Inorganic sulfur compounds - 587 entries found
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Carelli G., Rimatori V., Bernardini P., Iannaccone A.
Occupational exposure to arsenic, sulfur and sulfur dioxide at a natural gas desulfurisation plant
Esposizione professionale ad arsenico, zolfo ed anidride solforosa in un impianto di desolforazione di gas naturale [in Italian]
A method for evaluation of the arsenic exposure is proposed: an alkaline solution of sodium arsenite and arsenate was used to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from the gas before treatment. Arsenic was analysed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry after reduction to arsine. Arsenic exposure was excessive at some workplaces. Methods for determining sulfur dioxide and sulfur are also described.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1980, Vol.71, No.4, p.328-333. 14 ref.
Kopecký J., Šmejkal J., Krivucová M.
Toxicity of sodium and zinc salts of dithiocarbamoyl carboxylic acids
Toxicita sodných a zinečnatých solí některých 2-dithiokarbaminokarboxylových kyselin [in Czech]
These salts were administered to mice in the course of carbon disulfide metabolism and toxicity studies. Toxicity of the sodium salt was lower, and that of the zinc salt higher, than that of CS2 The order of toxicity of the salts (sodium2+ ions.
Pracovní lékařství, Feb. 1980, Vol.32, No.2, p.55-58. 15 ref.
Smith D.L., Kim W.S., Kupel R.E.
Determination of sulfur dioxide by adsorption on a solid sorbent followed by ion chromatography analysis.
The method is described. Precision and recovery were good at 2, 1, and 0.5 times the OSHA standard for SO2.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1980, Vol.41, No.7, p.485-488. 6 ref.
Vađic V., Gentilizza M., Hršak J., Fugaš M.
Determination of hydrogen sulfide in air.
A modification of the Buck and Gies method, using filter paper impregnated with mercury chloride for sampling, regeneration of the H2S, and determination by the molybdenum blue method, is proposed. Preparatory studies are described, with the analytical method and test for sample stability. The lower limit of detection is 1.4µg. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and mercaptans do not interfere.
Staub, Feb. 1980, Vol.40, No.2, p.73-75. Illus. 4 ref.
Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, copper, creatinine and ceruloplasmin in workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Vărhu sădăržanieto na kalcij, fosfor, med, kreatinin i ceruloplasmin v krăvta na rabotnici v kontakt săs serovăglerod [in Bulgarian]
Comparative study of these levels in workers in the viscose industry, some exposed and some not exposed to carbon disulfide. In the exposed workers, mean Ca serum level was greatly diminished; Cu and ceruloplasmin levels were slightly decreased; P and creatinine levels were practically identical in exposed workers and controls.
Problemi na higienata, July 1980, Vol.5, p.116-123. 12 ref.
Aleksieva C., Dimitrova M., Uševa G., Ivanov K., Zlateva V., Grozdev I., Kjurkčiev S., Tropčev N., Strašimirova R., Ivanova S., Dimitrova G., Čurolinov P., Dragomirov N., Hadžieva J., Pavlova S., Trendafilova R., Ivanova H.
Occupational disease in workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Profesionalni uvreždanija na rabotnici v kontakt săs serovăglerod [in Bulgarian]
Results of medical examinations and biological test in 251 workers in the man-made fibre industry. Slight changes, but of particular interest, were observed in the vascular, autonomic and nervous systems; the vascular changes were of particular importance, as they appeared after relatively short-term exposure, and in young subjects.
Problemi na higienata, July 1980, Vol.5, p.108-115. 13 ref.
Veličkova V., Panova N.
Influence of certain factors on the quality of detector-tube monitoring of hydrogen sulfide
Vlijanie na njakoi faktori vărhu kačestvata na indikatorni trăbički za opredeljane na serovodorod [in Bulgarian]
Study of 7 factors affecting precision: porosity of silica gel, temperature and duration of heating, quantity of reagent and BaCl2, water content, drying temperature. Porosity and humidity of the layer of powder are of prime importance. Acid treatment of the layer increases adsorption capacity and thus enhances quality. Tubes in which the layer is not acid-treated, but heated to 600°C, are of superior quality, but only if humidity conditions are optimal.
Problemi na higienata, July 1980, Vol.5, p.98-107. 5 ref.
Roth H., Asmuss M.
Safety in sewers
Sicherheit in Abwasserkanälen [in German]
Report on an investigation of a serious accident due to a sudden emission of hydrogen sulfide (4 dead, 5 badly poisoned). Preventive measures (ventilation before entering sewers, air monitoring) prescribed by West German regulations were found to be inadequate in the case reported, where large quantities (350-400ppm) of H2S contained in organic sediment were suddenly released. Description of preventive measures, and mechanisms of H2S emission. A safety system, developed in the light of this recent experience, supplements the existing regulations. This system involves the use of a powerful fan (air flow 15,000m3/h) at all times during work in sewers, as well as continuous air monitoring. A specific rescue system has also been set up. Legal aspects of the accident in question.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Jan. 1980, Vol.92, No.1, p.28-32. Illus.
Savolainen H., Tenhunen R., Elovaara E., Tossavainen A.
Cumulative biochemical effects of repeated subclinical hydrogen sulfide intoxication in mouse brain
Mice exposed 4 times to 100ppm hydrogen sulfide vapour for 2h at 4-day intervals showed increasing inhibition of cerebral cytochrome oxidase activity. Cerebralribonucleic acid decreased significantly after the 4th exposure. The biochemical effects of repeated subclinical hydrogen sulfide intoxications seem to be cumulative. Similar inhibition of cytochrome oxidase might take place also in human brain, possibly causing headache, fatigue and deterioration of mental functions observed in chronic human hydrogen sulfide intoxication.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1980, Vol.46, No.1, p.87-92. 31 ref.
Federspiel C.F., Layne J.T., Auer C., Bruce J.
Lung function among employees of a copper mine smelter: Lack of effect of chronic sulfur dioxide exposure.
245 workers with a history of low, 84 with high and 93 with variable exposure to SO2 were compared. Those with low exposure had lower FVC and FEV1 than those of the other categories. After adjustment for smoking habits, cumulative lung-term exposure to SO2 did not decrease lung function in these workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1980, Vol.22, No.7, p.438-444. 15 ref.
Asthma, symptoms of chronic bronchitis and ventilatory capacity among cobalt and zinc production workers.
Studies at a Finnish smelter with separate sulfur, cobalt and zinc plants are reported: 21 cobalt workers with asthma and 55 controls; 224 cobalt, 234 zinc, and 158 sulfur workers, and 151 controls. At concentrations below the Finnish smelter TLV of 0.1mg/m3, cobalt sulfate exposure increased the risk of asthma by about 5 times. Zinc and sulfuric acid exposure had no pulmonary effects. The effects of smoking are discussed. Exposure to sulfur dioxide and dusts may have increased the risk of chronic bronchitis after more than 5-8 years' exposure to 1-5ppm. Appendices: metallurgic processes, symptom questionnaire, new cases of asthma 1969-1977, results of multiple regression analyses.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1980, Vol.6, Supplement 1, 49p. Illus. 65 ref.
Safety instructions for handling sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
Instruçőes de segurança para o manuseio do ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4) [in Portuguese]
Contents: properties; uses; carboys and other containers for transport, tank trucks; storage; handling (inspection and opening of containers; unloading of tank trucks); hazards; recommended personal protective equipment for different types of work, showers; ventilation; fire and explosion hazards; first aid; toxic effects; TLV (1mg/m3) in workplace air; medical supervision; disposal of harmful waste.
FUNDACENTRO - Atualidades em prevençăo de acidentes, Jan. 1980, Vol.11, No.121, p.13-15, and Feb. 1980, Vol.11, No.122, p.12-14. Illus. 4 ref.
Handling and storage of solid sulfur
1979 revision: properties, uses, containers and shipping regulations, storage, handling, health hazards (non-toxic, but burning sulfur releases toxic sulfur dioxide), personal protective equipment (use of fire-retardant clothing on account of possibility of sulfur burns in case of fire; respiratory protection), ventilation, fire and dust explosion hazards, U.S. (OSHA) TLV for sulfur dioxide: 5ppm 8h TWA, electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres, avoidance of static electricity, first aid and treatment of burns, waste disposal.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1979. 4p. 30 ref.
Washüttl J., Winker N., Steiner I.
Effects of carbon disulfide on the serum vitamin B1 level of exposed workers
Auswirkungen von Schwefelkohlenstoff auf den Vitamin-B1-Gehalt im Serum bei exponierten Arbeitnehmern [in German]
Analyses were done 4 times in the course of a year in 3 groups of workers: controls, those with exposure less than the TLV of 30mg/m3 (average 20mg/m3), and those with exposure more than the TLV. The reduction in serum vitamin B1 levels in the 70 workers receiving the highest exposure (mean 1.41µg; normal value at least 2µg/100ml) was statistically significant. Levels in the group receiving moderate exposure were within normal limits. There were no symptoms in the workers with reduced vitamin B1 levels.
Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 1979, Vol.121, No.24, p.819-820. 7 ref.
Sugimura K., Kabashima K., Tatetsu S., Inoue T., Oyama S., Toya G., Harada M., Hirata M.
Computerised tomography in chronic carbon disulfide poisoning
Computerised tomographic (CT) examinations of the brain were done in 14 cases of chronic carbon disulfide poisoning. Exposure to CS2 gas was 10-23 years. CT showed 10 different kinds of abnormality: brain dilatation, dilatation of lateral ventricles, the Sylvian fissure, brain convultions, and the third ventricule; areas of low density in the caudal nucleus of the basal ganglia, the putamen, the cortex, the subcortex. There was frequently multiple infarction and brain atrophy. CT findings and severity of clinical symptoms were poorly related, although the correlation was better than with EEG. There was no dose-response relation.
Brain and Nerve, 1 Dec. 1979, Vol.31, No.12, p.1245-1253. 26 ref. Illus.
Protective clothing for repair work
Specodežda dlja provedenija remontnyh i avarijnyh rabot [in Russian]
Two sets of overalls designed for workers making repairs on gas production plant and thus exposed to condensates having a high hydrogen sulfide content are described. Of airtight construction, one is intended for work in confined spaces, and the other is for work in the open air.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.37-39. Illus.
Tryptamine and serotonine metabolism in chronic carbon disulfide poisoning
Obmen triptamina i serotonina pri hroničeskoj intoksikacii serouglerodom [in Russian]
Clinical observations are reported in 60 textile workers with carbon disulfide poisoning, including 45 autonomic and vascular dysfunction against a background of neurasthenia. Urinary tryptamine excretion and blood serotonin levels were determined. In most of the affected workers these values were above normal. The greatest increase was in workers with nervous function disorders. Raised tryptamine excretion is due to activation of its biosynthesis and inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity. These tests can be used to diagnose CS2 poisoning.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1979, No.11, p.39-42. 10 ref.
Chapters are devoted to: chemistry and analytical methods; exposure; metabolism; biochemical effects; carbon disulfide poisoning; exposure-effect and exposure-response relationships; control of exposure in the viscose industry. Annexes: production of viscose and its end products; maximum permissible concentrations (international). Recommendations for further research. A French version may be obtained from: World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1979. 100p. 360 ref. Price: SF.10.00.
Sulfur oxides and suspended particulate matter.
Chapters are devoted to: chemistry and analytical methods; sources of sulfur oxides and particulate matter; environmental concentrations and exposures; absorption, distribution, and elimination; effects on experimental animals; effects on man (including a brief section on industrial exposure); evaluation of health risks from exposure. Recommendations for further research. A French version may be obtained from: World Health Organisation, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
World Health Organization, 1221 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1979. 107p. 280 ref. Price: SF.10.00.
Sesquisulfure de phosphore - P4S3. [in French]
Data sheet containing information on: presentation, uses, health effects, prevention, regulations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 4th quarter 1979, Vol.19, special number, toxicology (supplement to No.76). p.43. 5 ref.
Swimming pools - Storage and use of sodium hypochlorite, hypochloric acid, sulfuric acid, carbon dioxide
Zweminrichtingen - De opslag en het gebruik van chloorbleekloog, zoutzuur, zwavelzuur, kooldioxyde [in Dutch]
These 4 directives, issued under the Regulations concerning work in swimming pools (CIS 79-2058), contain data on the chemical and physical properties and disinfectant and harmful effects of these substances, indicating safety measures and precautions for handling them and in case of leaks. Instructions for first aid, transport and storage (tanks and their location, ventilation of premises, pipes and fittings, filling storage tanks and marking to identify their contents); monitoring.
Labour Inspectorate, General Directorate of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1979. 13 + 13 + 12 + 16p. Illus. Price: Glds.0.50 each booklet.
Gamankov P.I., Gafurova E.G., Zasedateleva G.V., Kiseleva A.V.
Data for establishment of an exposure limit for carbonyl sulfide in workplace air
Materialy k obosnovaniju PDK serookisi ugleroda v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Studies in 4 animal species are reported. The clinical picture of poisoning is characterised by central nervous disorders. The threshold for chronic effects is approx. 26mg/m3. Recommended exposure limit: 10mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1979, No.7, p.52-54. 14 ref.
Herrmann G., Viehrig J.
Irritative respiratory tract disorders due to ammonia and sulfuric acid aerosols in a cuoxam spinning mill
Irritative Atemwegserkrankungen durch Ammoniak und Schwefelsäureaerosole in einer Kuoxamseidenspinnerei [in German]
The combined effects of these chemicals on lung function were studied in 80 workers. 24% had mild and 28% moderate lung function impairment. It is recommended to transfer affected persons to other jobs, and the need for medical follow-up is stressed. An industrial medical monitoring programme for this work is proposed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Aug. 1979, Vol.25, No.8, p.581-584. 25 ref.
Kujalová V., Sperlingová I., Hromádka M.
Urinary level of 4-pyridoxic acid in chronic exposure to carbon disulfide.
51 workers at a rayon yarn mill exposed to concentrations of CS2 below the TLV of 30mg/m3 had a significantly reduced level of 4-pyridoxic acid in the morning urine. No further reduction occurred during the shift. The decrease was more marked in men than women. It is suggested that pyridoxine deficiency induced by chronic CS2 exposure contributes to polyneuropathy in the clinical picture of poisoning and may have other metabolic effects.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1979, Vol.70, No.5, p.388-390. 18 ref.
Charan N.B., Myers C.G., Lakshminarayan S., Spencer T.M.
Pulmonary injuries associated with acute sulfur dioxide inhalation.
An accident in a paper mill is described in which 5 workers were acutely exposed to very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide, when the SO2 valve of a digester where they were doing maintenance work was turned on. The 2 with the highest exposure died immediately. Histological examination of the lungs revealed extensive sloughing of the mucosa of large and small airways and haemorrhagic alveolar oedema. One survivor developed symptomatic severe airway obstruction unresponsive to bronchodilators; another developed asymptomatic mild obstructive and restrictive disease; the third was asymptomatic and had normal pulmonary function tests. The need to monitor pulmonary function in SO2 poisoning is stressed.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Apr. 1979, Vol.119, No.4, p.555-560. Illus. 17 ref.
Von Nieding G., Wagner H.M., Krekeler H., Löllgen H., Fries W., Beuthan A.
Controlled studies of human exposure to single and combined action of NO2, O3, and SO2.
Study of single and combined effects of NO2, O3, and SO2 on the pulmonary function under laboratory conditions (2h exposure, concentrations corresponding to German occupational and environmental - MAK and MIK - standards) and of the influence of these air pollutants on the bronchial sensitivity to acetylcholine. A significant decrease of respiratory oxygen exchange (PaO2) and increase of airway resistance (Raw) was observed with NO2 in MAK concentrations. The combinations did not act more strongly than NO2 alone. Exposure to the mixtures in MIK concentrations had no effect on PaO2 and Raw. Acetylcholine challenge following exposure to a gas combination in MAK concentrations resulted in a significantly increased reactivity, more pronounced even after exposure to the gas mixture in MAK concentrations. This shows the need for re-evaluation of the present MAK value for NO2 (5ppm, 9mg/m3).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1979, Vol.43, No.3, p.195-210. 77 ref.
Graedel T.E., Franey J.P.
Gaseous hydrogen sulfide determination by discoloration of lead-stabilized PVC.
Colour measurements of PVC samples containing 20% lead stabiliser, exposed to controlled concentrations of H2S over a range of humidities and temperatures, allowed toxic H2S concentrations to be detected in less than 5min. The technique can be used, for example, to pretest manhole atmospheres before entry. Exposure times of some hours will detect the much lower H2S concentrations in the ambient air of oil fields, swamps, and sewage treatment areas. The technique is inexpensive and does not need skilled personnel.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1979, Vol.40, No.11, p.947-954. 30 ref.
Blood serum lipids in workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Lipidy syvorotki krovi u lic, rabotajuščih v uslovijah vozdejstvija serougleroda [in Russian]
Significant changes in the composition of blood serum lipids were observed in 70.1% of viscose industry workers examined by the author. These workers had been exposed for several years to concentrations of 8.5 and 7.7 mg/m3 carbon disulfide. High β-lipoprotein (LP) levels were attributable to increases in the fractions pre-β-LP and β-LP, whereas the increase in total lipid levels involved all fractions. A direct correlation exists between raised lipoprotein and lipid levels and length of exposure, and a not very significant relation between these raised levels and the subject's age. Carbon disulfide may be considered a predisposing factor causing hyperlipaemia as observed in atherosclerosis.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1979, No.7, p.34-36. 22 ref.
Effects of oil mists on the irritancy of sulfur dioxide - I. Mineral oils and light lubricating oil. II. Motor oil.
Part I: In these studies in guinea pigs, 10mg/m3 of medicinal grade mineral oil or light lubricating oil did not alter the irritant response to 1 or 10ppm sulfur dioxide. Simultaneous use of 100mg/m3 medicinal oil was ineffective against 50ppm SO2, but 30min pre-exposure offered complete protection. A paraffinic laboratory grade mineral oil conferred protection when used simultaneously but was less effective when given before exposure to SO2. Part II: Administered simultaneously, both unused and used motor oil had a protective effect, but not when they had been previously reacted with SO2. Pre-exposure to motor oil alone did not provide protection, but pre-exposure to motor oil and SO2 protected against further exposure to SO2.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1979, Vol.40, No.8, p.680-685; Sep. 1979, p.809-815. Illus. 30 ref.
Toxicity of nickel sulfate
O toksičnosti sernokislogo nikelja [in Russian]
Rats underwent acute exposure to nickel sulfate by inhalation or skin absorption. The compound is moderately toxic. Adaptation to the toxin was seen on prolonged administration of one-fifth of the LD50, testifying to its cumulative capacity. It does not appear to be absorbed by the skin.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1979, No.6, p.48-49.
Cikrt M., Zachardová D.
Urinary excretion of zinc in persons exposed to low concentrations of carbon disulfide
Vylučování zinku močí u osob exponovaných nízkým koncentracím sirouhlíku [in Czech]
Report of an investigation in 117 males and 26 females exposed to CS2 for 12 and 4 years respectively. In the exposed persons, and in a control group, the urinary zinc level was within the normal range of values (444 and 771µg/g creatinine). The urinary zinc level did not change significantly between the commencement and the end of the work shift. In an experimental study involving monkeys exposed to 6-h daily concentrations of 1.2mg CS2 per litre of air for 5 days a week over 5 months, no correlation was found between urine zinc concentration and exposure to CS2, although signs of poisoning developed in the course of the experiment.
Pracovní lékařství, Apr. 1979, Vol.31, No.4, p.132-135. 17 ref.
Literature survey of toxicology problems in the viscose industry
Bibliografische studie van de toxicologische problemen in de viscose industrie [in Dutch]
Paper presented at the National Occupational Medicine Congress held at Brussels on 17-18 Nov. 1978. This well-documented literature survey covers acute and subacute poisoning, absorption, excretion and metabolism of carbon disulfide (CS2) in the viscose industry. The paper considers the psychic, neurophysiological, ophthalmological, otological, cardiological, circulatory, biochemical, haematological and endocrinological effects of CS2. The role of the combination CS2-H2S should be studied. Some authors recommend reducing the Belgian TLV from 20 to 10ppm. Summary in French.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, Mar. 1979, Vol.16, No.1, p.83-99. 136 ref.
Tolonen M., Nurminen M., Hernberg S.
Ten-year coronary mortality of workers exposed to carbon disulfide.
343 exposed males and a similar non-exposed group in Finland were followed from 1967 to 1977. The known risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD) were controlled; only blood pressure in the exposed group was higher. Total mortality for the exposed and the non-exposed groups was 14% and 9%, CHD mortality (individuals) was 29 and 11 and other cardiovascular causes 5 and 1, respectively. The age range for all CHD deaths was 40-69. The estimated risk from CHD for this age range was 31.9% for the exposed group and 13.3% for the non-exposed group.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1979, Vol.5, No.2, p.109-114. Illus. 12 ref.
Knobloch K., Stetkiewicz J., Wrońska-Nofer T.
Conduction velocity in the peripheral nerves of rats with chronic carbon disulphide neuropathy.
Conduction velocity in the sciatic and tibial nerves was measured in rats exposed to 0.9 or 1.6mg/l CS2 daily for 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Measurements were made immediately after the exposure period and 3 and 6 months later. There was a dose- and duration-dependent reduction in conduction velocity immediately after exposure, which was fully reversible after 1.5 months exposure and only partly reversible in the higher exposure categories.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1979, Vol.36, No.2, p.148-152. Illus. 9 ref.
Archer V.E., Fullmer C.D., Castle C.H.
Sulfur dioxide exposure in a smelter - III. Acute effects and sputum cytology.
(For parts I and II see CIS 78-757). The daily time-weighted average exposure to SO2 ranged between 0.3 and 4ppm, with a mean exposure of 1.4ppm (3.6mg/m3). Mean FEV1 and FVC were significantly decreased during a day's work in the smelter. Significantly more smelter workers had low FEV1 and FEF50 values during the day than did controls, and more experienced "chest tightness". There was no change in closing volume. Sputum changes were not statistically significant.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1979, Vol.21, No.5, p.359-364. 41 ref.
Philbert M., Girard-Wallon C.
Sulfur and its derivatives
Soufre et dérivés. [in French]
Roundup of the present state of the art concerning sulfur and its derivatives: sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3), halogenated derivatives (sulfur mono- and dichlorides, thionyl chloride), sulfuric acid, persulfates, hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide. The following aspects of each of the above are considered: physical and chemical properties, how the substance is obtained, uses, toxicology, pathology, toxicological diagnosis, medical prevention and health engineering, treatment, statutory compensation. The pathology of chronic carbon disulfide poisoning is particularly well treated.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale. Intoxications, Fascicule 16020 A10, 2-1979, 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France, 14p. 82 ref.
Waernbaum G., Wallin I.
Hazards in the work environment - Hydrogen sulfide.
A convenient spectrophotometric method of hydrogen sulfide determination is described in which the air containing hydrogen sulfide is sampled by absorption on silica gel coated with cadmium acetate. The gel is then added to a solution containing N,N-dimethyl-1,4-phenylenediammonium dichloride and ferric chloride and the absorbance of the solution measured at 670nm. Dimethyl sulfide does not interfere and the limit of detection of the method is 1ppb. The air in a rayon plant, sewage treatment plant, steelworks and pulp plant was analysed; only in restricted areas was the value ever over the Swedish threshold limit value (10ppm).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1979, Vol.5, No.1, p.31-34. 3 ref.
Hydrogen sulphide (cylinders).
Uses, hazards (flammable gas which forms explosive mixtures with air over a wide range of concentrations; it is heavier than air and will accumulate in basements and low lying areas; it may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back; highly toxic; irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract and causes respiratory paralysis in high concentrations; it rapidly deadens the sense of smell so that the characteristic odour cannot be relied upon as a means of detection; contact with the liquid causes frost burns); precautions (storage, explosion venting, avoidance of dropping or violent contact, lifting of cylinders by crane, reducing valves, leakage testing, marking, ventilation, no smoking or naked flames, use of electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres and flameproof enclosure of electrical apparatus, with reference to pertinent British standards), fire fighting, source of further information, regulations, physical and chemical properties.
Fire Prevention, H 78, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Protection Association, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJO. London, United Kingdom, Mar. 1979, No.129, p.47-48.
Toxicology of the sulfur oxides.
Results of animal studies were not considered when the original air quality standards for sulfur oxides were established in 1970. This article reviews the animal data available, which suggest that there are no important long-term effects from exposure to sulfur dioxide. Animal and human laboratory studies do not support more stringent standards for the occupational or general environment.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1979, Vol.21, No.4, p.281-284. 45 ref.
Lebowitz M.D., Burton A., Kaltenborn W.
Pulmonary function in smelter workers.
One or more pulmonary function tests were performed in 430 copper smelter workers. There was no significant relation between pulmonary function and exposure to sulfur dioxide or dust, or between pulmonary function or respiratory symptoms and years of work in the smelter.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1979, Vol.21, No.4, p.255-259. 9 ref.
Fregert S., Gruvberger B., Sandahl E.
Reduction of chromate in cement by iron sulfate.
In these studies, iron sulfate was added to cement to reduce the hexavalent chromium to the trivalent form, which then was precipitated. 0.35% (w/w) iron sulfate (FeSO4.7H20) is enough to reduce 20µ Cr6+/g cement. The concrete is not affected technically. Iron sulfate is best added to cement when there is a skin exposure hazard, e.g. for floor laying, repairs, and hand casting.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1979, Vol.5, No.1, p.39-42. 8 ref.
Siarka [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (Poland) = 10mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1978. 2p.
Vascular changes in workers exposed to carbon disulfide
A series of vascular, neurological and biochemical tests were carried out, over a 6 year period, on 103 workers and 71 invalids (previously poisoned by carbon disulfide (CS2)) who were, or had been, employed in the manufacture of viscose rayon fibre. Monitoring of the working environment revealed CS2 levels above the Yugoslav TLV (50mg/m3) in 29, 90.4 and 73.3% of determinations in the spinning, cutting and finishing areas, respectively. In workers 22-50 years of age exposed 1-17 years changes in blood vessels of the upper and lower extremities occurred mainly as hypertension. The frequency of changes increased with duration of exposure. Neurovegetative disturbances, cerebral blood circulation changes, disturbances in lipid metabolism and microaneurysms of the eyes were also observed, and some hormonal changes indicated damage to the endocrine system.
Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health, Beograd, Yugoslavia, 1978, p.1-45.
Krejbich J., Soukupová I.
Chronic bronchitis in women working in hops baling rooms
Chronická bronchitida u žen pracujících v balírnách chmele [in Czech]
An occupational hygiene survey (questionnaire, x-ray, lung function tests, air analyses) in these and hops storage rooms showed the presence of SO2 in quantities not exceeding the MAC, and concentrations of inert dust 3 times the MAC. 46.5% of the personnel showed symptoms of chronic bronchitis (4.3% obstructive bronchitis). Simple chronic bronchitis is considered to be of occupational origin, while the obstructive form has a different origin and must be distinguished from it.
Studia pneumologica et phtiseologica cechoslovaca, May 1978, Vol.38, No.4, p.245-250. Illus. 10 ref.
H2S safety handbook.
Basic data on: properties; hazards (toxic, highly flammable); industrial occurrences; U.S. TLVs (10ppm recommended by ACGIH, 20ppm by ANSI-OSHA; NIOSH recommends evacuation at 50ppm); physical effects and symptoms of poisoning; monitoring and detection methods and instruments; description of solid state multiple-point monitor developed by Test Analytical Controls (T.A.C.); sensors, portable detectors (sense of smell is rapidly lost); safety precautions, escape routes, training, use of breathing apparatus; work in confined spaces and low-lying areas; rescue from contaminated areas (drill and equipment); regular inspection of back pack compressed-air rescue units; separate lists of safety rules for supervisors and workers; first aid.
Safety Oilfield Services, P.O. Box 52722, Lafayette, Louisiana 70505, USA, 1978. 32p. Illus. Price: US$3.50.
Antabuse test and absenteeism in workers exposed to carbon disulfide
To find a method for pre-employment selection in a viscose fibre plant, the "Antabuse test" was applied to 61 workers exposed to carbon disulfide for up to 4.5y. After oral administration of 0.5g Antabuse, the excretion of diethyldithiocarbamate was determined in a 4h urine sample. Data on absenteeism and specific morbidity were correlated in 4 groups of the workers classed by quantity of excreted diethyldithiocarbamate. Absenteeism decreased with increasing excretion; there was no absenteeism or morbidity in workers excreting more than 150µg/mg creatinine.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1978, Vol.29, No.4, p.323-326. 5 ref.
Handling liquid sulfur.
This data sheet gives information on properties, uses, containers for liquid sulfur, shipping regulations, tank storage and ventilation, hazards (burns; fire hazard; irritating to eyes and respiratory tract; toxicity of, and physiological and subjective olfactory responses to hydrogen sulfide gas); handling; personal protective equipment; fire fighting; poisoning symptoms and first aid; treatment of burns; pre-employment medical examinations.
Data Sheet 1-592-78, Revised 1978, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1978. 9p. Illus. 33 ref.
Change in triglyceride levels in humans as a result of CS2 exposure
Untersuchungen über die Veränderung von Triglyceriden im menschlichen Organismus durch CS2-Exposition [in German]
This is a summary report of biochemical studies in 3 groups of workers exposed to different levels of carbon disulfide (CS2). Those exposed to concentrations above the threshold limit value of 40mg/m3 showed a significant increase in serum triglyceride levels. The method permits detection of the harmful effects of CS2 before the appearance of clinical symptoms, and thus facilitates early prevention.
Sichere Arbeit, Mar. 1978, Vol.31, No.3, p.30-31. 22 ref.
GOST 12.4.053-78 to 12.4.056-78, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet po standartam), Moskva, 27 Oct. 1978.
Mine air - Analytical methods
Vozduh rudničnyj - Metody analiza [in Russian]
These 4 standards (effective 1 Jan. 1980) describe methods of determining nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon monoxide by indicator tube. Rules are given for sampling and apparatus used, and for preparation and execution of the analysis.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, Moskva D-557, USSR, 1978. 16p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.05.
Pinigina I.A., Pečennikova E.G., Gorčakova V.N.
Method of determining carbon disulfide concentrations in air by the formation of copper diethyldithiocarbamate
K metodu opredelenija serougleroda v vozduhe po obrazovaniju diėtilditiokarbamata medi [in Russian]
Description of a colorimetric method based on the absorption of CS2 in an ethanol solution of dichloroethane. On account of the reaction occurring between CS2 and dichloroethane, the scrubbers are cooled by an ice/water mixture during sampling, which should be carried out for at least 35min when monitoring for the ceiling values, and for at least 4h when monitoring for the 24h time-weighted TLV. Recommended air flow rate during sampling: 0.18l/min; measurement of the optical density of the coloured solutions at a wavelength of 430nm.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Nov. 1978, No.11, p.55-57. Illus. 4 ref.
Smith D.B., Krause L.A.
Analysis of charcoal tube samples for carbon disulfide using a photoionization detector.
A gas chromatograph equipped with a photoionisation detector was used to detect carbon disfulfide eluted from charcoal tubes with acetonitrile. Overall sampling and desorption efficiency was close to 100%. The sensitivity of the method enables concentrations of 0.1ppm CS2 to be determined in a 10l air sample. Advantages over other detectors include ease of operation and greater sensitivity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1978, Vol.39, No.12, p.939-944. Illus. 10 ref.
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