covered: toxic effects of CO and diagnosis of CO poisoning; analysis of conditions leading to intoxication (type of equipment and fuel in use, type of work and workplace, ventilation); national and international statistics; preventive measures (occupational exposure limits).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.102, p.191-213. 48 ref.$FILE/tf140.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-659 Brunet S.
Measurement of carbon monoxide emissions from hot air generators used on construction sites
Mesure des émissions de monoxyde de carbone des générateurs d'air chaud utilisés sur les chantiers de construction [in French]
This report describes laboratory measurements of the carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by four hot air generators of different powers supplied by rental companies. Owing to the variability in the measurements obtained, an emission value of 15g of CO/100,000 BTU is recommended for evaluating the air quality on construction sites. The high temperature of some generators may also represent a risk for workers. Several observations were made about the general condition of the equipment that can represent a risk. It is emphasized that only persons with the required competency certificate may connect a hot air generator to propane tanks or to the natural gas network.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. 8p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]


CIS 07-520
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Pollution in closed garages
Revista do trabalhador: Poluição em garagens fechadas [in Portuguese]
This videotape explains how workers in closed garages are exposed to high concentrations of carbon monoxide gas from car exhausts and describes measures for minimizing risks to workers' health.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Videotape (VHS format), 11min.

CIS 06-1262 Carbon monoxide
Monóxido de carbono [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet on carbon monoxide. The substance is a colourless, toxic, extremely flammable gas. Inhalation causes the formation of carboxyhaemoglobin, reducing the blood's ability to carry oxygen around the body. Depending on the level and duration of exposure, symptoms may include vertigo, nausea, mental confusion and eventually loss of consciousness and death. It may cause long-term effects on the nervous system and the cardiovascular system.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Carrera 20, No.39-62, 6839 Bogotá, Colombia, 2004. 4p.

CIS 04-638 Moore M.
Health and Safety Executive
A review of carbon monoxide incident information for 2002/03
The aim of this project was to identify common causes of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents related to appliance and system design, installation and maintenance. The work involved analysing CO incident statistics, which enabled the identification of the most common causes of CO incidents. There were 12 CO poisoning fatalities caused by faulty appliances in 2002-2003. The most common causes were lack of servicing and faults in the flueing and ventilation systems. As a result of this work, recommendations are made with respect to further improving customer safety, targeting expenditure on CO incident prevention and further research work.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. vi, 88p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 04-417 Hill R.W., Marks S.
Health and Safety Executive
Flueless gas fires - Concentration of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, and particulate level produced in use
Fixed flueless gas fires to supplement central heating systems are subject to certification by an independent Notified Body for compliance with the Gas Appliances Directive. The certification process includes an assessment of the manufacturer's installation instructions. Three manufacturers are currently offering a range of flueless fires. However, their installation instructions are inconsistent with one another. The objective of this project was to encourage manufacturers to develop common product and installation standards. It involved measuring the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulates produced by the appliances in a test facility simulating a residential home.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 34p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 03-1811 Moore M.
Health and Safety Executive
A review of carbon monoxide incident information for 2001/02
The aim of this work was to identify common causes of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents related to appliance and system design, installation and maintenance, for the purpose of improving customer safety, targeting expenditure on CO incident prevention and identifying further research work. A national data collection scheme for CO incidents which occur within the United Kingdom was established. This report provides information collected through this data collection scheme, and covers the reporting period 2001/02. During this period, there were 55 piped natural gas incidents and 10 LPG incidents reported, involving 13 fatalities and 109 non-fatal casualties. The data are expressed by time of the year, type of appliance or system and likely cause of the incident.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. vi, 82p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. [in English]


CIS 03-794 Pelham T.W., Holt L.E., Moss M.A.
Exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in enclosed ice arenas
This literature review summarizes the latest information on the cardiorespiratory effects of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in enclosed ice rinks. Sources of CO and NO2 emissions are identified. Current standards for these agents, as well as methods of controlling the emissions, dispersion, and evacuation are presented. Findings indicate that air pollutants such as CO and NO2 which are present in enclosed skating facilities may exacerbate possible pre-existing pathogenic conditions among persons who spend considerable time in these environments. Considering the popularity of ice hockey, speed skating and figure skating, and the hundreds of hours that a sensitive person may spend each year in these environments, it is important to conduct further research in this area. From the findings and conclusions of the research reviewed in this paper, ten recommendations are made.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.59, No.4, p.224-233. 72 ref.

CIS 03-783 Zelnick S.D., Lischak M.W., Young D.G., Massa T.V.
Prevention of carbon monoxide exposure in general and recreational aviation
Carbon monoxide (CO) exposure poses a significant, although uncommon risk in aviation. Exposure is most common in single engine piston-driven aircraft where air is passed over the exhaust manifold to serve as cabin heat. Effective primary prevention of this exposure is the regular inspection and maintenance of aircraft exhaust systems, as required by law. For situations at special risk should exposure occur, and where there is concern for the public safety, installation of active warning devices for CO intrusion into cabins may constitute secondary prevention. However, further studies need to be performed to support FAA standards for pilot exposure to CO, for use in monitors alerting pilots to the possibility of exhaust gas intrusion into aircraft cabins.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2002, Vol.73, No.8, p.812-816. 32 ref.

CIS 03-553
Health and Safety Executive
Gas appliances - Get them checked, keep them safe
Each year, approximately 30 persons die in the United Kingdom from carbon monoxide poisoning caused by gas appliances which have not been properly installed or maintained. This leaflet describes the risks of carbon monoxide poisoning from gas appliances and outlines the legal requirements in the United Kingdom for the safe installation and use of these appliances. Replaces CIS 97-611.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Apr. 2002. 6p. 1 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-331 Hill R.W.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of methods to detect leaks in the casing of room sealed appliances
Incidents involving the escape of carbon monoxide from central heating boilers occur frequently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate suitable procedures for detecting leaks from the case and seals of pressurized central heating boilers. The following procedures were found to be suited: visual and tactile inspection of the case and seals; smoke tubes to produce smoke for flow visualization; smoke matches to produce smoke for flow visualization; ordinary matches and wax tapers to produce a flame for flow visualization. However, the use of a flue gas analyser is not recommended: it does detect the drop in oxygen concentration or the presence of carbon monoxide due to a leak of combustion products, but may miss the small changes from a boiler burning well but leaking only slightly.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 61p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. [in English]

CIS 02-1842 Martel R., Sanfaçon G., Schnebelen M., Trépanier L., Lévesque B., Lavigne M.A., Boutin L.C., Gauvin D., Galarneau L., Auger P.
Evaluation of carbon monoxide produced during work with explosives
Evaluation de la production de monoxyde de carbone associée aux travaux aux explosifs [in French]
Carbon monoxide (CO) generated by explosives can migrate underground and accumulate in confined spaces. Over a five-year period in Quebec, there were a number of incidents where residents were strongly indisposed, and seven persons were sufficiently intoxicated to require hyperbaric treatment. This hazard is probably more widespread than is generally recognized, considering the lack of understanding of the problem, the insidious nature of CO poisoning and the large number of explosions (between 1000 and 1500) carried out each year in the course of civil engineering work in Quebec. This report includes the results of several studies: a retrospective study of CO poisonings based on data from various sources, a study on CO measurements carried out at construction sites using explosives and a study of various methods for limiting the propagation of CO in fractured rock in the vicinity of work with explosives. The main recommendations are aimed at civil engineering contractors and concern the implementation of procedures for limiting CO propagation. Certain appendices are available only in electronic version.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Sep. 2002. iv, 41p. Illus. 10 ref. An electronic version of the report in PDF format is also included on a CD-ROM. [in French]

CIS 02-1777 Springston J.P., Esposito W.A., Cleversey K.W.
Baseline indoor air quality measurements collected from 136 metropolitan New York region commercial office buildings between 1997-1999
Between January 1997 and December 1999, 648 surveys were performed in 136 commercial office buildings in the greater New York area as part of an indoor environmental quality programme. Sampling was performed on a spot basis in non-problem buildings, during normal business hours, either quarterly or semiannually. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were among the various physical and chemical parameters which were sampled. More than 15,000 data points were collected, and the results were analyzed to determine the mean, median and standard deviation for each of those parameters. The results were then compared to various standards and guidelines applicable to the indoor environment. It was found that 98% of the CO2 readings were below 1000ppm, and 99.9% of the CO readings were below 10ppm. However for TVOCs, nearly 88% of the readings exceeded the proposed European guideline value of 0.3mg/m3.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2002, Vol.63, No.3, p.354-360. Illus. 41 ref.


CIS 02-782 Boulat J.F., Gucève L., Pelé A., Michel M.C.
Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning
Intoxication professionnelle par l'oxyde de carbone [in French]
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly dangerous gas capable of causing death in a few seconds. During 1997, there were 106 occupational accidents in France involving a loss of work time following acute CO poisoning. Contents of this review article on CO poisoning at work: definition of the hazard; conditions of exposure, in particular in the construction industry; pathophysiological mechanisms; preventive measures; trends in the number of cases of occupational diseases due to CO; French and European regulations.
Prévention BTP, Dec. 2001, No.36, p.33-40. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 01-1776 Pool G.
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing carbon monoxide incidents
This report describes a project aimed at reducing the number of carbon monoxide (CO) related incidents associated with the use of piped gas. Specific topics examined include the development of a common strategy in Europe for collating CO incident data, assessing indoor air quality relating to gas utilization and the medical issues associated with both acute and chronic CO poisoning. Several meetings have been held with representatives of gas utilities of several European countries and research organizations to share knowledge and best practice. Outputs from the project have included a video aimed at improving the diagnosis of CO poisoning by those in the medical profession and an agreement between gas companies to pursue a better practice for the gathering and reporting of CO related incident information.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 42p. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 01-1171 Hill R.
Health and Safety Executive
Detection of leaks in seals of fan pressurised central heating boilers
The purpose of the project was to define a suitable method for detecting leaks of combustion products from the case and seals of fan pressurized central heating boilers, which can result in carbon monoxide emissions. Several methods were found to have the potential to detect leaks: smoke tubes to produce smoke for flow visualization; flue gas analyser to detect the drop in oxygen concentration due to a leak of combustion products or to determine the flue gas composition; micro-manometers to determine the overpressure inside the boiler casing. Further work is required to determine appropriate test criteria and to develop suitable procedures for use by a service engineer.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 24p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]


CIS 01-1489 Opara D.
Accident caused by cleaning operations in an underground car park
Massenunfall bei Reinigungsarbeiten in einer Tiefgarage [in German]
All four workers performing cleaning work in an underground car park with a high-pressure jet-cleaner with oil-fired heater had to be treated for carbon monoxide poisoning. The exhaust gases from the oil-fired heater had increased the carbon monoxide concentration in the underground car park to 500mL/m3. This level was roughly 16 times higher than the German exposure limit of 30mL/m3. Current German regulations require the employer to take precautionary measures during such cleaning work to make sure the limit is not exceeded. A high-pressure jet cleaner with an electric heater is to be used where possible. Otherwise, the employer has to inform the workers of the hazards to ensure that the area where the cleaning operations are performed is properly ventilated and that the equipment is in good operating condition.
BAU-BG Aktuell, 2000, No.2, p.6-8. Illus.


CIS 01-1136 Lécrivain J., Gerber J.M., Aubert S., Delsaut P., Dogan C., Masson A., Héry M.
Assessing the quality of air used to feed supplied air respirators: Measurement of oil and carbon monoxide content
Evaluation de la qualité de l'air utilisé pour l'alimentation des systèmes à adduction d'air: mesure de la teneur en huile et en monoxyde de carbone [in French]
The objective of this study was to examine the quality of compressed air from compressors supplied to wearers of respiratory protection devices. A field study was conducted in different industrial settings, including asbestos removal work, metal part sandblasting and fettling work in a foundry. A sampling and counting method for compressed air was developed, and oil and carbon monoxide concentrations were measured in the air either while it was coming out of the compressor or after it had gone through a cleaning device. The findings differed between sites, although serious exposures were encountered only on one site (and excessively high concentrations in air directly at the compressor on one other site). The responsibilities of the various industry participants (equipment hirers, employers and occupational hygienists) are described, and the need for special compressors for respirable air as well as the importance of maintenance and inspection procedures for this type of equipment are emphasized.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1999, No.175, p.5-12. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 01-513
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Carbon monoxide
The summary of this report highlights the major issues and makes recommendations for further research. The results on which the health criteria are based are: physical and chemical properties; environmental sources and levels; toxicokinetics and metabolism; effects on experimental animals and humans (cardiovascular, pulmonary, cerebrovascular, behavioural effects, developmental toxicity); combined exposure with other factors (high altitude, drugs, alcohol, smoking) and high-risk groups. Information about occupational exposure given. The occupations with high exposure risk are vehicle driving, maintaining and parking, steel production, coke ovens, carbon black production, petroleum refining, fire fighting, cooking and construction. Replaces CIS 80-720. Summaries in French and in Spanish.
World Health Organization, Marketing and Dissemination, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 1999. xxiv, 464p. Approx. 800 ref. Index. Price: CHF 96.00 (CHF 67.20 in developing countries).

CIS 00-162 Sarkar T.K., Banerjee K.K., Sarkar A.K., Samanta A.
Evaluation of carbon monoxide exposure in an integrated coal chemical industry
An evaluation study of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure of workers in an integrated coal chemical industry was carried out. The highest mean environmental CO level was found to be 425ppm at the producer gas plant, whereas the mean minimum level was measured at 14.3ppm at pocking zones. In lock-hopper zones, the highest mean CO concentration was 338.7ppm during charging time. In the retort house, the mean CO level was 285ppm during charging time. The mean carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) level of producer gas plant employees was 5.84, whereas the level was found to be 4.93 in employees working in the retort house. These values were significantly altered in comparison to controls (mean level of 1.66). Results indicate significant exposure to CO in both the producer gas plant and the retort house, which caused different clinical manifestations in the employees.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.50-53. 10 ref.


CIS 00-1101 Carbon monoxide poisoning and death after the use of explosives in a sewer construction project
Topics: carbon monoxide; carboxyhaemoglobin; case study; CO diffusion; confined spaces; construction industry; data sheet; fatalities; manholes; USA; work in sewers.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Aug. 1998. 2p.

CIS 98-858
Health and Safety Executive
Carbon monoxide: Health hazards and precautionary measures
Topics: air sampling; carbon monoxide; chemical industry; data sheet; enclosure; exhaust gases; exhaust ventilation; first aid; fuel burning equipment; hazard evaluation; health engineering; information of personnel; internal combustion engines; iron and steel industry; respirators; safe working methods; threshold limit values; toxic effects; United Kingdom; uses.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Mar. 1998. 9p. 19 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 98-729 Hawkes A.P., McCammon J.B., Hoffman R.E.
Indoor use of concrete saws and other gas-powered equipment - Analysis of reported carbon monoxide poisoning cases in Colorado
Topics: carbon monoxide; carboxyhaemoglobin level; Colorado; epidemiologic study; internal combustion engines; poisoning; power-driven hand tools; saws; USA; work in confined spaces.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1998, Vol.40, No.1, p.49-54. Illus. 15 ref.


CIS 00-960 Carbon monoxide - The silent cold weather killer
Topics: alarm systems; carbon monoxide; fuel burning equipment; heating equipment; limitation of exposure; poisoning; safe working methods; safety checks; toxic atmosphere detection; training material; USA.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2700 Prosperity Ave., Suite 250, Fairfax, VA 22031, USA, 1997. 9p. 1 ref.

CIS 98-695 Earnest G.S., Mickelsen R.L., McCammon J.B., O'Brien D.M.
Carbon monoxide poisonings from small, gasoline-powered, internal combustion engines: Just what is a "well-ventilated area"?
Topics: carbon monoxide; confined spaces; determination in air; gasoline engine powered tools; limitation of exposure; mathematical models; ventilation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1997, Vol.58, No.11, p.787-791. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 97-1615 McNabb N., Kostiuk J., Brauer M.
Improved ice arena air quality with the use of a three-way catalytic converter and fuel management system
Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in an ice arena were evaluated before and after a three-way catalytic converter and fuel management system were retrofitted to a 7-year old ice resurfacing machine. Air sampling indicated an 87% reduction in airborne nitrogen dioxide concentrations after the retrofit. Carbon monoxide levels were also reduced by 57%. It is recommended that this option be used in conjunction with other measures to minimize indoor air concentrations of combustion exhaust gases.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1997, Vol.58, No.8, p.608-612. 24 ref.

CIS 97-921 Kamei M., Yanagisawa Y.
Estimation of CO exposure of road construction workers in tunnel
Carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured in three tunnels in the Boston area (United States) and the potential exposure of construction workers in the tunnels was estimated. CO concentrations ranged from 5ppm to 42ppm, and a linear relationship between CO concentration and distance from the tunnel entrance was observed. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommendation for CO exposure is 35ppm TWA for light work and 26-27ppm for heavy work. Repeated monitoring of CO levels during construction work in tunnels is recommended.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.119-125. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 02-544 Brondeau M.T., Calvel T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P.
Carbon monoxide
Oxyde de carbone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: paresis of the limbs, coma, convulsions, leading rapidly to death in the absence of treatment (superacute or massive intoxication); depending on the carboxyhaemoglobinaemia level, dyspnoea when undertaking efforts, reduction of the nervous conduction velocity, visual disorders, irritability; cardiotoxic effects. Chronic toxicity: migraine, vertigo, asthenia, cardiological effects; foetotoxic effects. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 55mg/m3 (50ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.006-001-00-2; F+, T, R12, R61, R23, R48/23, S45, S53, 211-128-3. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 6p. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 97-1296 Alert: Preventing carbon monoxide poisoning from small gasoline-powered engines and tools
This document outlines the health effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and summarizes reports of poisoning resulting from the use of gasoline-powered tools. Examples of environmental measurements and modelling techniques illustrate how quickly CO levels can reach dangerous concentrations. Recommendations for employers and equipment users include location of gasoline engines outside and away from air intakes, recognizing signs of CO poisoning, CO monitoring and substitution with less hazardous equipment.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Nov. 1996. iv, 15p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 97-888 Chiron M.
Poisoning by carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
Intoxication oxycarbonnée, intoxication par le gaz carbonique [in French]
Acute CO poisoning is the most frequent reported cause (although probably often underreported due to misdiagnosis) of accidental death by poisoning in France, whereas the incidence or the prevalence of chronic poisoning are not known, because of its insignificant clinical manifestations. This data sheet contains information on the physics and chemistry of both CO and CO2 as well as on the clinical aspects of poisoning.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.112, 5p. Illus. 18 réf.

CIS 97-883 Genesove L.
Carbon monoxide: The silent killer
Occupational sources of carbon monoxide are identified (exhausts from automobiles, forklifts and other industrial equipment and combustion devices), along with occupations at risk, effects on humans, symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning, and emergency treatment. Precautions include avoiding the use of fuel-burning equipment indoors, controlling exposure through equipment maintenance and ventilation, and ensuring carbon monoxide monitors are installed and working properly.
Accident Prevention, Nov.-Dec. 1996, Vol.43, No.6, p.14-19.

CIS 96-2172 Smith S.R., Steinberg S., Gaydos J.C.
Errors in derivations of the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation for predicting carboxyhemoglobin
This study is an investigation of derivations of the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFKE, for original derivation see NIOSH publication HMS 73-11000, see CIS 73-530) for predicting carboxyhaemoglobin levels. Errors in different derivations of the equation are identified and the effect of the errors is discussed in view of the relevance to control carbon monoxide production inside military vehicles.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1996, Vol.57, No.7, p.621-625. 28 ref.

CIS 96-2203 Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Greco T.M.
Health and social concerns of restaurant/bar workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke
Smoking (22) and non-smoking (21) workers were surveyed by means of interviews to assess their reactions to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in three restaurant settings. There was a significant difference between the non-smokers and the smokers in their attitudes towards ETS in workplace (non-smokers showed more health symptoms and anti-smoking attitudes than smokers). Carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations ranged from 1 to 23ppm; carbon dioxide (CO2) from 100 to 6,000ppm and nitrogen oxides were in practice non detectable. Levels of CO increased during the entire workshift, CO2 levels increased when workplaces were more crowded. Designation of non-smoking sectors did not seem to reduce workers' exposure.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1996, Vol.87, No.2, p.122-132. Illus. 33 ref.


CIS 97-196 Bünger J., Bombosch F., Mesecke U., Vodegel D., Stalder K.
Exposure of lumberjacks to chainsaw exhausts - An analysis using ambient concentration measurements, biological monitoring and video recordings
Belastung von Forstwirten durch Motorsägenabgase - eine Analyse mit Hilfe von Expositionsmessungen, biologischem Monitoring und Videoaufzeichnungen [in German]
Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the breathing zone of forestry workers (conducted in Germany between May and October 1994) during wood clearing, tree lopping and tree felling operations with chain saws yielded values which were frequently in excess of the threshold limit value of 30ppm. Peaks of 400ppm and in some cases even 600ppm were measured during lopping of dense tops of coniferous trees and during tree felling in calm weather with low wind speed. The biological threshold limit in blood was often exceeded.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Aug. 1995, Vol.45, No.8, p.302-310. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 95-1812 Simonsen L., Midtgård U., Lund S.P., Hass U.
Nordic Council of Ministers
Occupational neurotoxicity: Evaluation of neurotoxicity data for selected chemicals
Previously determined criteria for evaluating published data on the neurotoxicity of chemicals (see CIS 95-000) were applied to the literature on 79 common industrial chemicals. Data were too sparse to permit classification of 28. Of the rest, eight were classified as probably and 16 as possibly neurotoxic, and the following 27 as definitely neurotoxic: acrylamide, acrylonitrile, aluminium, arsenic, sodium azide, borax, boric acid, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, potassium cyanide, ethanol, ethylene oxide, hexachlorophene, manganese, mercury, methanol, methyl bromide, methyl butyl ketone (2-hexanone), methyl chloride, methyl methacrylate, n-hexane, nitrous oxide, styrene, thallium, toluene, trichloroethylene, triorthocresyl phosphate.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 119p. Bibl.ref.


CIS 98-853 Carbon monoxide poisoning in enclosed and semi-enclosed worksites
Empoisonnement à l'oxyde de carbone dans des lieux de travail clos et partiellement clos [in French]
Topics: Canada; carbon monoxide; data sheet; fuel burning equipment; limitation of exposure; poisoning; ventilation; work in confined spaces.
Professional and Specialized Services, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Nov. 1994. 2p.

CIS 96-806 Rudell B., Sandström T., Hammarström U., Ledin M.L., Hörstedt P., Stjernberg N.
Evaluation of an exposure setup for studying effects of diesel exhaust in humans
Diesel exhaust fumes from an idling truck were fed into an exposure chamber through a flexible metallic tube where they were diluted with air. Evaluation of the exposure set-up revealed that predetermined constant pollutant concentrations can be created in the chamber. The exposure of eight healthy non-smokers to diluted exhaust fumes for one hour produced the same acute symptoms as those reported by workers occupationally exposed to exhaust fumes from idling diesel vehicles. All subjects experienced irritation of the mucous tissue of the eyes, nose and throat, dizziness, nausea, cough, unpleasant odour, fatigue and headache. The median concentrations of the major components of diesel exhaust were: nitrogen dioxide 1.6ppm, nitrogen oxide 3.7ppm, carbon monoxide 27ppm, formaldehyde 0.5mg/m3 and particles 4.3 x 106/cm3.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.66, No.2, p.77-83. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 96-936
Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards
Carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas produced by the incomplete combustion of organic substances (e.g. in automobile engines). It is highly toxic, as it interferes with the transport of oxygen by red blood cells. Its lethal nature is enhanced by the fact that it is both colourless and odourless, and the first sign of severe poisoning is loss of consciousness. Fatal consequences of exposure to CO are, however, restricted to people exposed to very high concentrations (generally in confined atmospheres). The main risk of exposure to CO at low concentrations indoors, or in an outdoors environment, is an increased risk of health problems in persons with ischaemic heart disease. After reviewing measurement methods and the evidence for health risks, this document recommends an Air Quality Standard of 10ppm as a running 8h average for CO, a level rarely exceeded in urban air in the United Kingdom (8h average levels of up to 15.8ppm, and max. 1h levels of up to 18.7ppm, have been measured in London, but the 10ppm level is not normally exceeded more than 5 days per year).
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1994. vii, 23p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 5.95.

CIS 95-982 Sulotto F., Romano C., Insana A., Carrubba Cacciola M., Cerutti A.
Normal blood carboxyhaemoglobin and methaemoglobin levels in a sample of military conscripts
Valori normali di carbossiemoglobinemia e di metaemoglobinemia in un campione di militari di leva [in Italian]
Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) and methaemoglobin (MetaHb) values in blood were measured in a population of 296 asymptomatic military conscripts who were not under medical treatment and had no occupational exposure. The mean COHb value was 3.25 (SD=1.45%) in smokers and 1.34 (SD=0.8) in non-smokers, with a wide variability in both subgroups, particularly among smokers. The COHb levels in moderate smokers were lower than in heavy smokers, but smoking just before the blood test greatly increased the COHb levels. Non-smoking country dwellers had lower COHb levels than non-smoking city dwellers, but the COHb levels of smokers were independent of residence and were only smoking-related. The sample MetaHb level was 0.81 (SD=0.37) and was influenced by country living and smoking. Levels were lowest in non-smoking country dwellers (0.66, SD=0.38%) and increased with moderate smoking (0.71, SD=0.40%). Heavy smoker levels were independent of residence. Smoking just before the blood test had no effect on the value.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1994, Vol.85, No.4, p.289-298. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 95-625 Protection from exhaust gases in motor vehicle repair shops
Schutz vor Autoabgasen in Kfz-Werkstätten [in German]
In many vehicle repair shops in Germany, high carbon monoxide concentrations in excess of the exposure limit were measured. Noise levels during engine tests were found to amount to about 95dB(A). An instruction manual was issued which recommends protective measures such as: exhausting the vehicle exhaust gases at the various workplaces, providing separate rooms for noisy tasks, wearing hearing protectors and reducing vehicle movements inside the repair shops. Formulae are presented for quickly assessing the carbon monoxide pollution and the fresh air volume needed to comply with the exposure limit.
G+S - Gesund und Sicher, June 1994, No.6, p.180-182.

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