Inorganic sulfur compounds - 587 entries found
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Kruse A., Borch-Johnsen K., Milling Pedersen L.
Cerebral damage following a single high exposure to carbon disulphide
A healthy 48-year old man was exposed for 20min to carbon disulfide (CS2) in the concentration range 400-470,000ppm as a result of a laboratory fire. He was unconscious for 10min after the exposure. Serious persistent cerebral deterioration developed. Computerised tomography scanning showed cerebral atrophy, neuro-psychological examination established dementia, and measurement of cerebral flow showed reduced cortical flow in the right hemisphere. Symptoms were still present 21 months after the exposure. The observed encephalopathy may be due to the direct toxic effects of CS2, or its metabolites, on the brain or to sequelae after anoxia during unconsciousness.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1982, Vol.32, No.1, p.44-45. 5 ref.
Aristov V.N., Red'kin Ju.V., Bruskin Z.Z., Ogleznev G.A.
Experimental data on the mutagenic action of toluene, isopropanol and sulfur dioxide
Ėksperimental'nye dannye o mutagennom dejstvii toluola, izopropanola i sernistogo gaza [in Russian]
The nature and frequency of chromosomal and mitotic aberrations in the bone marrow of albino rats were determined in chronic inhalation experiments with toluene, isopropanol and sulfur dioxide in various concentrations and combinations. The statistical calculations involved in predicting no-effect concentrations of toluene and isopropanol are presented; a non-linear regression equation was used. The proposed method can be used to calculate no-effect concentrations of toxic substances for purposes of TLV determination or correction.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1981, No.7, p.33-36. 9 ref.
Chlorhydrine sulfurique [in French]
Sections of this toxicology data sheet cover: synonyms; appearance; properties; uses; pathology (due to exposure to fumes or vapours, due to contact with the liquid, due to ingestion); group and personal safety; French legislation.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1981, Vol.21, Special Toxicology Issue (Supplement to No.83), p.41. 2 ref.
Fire Protection Association (UK)
Uses, hazards (combustible solid; liable to spontaneous ignition. Sulfur dioxide is evolved on burning and hydrogen sulfide is evolved on contact with acids. These gases are highly toxic. The finely divided powder can form an explosive cloud in air. Strongly irritant to skin and tissue); precautions (storage, labelling; storage rooms should have non-combustible floors; no acids or oxidising agents in same storage room; no smoking or naked flames; spillage removal; protective clothes and goggles, dust mask); fire fighting; U.K. regulations; physical and chemical properties.
Fire Prevention, Sep. 1982, No.152, p.47-48.
Colombi A., Maroni M., Picchi O., Rota E., Castano P., Foà V.
Carbon disulfide neuropathy in rats. A morphological and ultrastructural study of degeneration and regeneration
Rats were exposed to 700ppm carbon disulfide (CS2) for 5h/day, 5days/week for 12 weeks and then followed-up for 18 weeks. A decrease in the nerve conduction velocity was observed after 3 weeks of exposure. Pathological lesions were first observed in the 10th week and consisted of typical giant axon axonopathy. Pathological lesions of the myelin sheaths appeared in the 3rd week after exposure ceased. Regeneration of new fibres began in the 8th week after the end of exposure and was almost complete by the 18th week.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.12, p.1463-1474. Illus. 32 ref.
Ohlson C.G., Hogstedt C.
Parkinson's disease and occupational exposure to organic solvents, agricultural chemicals and mercury - A case-referent study
The diagnosis registers of 2 Swedish hospitals were used to identify male in-patients with Parkinson's disease and a referent group with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Symptoms appeared between 35 and 69 years of age. Occupational exposure to chemicals was determined by questionnaire for 91 cases and 75 referents. No significant differences in exposure frequency to organic solvents were found. 3 cases had been exposed to carbon disulfide compared with 0 controls. 6 cases and 2 referents had been exposed to mercury. Occupational exposure to organic solvents did not increase the risk of Parkinson's disease in these groups.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1981, Vol.7, No.4, p.252-256. 15 ref.
Purnell C.J., West N.G., Brown R.H.
Colourimetric and X-ray analysis of gases collected on diffusive samplers
A method was established for collection of hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapour and halothane on passive charcoal badge dosimeters or reagent-impregnated tube samplers. The gas was then quantitatively analysed by both colorimetric and x-ray spectrophotometric procedures. Calibration graphs were prepared for use with x-ray spectrophotometric methods.
Chemistry and Industry, 5 Sep. 1981, p.594-599. Illus. 18 ref.
Contents: summary and recommendations for further studies; properties and analytical methods; sources; environmental levels and exposure; effects on experimental animals and humans; evaluation of health risks from exposure to hydrogen sulfide.
World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Genève, Switzerland, 1981. 48p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.6.00.
Lanfredini M., Citella C.
Vascular lesions due to carbon disulfide
La vasculopatia da solfuro di carbonio [in Italian]
A review of the literature on vascular lesions resulting from chronic exposure to carbon disulfide, which have been the subject of debate. Chronic CS2 exposure produces vascular lesions, although only in certain areas of the body. The pathogenesis of the findings remains an open question as are also the interpretation of lipid and glucide metabolism changes and the possible existence of hypercoagulative tendencies.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.48, No.4, p.415-419. 41 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Physical and chemical properties; metabolism; toxicity to animals and man (acute toxicity, effects of repeated exposure, carcinogenicity, effects on the reproductive system). CS2 is a highly volatile liquid, well absorbed orally and by inhalation and, from the limited data available, it appears to be absorbed to an appreciable extent through the skin. The principal route of absorption in man is by inhalation. 5-30% of the absorbed material is rapidly excreted unchanged in the breath, and 1% in the urine; the remainder is rapidly metabolised. Organo-sulfur derivatives are excreted in the urine, and may be qualitatively detected in workers exposed to >15ppm, using the iodine-azide test. Little information is available on the identity of these metabolites, and there are no quantitative data on their relationship to the amount of carbon disulfide absorbed. Tables show acute and subacute toxicity in animals (effects on nervous and cardiovascular systems and on lipid metabolism; reproductive effects); studies on inhalation and other paths of entry in animals.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Sep. 1981. 42p. 177 ref. Price:£3.00.
Beck J.F., Bradbury C.M., Connors A.J., Donini J.C.
Nitrite as an antidote for acute hydrogen sulfide intoxication ?
In the detoxicification of hydrogen sulfide by a haeme-catalysed oxidation, interlocking oxygen (O2) absorption and sulfide depletion data indicate that both oxyhaemoglobin and methaemoglobin are effective catalytic agents. The life time of excess sulfide in the presence of O2 and either of these catalysts is only minutes. The formation of methaemoglobin following nitrite administration occurs preferentially in O2-poor conditions and, in an atmospheric or O2-rich environment, which favours sulfide depletion, the nitrite retards sulfide oxidation. Nitrite as an antidote is only effective within the first few minutes after exposure, and at this time resuscitation and ventilation of the victim produce conditions in which nitrite slows sulfide removal.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1981, Vol.42, No.11, p.805-809. Illus. 24 ref.
Doorn R.V., Leijdekkers C.P.M.J.M., Henderson P.T., Vanhoorne M., Vertin P.G.
Determination of thio compounds in urine of workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Urine samples from 60 male workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) in viscose rayon plants were analysed at the beginning and end of workshifts. Enhanced secretion of thio compounds occurred, especially at the end of the workday, in exposed workers compared with unexposed controls. A classification of samples according to the degree of exposure showed a relation between exposure to CS2 and excretion of thio compounds. 2-Thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid was detected by thin-layer chromatography, ultraviolet spectrometry, and high performance liquid chromatography. A non-selective assay for the determination of thio compounds can be used to detect metabolites of CS2 in urine.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1981, Vol.36, No.6, p.289-297. Illus. 32 ref.
Gillanders T.G.E., Bennett A.
An investigation of air pollution experienced by toll-collectors at a major road bridge toll
Breathing zone samples of airborne gaseous and particulate pollutants to which 33 toll-collectors, seated in booths at a road bridge, were exposed in the period Oct. 1978 to Apr. 1979, were collected and analysed. Blood lead levels of these workers were also determined. The average values found for carbon monoxide, total nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide were higher than those of the general urban environment but were lower than established TLV. This exposure has not produced any acute effects and is unlikely to produce chronic effects.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1981, Vol.24, No.3, p.267-272. Illus. 9 ref.
Maintz G., Scheunert E., Schneider W.D.
Mechanical cardiography and spirometry in workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Mechanokardiographische und lungenfunktionsdiagnostische Untersuchungen bei Werktätigen mit Exposition gegenüber Schwefelkohlenstoff [in German]
Report on the results of clinical examinations, plethysmography, electrocardiography and mechanical cardiography in 59 workers exposed for an average of 14.5 years to CS2 in viscose production. Most common symptoms: dyspnoea and chest pain. Lung function tests showed reduced vital capacity, increased residual volume and shortened left ventricular ejection time. The literature is reviewed and the results compared.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Jan. 1981, Vol.27, No.1, p.63-67. 30 ref.
Klein G., Gromadies B., Bürger A., Scheunert E., Rittner G.
Effects of long-term exposure to carbon disulfide and halogenated hydrocarbons, especially perchloroethylene, on lipid metabolism
Langzeitwirkungen von Schwefelkohlenstoff und Halogenkohlenwasserstoffen, besonders Perchloräthylen, auf den Fettstoffwechsel [in German]
Comparative study of 111 workers exposed to CS2 (222 controls) and 189 workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons (378 controls). A significantly increased rate of lipid metabolism changes (42.3%) was found in the CS2-exposed persons; in the group exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons, the hyperlipoproteinaemia rate was 13.2%. Correlations were established between the β-lipoproteins, tri-glycerides and cholesterol, and the results of other laboratory tests. The positive correlations between the Broca index, lipoproteins and cholesterol were most marked in those exposed to CS2. The pathology of changes in lipid metabolism and standard biological values (lipoproteins in particular) due to halogenated hydrocarbons and CS2 is discussed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Jan. 1981, Vol.27, No.1, p.48-51. 21 ref.
Tabakova S., Hinkova L.
Early behavioural and neurofunctional changes following prenatal carbon disulfide exposure
Ranni povedenčeski i nevrofunkcionalni otklonenija sled prenatalna serovăglerodna ekspozicija [in Bulgarian]
The effect of prenatal CS2 exposure (at concentrations of 10 and 0.03mg/m3) on behavioural and neurofunctional development was studied in rats. CS2 (at MAC level) affected postnatal development, without inducing congenital malformations, but inducing sensory, neurofunctional and behavioural deviations. There was a high sensitivity of the central nervous system of the growing foetus to CS2 it appears that neuro-behavioural testing is a sensitive method for detecting sequelae of prenatal exposure to low concentrations of CS2.
Problemi na higienata, July 1981, Vol.6, p.21-26. Illus. 6 ref.
Rogers R.E., Ferin J.
Effect of hydrogen sulfide on bacterial inactivation in the rat lung
Rats were exposed to 45ppm hydrogen sulfide (H2S) (TLV 10ppm) for 4 or 6h, and a significant reduction in the inactivation of viable staphylococci deposited in the lungs during a bacterial aerosol challenge was observed. Pre-exposure of rats to 46ppm H2S for 2h did not alter intrapulmonary staphylococcal inactivation. The impairment of the alveolar macrophage may account for this effect.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1981, Vol.36, No.5, p.261-264. Illus. 23 ref.
Kring E.V., Lautenberger W.J., Baker W.B., Douglas J.J., Hoffman R.A.
A new passive colorimetric air monitoring badge system for ammonia, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide
A system consisting of a small passive badge, which can be worn for personal monitoring or used as an area monitor, and a portable colorimetric readout instrument which determines the exposure dose in ppm-hours, has been developed for determination of the time-weighted average concentration of specific inorganic vapour contaminants in air. The system eliminates the need for sampling pumps, fragile and inconvenient collection devices, and wet chemistry analysis. The overall performance of systems developed for ammonia, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, based on laboratory tests designed to show accuracy, linearity and environmental effects, is described and field tests are also presented. The system meets both NIOSH and OSHA accuracy requirements.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1981, Vol.42, No.5, p.373-381. Illus. 24 ref.
Recommended health-based limits in occupational exposure to selected organic solvents
Available information on the health effects of toluene, xylene, trichloroethylene and carbon disulfide is reviewed and evaluated and recommendations for exposure limits are made. Each solvent is presented in a separate section under the headings: properties, uses, health hazards; metabolism (absorption, biotransfor,mation, elimination); assessment of environmental and biological exposure; short and long-term health effects; occupational exposure limits. Time-weighted average limits are recommended for an 8-hour working day, 5 days a week, as well as short-term limits based on the average for a 15-minute sampling period to avoid acute health impairment.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1981. 84p. Price: SF.6.00.
National Joint Technical Committee for the Chemical Industry, National Health Insurance Fund (Comité technique national des industries chimiques, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Toxic hazards of hydrogen sulfide
Risques d'intoxication présentés par l'hydrogène sulfuré [in French]
This recommendation, adopted on 11 June 1981, applies to the prevention of toxic hazards where there is danger of exposure to hydrogen sulfide: 1. in work not involving the production or use of this substance, but in which it may be encountered unexpectedly and in which the danger is therefore difficult to foresee and all the more insidious (e.g. work in tanks, vats, ditches, etc. containing sludge; acid treatment of sludge, cleaning-out cesspools); 2. release in plants producing or using hydrogen sulfide (open-air or indoor plant).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1981, No.105, Note No.1353-105-81 (Recommendation No.192), p.599-602.
Hydrogen sulfide in sulfate pulp plants
Rikkivety sulfaattisellutehtailla [in Finnish]
Svavelväte på sulfatcellulosafabriker [in Swedish]
Hydrogen sulfide, which is given off from spent lye, may give rise to acute poisonings and the formation of explosive mixtures in air. Safety measures described include: prevention of leaks and gas/air mixtures at the design stage and by exhaust ventilation and enclosure; marking out the danger zone; assessing the hazards of certain jobs (entry into tanks and drain pipes), measurement of gas concentrations; ventilation and use of respiratory protective equipment; blanking off of drainage pipes in which it is necessary for men to work; purging and ventilation of tanks and piping prior to entry; fire and explosion prevention.
Teollisuusvakuutus - Industriförsäkring, 1981, No.3, p.12-15. Illus.
Hardy J.K., Strecker D.T., Savariar C.P., West P.W.
A method for the personal monitoring of hydrogen sulfide utilizing permeation sampling
Samples containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are collected by permeation through a dimethyl silicone membrane into 10ml of 0.2N sodium hydroxide containing EDTA. The H2S is converted to methylene blue which is measured spectrophotometrically, and the H2S exposure is calculated in terms of time-weighted average. The detection limit of the method is 0.01ppm (0.014mg/m3) for an 8h exposure with a working range of 0.1-20ppm and linear response ≤200ppm H2S. The device responds in <30s and is not affected by variations in humidity or temperature. The only significant interference obserbed is from chlorine gas. The use of EDTA increases sulfide ion stability and allows for sampling of >1 week. The small and light-weight device can serve as a personal or area monitor.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1981, Vol.42, No.4, p.283-286. Illus. 17 ref.
Wägar G., Tolonen M., Stenman U.H., Helpiö E.
Endocrinologic studies in men exposed occupationally to carbon disulfide
The effect of 10-36 years exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) in a viscose rayon plant was studied in 15 exposed men and 16 age-matched controls. The CS2 concentration was <30mg/m3 (Finnish TLV) for the past 10 years but was 30-120mg/m3 in the 1940-1969 period. Serum follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone were significantly increased in the exposed group. 7 workers had values above the reference limit, a sign of primary gonadal insufficiency, which was only latent as serum testosterone values were not affected. No changes were seen in serum prolactin values before or after stimulation with thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). No disturbance was seen in thyroid function as evaluated by serum thyroxine, free thyroxine index, triiodothyronine and the thyrotropin response to TRH. Serum cortisol was unchanged. Because CS2 concentration has been low for 10 years and exposure now consists of short occasional visits to contaminated areas, these results may reflect the effects of exposure in preceding decades.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1981, Vol.7, No.3-4, p.363-371. Illus. 19 ref.
Fire Protection Association (UK)
Uses; hazards (strong oxidising agent; non-combustible, but when combustible materials are contaminated with potassium persulphate their flammability is increased; toxic and irritant); precautions (storage; labelling; no smoking or naked flames); fire fighting; references to regulations; characteristics of potassium persulphate.
Fire Prevention, Oct. 1981, No.144, p.49-50.
Semen quality in workers exposed to carbon disulfide compared to a control group from the same plant
The sperm count was determined in a group of 86 workers occupationally exposed to carbon disulfide for ≥1 year and in 89 control subjects. The exposed workers consisted of 4 groups containing 18, 27, 22 and 19 workers for whom the exposure levels were respectively >10ppm, 2-10ppm, <2ppm and difficult to quantify. No statistically significant differences were observed between controls and exposed workers as a whole or when compared in the 4 sub-groups.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1981, Vol.23, No.6, p.435-439. Illus. 13 ref.
Andersen I., Mølhave L., Proctor D.F.
Human response to controlled levels of combinations of sulfur dioxide and inert dust
Under controlled conditions in an environmental chamber 16 healthy young volunteers were exposed to combinations of sulfure dioxide (SO2) at 2.6 or 13mg/m3 and inert plastic dust at 2 or 10mg/m3 concentrations or to 13mg/m3 concentration SO2 and 10mg/m3 dust coated with vanadium (V). The nasal mucus flow rate, nasal airflow resistance, forced vital capacity and subjective discomfort were measured for the subjects during periods in clean air and during exposures of 5h duration to the various mixtures. Reductions in nasal mucus flow rate, forced expiratory flow and comfort were related principally to SO2 concentration. The combined effects of SO2 and dust were, at most, additive and no synergism was found. No effect could be attributed to the V coating on the dust.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 14 ref.
Cai S.X., Bao Y.S.
Placental transfer, secretion into mother milk of carbon disulphide and the effects on maternal function of female viscose rayon workers
The health effects of carbon disulfide (CS2) were examined by comparison of groups of exposed women, working in the spinning areas of plants producing viscose rayon, with unexposed women workers in the finishing areas. The incidence of menstrual disturbance was 44.8% for exposed women and 24.9% for controls. The occurrence of pregnancy was similar in the two groups of workers, but 12.7% of the exposed group experienced pregnancy toxaemia compared with 3.6% of the control group. No significant differences were found between the groups for the incidence of premature birth or spontaneous abortion. When the CS2 concentration in air was 37-56µg/m3, the milk from 13 mothers contained 2.8-18.6µg/100ml, and 1.6-7.1µg/100ml was present in the urine of 5 breast-fed babies. CS2 was detected in breast milk before and after work and at 23-56 days off the job. The umbilical blood of an infant whose mother was working on the day of delivery contained 5µg/100ml CS2.
Industrial Health, 1981, Vol.19, No.1, p.15-29. Illus. 36 ref.
Villa A., Tomasini M., Andreini G.C., Quadrelli L.
Effects of prolonged carbon disulfide exposure on myocardial contractile efficiency
Effetti della esposizione prolungata a solfuro di carbonio sulla efficienza contrattile del miocardio [in Italian]
Polygraphic recording of left ventricular systolic time intervals in 22 rayon workers exposed to CS2, some of whom had symptoms of poisoning. Measurement of various cardiac contraction parameters showed, in comparison with controls, changes in myocardial contractility. These may be attributed to the effects of CS2 on the metabolic processes in myocardial tissue or to ischaemia due to coronary lesions. The method is more useful than ECG in detecting myocardial function disorders.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1981, Vol.72, No.1, p.52-60. Illus. 55 ref.
H2S - A refinery on the look-out
H2S - Une raffinerie sur ses gardes. [in French]
Extensively illustrated report on the hazards of and safety measures against accidental H2S leakage in the vicinity of the desulfurisation unit in a petroleum refinery: fencing off danger zones with red and white plastic chains; piping and tanks containing H2S marked with violet warning signs; prohibition on entering danger zones unaccompanied; individual use of walky-talkies, H2S detectors and a respirator hung from the belt; air bags indicating the wind direction.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1981, No.1, p.10-18. Illus.
De Toledo Salgado P.E., De Camargo Moraes E.
Urinary excretion of copper and magnesium in workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Excreção urinária de cobre e de magnésio em trabalhadores expostos ao sulfeto de carbono [in Portuguese]
Study of CS2 toxicity, particularly with regard to loss of mineral elements (copper and magnesium); description of a technique for determination of urinary Cu and Mg levels by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry; determination of urinary Cu and Mg levels in viscose rayon industry workers.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Feb.-Mar. 1981, Vol.9, No.33, p.23-40. Illus. 97 ref.
Midio A.F., De Camargo Fonseca Moraes E.
Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide
Exposição ocupacional ao sulfeto de carbono [in Portuguese]
CS2, widely used in industry, has many toxic effects. The various health engineering measures adopted (ventilation, protective curtains) are nearly always inadequate for reducing CS2 concentrations in the working environment. The use of biological tolerance limits to determine total absorption is recommended; these limits should be lower than the maximum tolerable limits. The degree of exposure to CS2 is usually determined biologically by a kinetic iode-azide test. Considerations on the mechanism of the toxic action of CS2.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Feb.-Mar. 1981, Vol.9, No.33, p.16-22. Illus. 55 ref.
Raitta C., Teir H., Tolonen M., Nurminen M., Helpiö E., Malmström S.
Impaired color discrimination among viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide.
A colour discrimination test was administered in 62 exposed men and 40 controls. CS2 exposure did not relate to specific pattern defects in colour discrimination, but impairments occurred significantly more often in the exposed group. The damage appears to be due to impairment in the receptiveness of the ganglion cells or demyelination of the optic nerve fibres.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1981, Vol.23, No.3, p.189-192. Illus. 10 ref.
Kleinman M.T., Bailey R.M., Chang Y.T.C., Clark K.W., Jones M.P., Linn W.S., Hackney J.D.
Exposures of human volunteers to a controlled atmospheric mixture of ozone, sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid.
19 healthy volunteers were exposed to 0.37ppm ozone, 0.37ppm sulfur dioxide, and 100µg/m3 sulfuric acid for 2h, during which they exercised for 15min and rested for 15 min. The mixture was slightly more irritating than ozone alone. FEV1 was depressed 3.7% from the control value, compared with an expected 2.8% from ozone alone.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1981, Vol.42, No.1, p.61-69. 22 ref.
Canada Safety Council
Contents: definitions, names, formula, physical properties and industrial uses; hazards (routes of entry, general hazards, acute effects, chronic effects, fire and explosion, corrosion, emergency action information); exposure limits (ACGIH TLV and TWA are 5ppm; NIOSH TLV and TWA are 2ppm); preventive measures (general, process control, administrative control, ventilation, personal protective equipement and respirators, monitoring and air sampling, disposal, personnel selection, pre-placement and periodic medical examinations); transportation; storage; training and supervision; first aid; glossary; references; 2-page summary for poster dislay.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3V4, Canada, 1980. 14p. 8 ref.
Canada Safety Council
Contents: definitions, names, formula, physical properties and industrial uses; hazards (routes of entry, health and other hazards, fire and explosion, emergency action information, concentrations and human health effects); exposure limits (ACGIH TLV 10ppm; short term exposure limit 15ppm); preventive measures (general, confined spaces, process control, ventilation, personal protective equipment and respirators, monitoring and air sampling, personnel selection, pre-placement and periodic medical examinations); transportation; storage and handling; training and supervision; glossary; references; 2-page summary for poster display.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3V4, Canada, 1980. 19p. 32 ref.
Lipeneckaja T.D., Smirnova M.I., Dumkin V.N.
Functional adequacy and rate of cerebral blood flow in chronic carbon disulfide poisoning
Funkcional'naja adekvatnost' i uroven' mozgovogo krovotoka pri hroničeskoj intoksikacii serouglerodom [in Russian]
Study of 30 patients with chronic CS2 poisoning and 30 controls. Measurements of overall cerebral blood flow by radioisotopes and of neurogenic reactions of the blood flow in different brain regions and hemispheres by electrical impedance plethysmography showed that, at the stage of poisoning characterised by sympathico-vascular dystonia and asthenia, more than half the patients had decreased overall cerebral blood flow. Nearly all showed functional inadequacy of cerebral blood supply. Lack of regional blood-flow reactivity was in general found in combination with impaired reactivity of blood flow throughout the hemisphere.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1980, No.11, p.25-30. Illus. 21 ref.
El Ghawabi S.M., El Shaharti A.A.
Clinical and spirometric studies on workers exposed to sulphur dioxide
84 male workers chronically exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the boiler houses of 3 factories were examined. Concentrations of SO2 in the breathing zones, depending on the work site, varied from 6.3 to 14.6ppm, and the exposure period varied from <5 to >15 years. Chronic non-specific lung disorders were observed in 46.42% of the exposed workers compared with 14% of an unexposed control group. A decrease of FEV1 occurred at the end of the workshift in all exposed workers. No correlation between the length of SO2 exposure and impairment of ventilatory function was found when those with productive cough were excluded. Cyanosis was not detected except in those with sulfhaemoglobin levels reaching 0.7gm/100ml.
Ain Shams Medical Journal, Jan. 1980, Vol.31, No.1, p.135-144. 21 ref.
Nikiforova N.A., Dumkin V.N., Nabiev T.M.
Variations in bioelectrical activity of muscles in patients with long-term exposure to carbon disulfide
Dinamika izmenenij bioėlektričeskoj aktivnosti myšc pri dlitel'nom vozdejstvii serouglerodom [in Russian]
Electromyographic (EMG) readings taken from 44 workers employed in the manufacture of viscose rayon and suffering from chronic CS2 poisoning were compared with their clinical picture to establish patterns of the pathological process. Workers having ceased contact showed persistent sensorimotor impairment. With less severe intoxication bioelectrical muscular activity tended to normalise, whereas workers with severe intoxication suffered substantially greater disorders. EMG readings can be used as an indication of the reversibility of the disease.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1980, No.9, p.17-19. 7 ref.
Tarlov E.L., Tereščenko Ju.A., Derevjankin Ju.S.
Prevalence and clinical course of cardiovascular disorders among viscose industry workers
Rasprostranennost' i kliničeskoe tečenie serdečno-sosudistyh rasstrojstv u rabočih viskoznogo proizvodstva [in Russian]
Studies in working conditions of the cardiovascular systems (CVS) of 521 workers, 47.8% of whom had worked in contact with carbon disulfide (in concentrations between 5-10 and 20-30mg/m3) for more than 10 years, show that exposure leads to non-specific CVS disorders with attendant neurological disturbances. The incidence of these disorders is a function of the severity of the intoxication: arterial hypertension stabilises, while dystrophy of the myocardium aggravates, and regional blood flow in the brain and the extremities deteriorates still further.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1980, No.9, p.13-17. 9 ref.
Rumjancev G.L., Kozlova T.A., Atjakina I.K., Višnevskaja E.P., Novikov S.M., Rel'sov V.A., Porohova L.A.
Occupational hygiene problems in the production of ammonium sulfate
Voprosy gigieny truda pri proizvodstve sul'fata ammonija [in Russian]
Ammonium sulfate production may be accompanied by the release of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide and ammonia vapour in the production units and dust from the finished product. The concentration of toxic substances in the workplace air does not exceed the threshold levels when the compounds are released separately. High-frequency noise is an additional harmful factor. Medical examination of exposed workers did not reveal abnormal sickness absenteeism nor health effects due to the specific action of the above-mentioned harmful factors.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1980, No.8, p.66-67. 1 ref.
Sanockij I.V., Grodeckaja N.S.
Late effects of chemical compounds on the cardiovascular system (the example of carbon disulfide)
Otdalennye posledstvija vlijanija himičeskih soedinenij na serdečno-sosudistuju sistemu (na primere serougleroda [in Russian]
Prolonged exposure to carbon disulfide at concentrations below those giving rise to general toxic effects, leads to changes in the make-up and structure of conjunctive tissue in the aorta, myocardium and musuclo-elastic blood vessels (selective action). The changes in the conjunctive tissue of the heart and blood vessels of experimental animals are similar to those in accelerated ageing.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1980, No.7, p.37-41. 24 ref.
Leuschke W., Köhler R., Höhl H., Krüger K.
Investigation of the usefulness of determining urinary carbon disulfide levels to assess the exposure hazard of workers exposed to CS2
Untersuchungen über die Verwendbarkeit der Schwefelkohlenstoffausscheidung im Urin zur Bestimmung des Expositionsrisikos von schwefelkohlenstoffexponierten Arbeitskräften [in German]
Urinary excretion of CS2 was measured in 46 workers employed in a spinning mill for regenerated fibres, during 3 consecutive shifts. The results were compared with those obtained with personal dosemeters. Urinary excretion and blood parameters were determined from samples taken at the end of the shifts. A significant relation was established between exposure and urinary CS2 excretion, taking into consideration the values measured at the commencement of the shift. Determination of lipid and protein levels may be useful for early diagnosis.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, May 1980, Vol.26, No.5, p.332-335. Illus. 14 ref.
Carbon disulfide installations [German Democratic Republic]
Anlagen für Schwefelkohlenstoff [in German]
This standard applies to the design and layout of workplaces and equipment for the transfer, storage and use of carbon disulfide, and the methods to be used in these operations. Part 1: general and particular safety conditions for the construction of installations and storage premises. Part 2: safety rules for operation and maintenance of installations. List of pertinent standards and regulations currently in force in the German Democratic Republic.
Staatsverlag der DDR, DDR-1080 Berlin, Mar. 1980. 10 + 5p.
Bittersohl G., Krause-Liebscher I.
Results of retina examinations in workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Ergebnisse retinofotografischer Untersuchungen bei Schwefelkohlenstoff-exponierten Werktätigen [in German]
Results of examinations of 260 workers in the viscose rayon industry to detemine possible vascular changes in the retina. No change was found in workers with less than 15 years' exposure, but 23.8% of these workers had disorders of the retina due to exposure to CS2. There is a correlation between the prevalence of pathological findings and exposure index, but no dose-effect relation could be found from analysis of workplace air.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Apr. 1980, Vol.26, No.4, p.260-262. 59 ref.
Berkman N., Moubri M.
Ophtalmological findings in a case of hydrogen sulfide poisoning
Manifestations opthalmologiques au décours d'une intoxication par l'hydrogène sulfuré. [in French]
Clinical findings in a case of hydrogen sulfide poisoning that occurred during work in a sewer; dominant nature of ocular manifestations: bilateral keratoconjuctivis and bilateral papillary oedema with retinal haemorrhages, all of which regressed after a few days without sequelae. Review of the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide which may have a fatal effect at high concentrations (700-900ppm); at this level, due to its paralysing effect on the olfactory centres, hydrogen sulfide is no longer detectable by its smell, and eye lesions probably due to anoxia may occur. To prevent this type of serious accident - in which the effects may be irreversible - safety measures for workers at risk should be intensified and regular clinical and opthalmological examinations instituted.
Bulletin de la société ophtalmologique française, 1980, Vol.80, No.4-5, p.369-372. 22 ref.
Effects of multimodal administration of antimony trisulfide and distribution in the body
Harakter kompleksnogo dejstvija trehsernistoj sur'my i raspredelenie ee v organizme [in Russian]
Blood is the main site for the accumulation of radioactive Sb2S3 following intratracheal or intragastric administration in animals. The cardiovascular system proved the most sensitive to the threshold dose for acute effects when administered by the 2 routes. The biological effects following administration by both routes may be classed as additive.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1980, No.5, p.51-52. 7 ref.
Determination of hydrogen sulfide in air
Bestämning av svavelväte i luft [in Swedish]
Colorimetric method: the air to be analysed is sucked into an adsorption tube filled with silica gel treated with cadmium acetate.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Arbetsmedicinska avdelningen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1980. 11p. 1 ref.
Manita M.D., Soldatenkova N.A.
Determination of sulfuric acid concentration in air by photometry
Fotometričeskoe opredelenie sernoj kisloty v atmosfernom vozduhe [in Russian]
The method is based on the acid properties of the molecules. Concentrations of H2SO4 aerosols as low as 0.03mg/m3 can be determined from air samples of 400l.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1980, No.5, p.83-84. 2 ref.
Wrońska-Nofer T., Szendzikowski S., Obrebska-Parke M.
Influence of chronic carbon disulphide intoxication on the development of experimental atherosclerosis in rats.
Rats fed an atherogenic diet were exposed to 1mg/l CS2 for 6-10 months. Findings in exposed animals were: slower gain in body weight; greater increase in serum cholesterol levels; moderate increase in total cholesterol content of aorta wall, with significantly increased esterified cholesterol fraction; more advanced lipid infiltration of coronary arteries and endocardium.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1980, Vol.37, No.4, p.387-393. Illus. 35 ref.
Sidorowicz V., Budziszewska D., Murawska T., Smolik R.
Structural disturbances in erythrocytes in workers exposed to carbon disulphide (CS2).
Exposure to low concentrations of CS2 for periods of 10 years or more causes disturbances in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in circulation. Complete blood count, serum enzyme activities and serum lipid were determined in 35 male workers, age 25-55 years, exposed to CS2 concentrations of 20-40mg/m3 for 5-20 years. Total lipid level declined significantly in comparison with a control group; Phospholipid level was slightly reduced; the cholesterol-phospholipid ratio was significantly reduced; the transport of oxygen function of erythrocytes was disturbed. The mechanism of adaptation was thought to be an anaerobic glycolysis and an increase in 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid; depletion of ATP and weakening of the erythrocyte membrane occurred, and cholesterol levels decreased.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, June 1980, Vol.31, No.2, p.125-129. 5 ref.
Carelli G., Rimatori V., Bernardini P., Iannaccone A.
Occupational exposure to arsenic, sulfur and sulfur dioxide at a natural gas desulfurisation plant
Esposizione professionale ad arsenico, zolfo ed anidride solforosa in un impianto di desolforazione di gas naturale [in Italian]
A method for evaluation of the arsenic exposure is proposed: an alkaline solution of sodium arsenite and arsenate was used to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from the gas before treatment. Arsenic was analysed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry after reduction to arsine. Arsenic exposure was excessive at some workplaces. Methods for determining sulfur dioxide and sulfur are also described.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1980, Vol.71, No.4, p.328-333. 14 ref.
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