Inorganic sulfur compounds - 587 entries found
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- Inorganic sulfur compounds
USSR Committee for UNEP
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 1mg/m3.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1983. 27p. 137 ref.
Combined effect of hydrogen fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the white rat
Kombinirovannoe dejstvie ftoristogo vodoroda i sernistogo angidrida na organizm belyh krys [in Russian]
Rats were exposed to hydrogen fluoride (HF), sulfur dioxide (SO2) or a mixture of the two at concentrations equivalent to 1/10, 1/4, 1/2 or 1 time the USSR MACs (0.5 and 10mg/m3, respectively). The albumin and globulin content of their blood was analysed by electrophoresis after 4 months of exposure for each working day. At 1/10 of the MAC, mixtures produced effects similar to those of HF alone; at higher concentrations, the effect of SO2 became more prominent. Changes in the relative proportions of the classes of serum proteins were more significant than changes in total protein concentration.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1983, No.4, p.46-49. 9 ref.
Results of psychological examinations of workers exposed to CS2, with emphasis on multiple examination
Psychodiagnostische Erfahrungen bei CS2-exponierten Werktätigen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Mehrfach-Untersuchungen [in German]
Results of examination of 75 workers exposed to CS2 and subjected repeatedly to a battery of psychological tests as part of a programme to develop methods for early detection of psychological effects. The subjects showed elevated frequencies of abnormalities in speed of sensorimotor reflexes, concentration and speed of visual perception. The results are comparable to those observed in persons exposed to other toxic substances, especially organic solvents. Time-dependent and individual differences in the results are discussed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1983, Vol.29, No.12, p.722-725. 27 ref.
Hydrogen sulphide and inorganic sulphides
Contents of this data sheet: description and uses of hydrogen sulfide and inorganic sulfides; fire and explosion hazards; hazardous reactions; toxic effects; safety precautions; emergency treatment; physical data and TLVs.
Safety Practitioner, May 1983, Vol.1, No.5, p.20-21.
Sulphur oxides and sulphur oxide compounds
Contents of this data sheet: properties and uses of sulfur oxides and their compounds; hazardous reactions; toxicity; safety precautions; emergency and first-aid measures; physical data and TLVs.
Safety Practitioner, Apr. 1983, Vol.1, No.4, p.22-23.
Hydrogen sulfide. Don't let it get you down
This illustrated pamphlet for workers describes the characteristics and effects of hydrogen sulfide, where the gas can occur, emergency procedures and safety steps.
Industrial Training Systems Corporation, 311 New Albany Road, Moorestown, NJ 08057, USA, 1983. 5p. Illus.
Antov G., Kazakova B., Parlapanova M.
Experimental study on the atherogenic effect of carbon disulfide
Eksperimentalno proučvane na aterogennija efekt na serovăgleroda [in Bulgarian]
Carbon disulfide (CS2) administration at 10 and 50mg/m3 was followed by electrophoresis of serum proteins and qualitative and quantitative analysis of fibre structure in the myocardium and aorta of albino rats on a 30-day atherogenic diet. The combination of CS2 with the atherogenic factor intensified the changes in the cardiovascular system and serum proteins observed with the individual effect of both factors. Intoxication and decreased animal survival as well as alterations in serum, myocardium and aorta occurred at a concentration of 10mg/m3. Thus, CS2 has an atherogenic effect.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, Mar. 1983, Vol.26, No.6, p.471-476. Illus. 26 ref.
Wilcosky T.C., Tyroler H.A.
Mortality from heart disease among workers exposed to solvents
A survivorship analysis was used to compare the cardiovascular disease mortality in a cohort of 1,282 white male workers exposed and non-exposed to solvents in a rubber and tyre manufacturing plant during a 15-year follow-up period. Detailed exposure estimates for 25 solvents were available. The known association between carbon disulfide exposure and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was apparent among these workers, and 2 other solvents, ethanol and phenol, were also significant predictors of IHD. Solvents other than carbon disulfide may cause atherosclerotic disease.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1983, Vol.25, No.12, p.879-885. Illus. 20 ref.
Ericsson G., Camner P.
Health effects of sulfur oxides and particulate matter in ambient air
The effects of sulfur dioxide, sulfates and sulfuric acid, in the presence and absence of ozone and nitrogen dioxide, on the respiratory function of both humans and animals are reviewed. Sections cover: absorption, metabolism and excretion of sulfur dioxide and deposition of particles; long and short-term animal studies; effects on the pulmonary function in humans; epidemiologic studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1983, Vol.9, Suppl.3, 52p. 152 ref.
Davidkova E., Balabaeva L., Kurčatova G., Ribarova F.
Experimental study on the gonadotoxic effect of carbon disulfide
Eksperimentalno proučvane na gonadotoksičnija efekt na serovăgleroda [in Bulgarian]
Carbon disulfide at concentrations of 50mg/m3 and 10mg/m3 had no gonadotoxic effect on rats. The concentration 0.03mg/m3, corresponding to the maximum allowable concentration in atmospheric air, induced no statistically significant alterations in the experimental animals.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1983, Vol.26, No.3, p.271-223. 25 ref.
Disulfiram test application to workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Prilagane na disulfiramov test pri rabotnici, exponirani na serovăglerod [in Bulgarian]
The disulfiram test was applied to 50 workers from a chemical plant for the production of artificial fibres, 30 of them exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) at concentrations close to or over the MAC and 20 without contact with toxic substances. After the oral intake of 0.5g disulfiram (Antabuse, Anticol), the circadian fluctuation in the excretion of thiourea and diethyldithiocarbamates was determined. In parallel, an iodine-azide exposure test was performed. There was a decreased excretion of thiourea and a smaller number of positive iodine-azide reactions in the exposed workers. No significant discrepancies were found in the excreted quantities of diethyldithiocarbamate in the urine of control and exposed workers. The disulfiram test may be useful for the determination of individual sensitivity to CS2.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1983, Vol.26, No.3, p.204-208. Illus. 9 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Carbon disulphide in air - Laboratory method using charcoal adsorption tubes, solvent desorption and gas chromatography
Contents of this guidance note: properties, uses, toxicity and first aid measures are given for carbon disulfide (CS2). CS2 is determined by sampling through a glass or metal tube packed with activated charcoal. CS2 is adsorbed on the charcoal and then desorbed by a solvent, and the solution analysed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Scope: measurement periods of 10min-8h; airborne concentration of 10-80mg/m3 for 10l air samples (for 10min, 5l samples, the detection limit is 20mg/m3); bias - better than 5%. High humidity and compounds coeluting with CS2 provide interference with the method.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, July 1983. 4p. 14 ref. Price: £0.50.
Kring E.V., Henry T.J., Damrell D.J., Bythewood T.K.
Laboratory and field comparison of three methods for monitoring sulfur dioxide in air
Comparison of the relative response of the DuPont Pro-Tek C-20 SO2 passive dosimeter with that of NIOSH methods S308 and 160 in field tests at a steel mill blast furnace area. No significant difference was found between the badges and the S308 method (correlation coefficient of 0.996). The NIOSH 160 method gave considerably lower results in the field. Exposed badges stored for 5 days at room temperature showed no loss of absorbed SO2. Other comparison and validation data with the 2 NIOSH impinger methods are given.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1983, Vol.44, No.12, p.929-936. Illus. 17 ref.
Higashi T., Toyama T., Sakurai H., Nakaza M., Omae K., Nakadate T., Yamaguchi N.
Cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary functions in rayon textile workers with special reference to H2S exposure
The study was conducted in 18 viscose rayon plants in Japan. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure was determined by personal passive dosimetry and FEV was measured before and after an 8-hour shift in 30 matched pairs of exposed and non-exposed workers. Exposure averaged 3ppm (0.3-7.8ppm) for the exposed workers and 0.1ppm for the controls. No significant difference in 8-hour pulmonary function test was observed, and no significant correlation between individual pulmonary function changes and individual H2S exposure was obtained. FEV indices in one group of 324 workers were better in exposed non-smokers than in non-exposed non-smokers. A questionnaire survey of 2379 exposed workers and 2968 non-exposed workers revealed a correlation of respiratory symptoms with smoking habits, but not with work history in rayon plants.
Industrial Health, 1983, Vol.21, No.4, p.281-292. Illus. 29 ref.
Karai I., Sugimoto K., Goto S.
A fluorescein angiographic study on carbon disulfide retinopathy among workers in viscose rayon factories
Fluorescein fundus angiograms were analysed in 143 workers exposed to CS2 and 40 control subjects. The incidene of retinal abnormalities (saccular microaneurysms, ellipsoidal micro-aneurysms and loop formations of small vessels, and atrophic/degenerative changes in the pigmentary epithelium) was significantly higher in the workers exposed to CS2. The effects were correlated with exposure. Chronic CS2 exposure affects not only the retinal vasculature but also the retina itself.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dec. 1983, Vol.53, No.2, p.91-99. Illus. 10 ref.
Handling liquid sulfur
This data sheet describes hazards of, and safe methods for handling of, sulfur, in the liquid form between 132 and 143°C. Contents: uses; containers; shipping regulations; storage; hazards (liquid sulfur, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide); handling; personal protective equipment; symptoms of poisoning; first aid; treatment of burns; medical examinations; waste disposal.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL. 60611, USA, 1983. 9p. Illus. 32 ref.
Guillon F., Mignée C., Girard Wallon C., Durigon M.
Five fatal poisonings involving hydrogen sulfide
A propos de cinq intoxications aiguës mortelles mettant en cause l'hydrogène sulfuré [in French]
Review of the circumstances surrounding the deaths of 5 workers exposed to hydrogen sulfide in sewers and drains. The causal connection between death and exposure to the gas is supported by macroscopic and microscopic observations at autopsy and by measurements of sulfide ion in the organs of the victims. Protective measures, methods of detection of hydrogen sulfide, and first-aid procedures are reviewed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.7, p.483-488. Illus. 21 ref.
Hermann G., Leuschke W., Viehrig J.
Carbon disulfide absorption by inhalation as a function of physical workload
Zur inhalativen Aufnahme von Schwefelkohlenstoff - Untersuchungen zur CS2-Aufnahme bei dosierter dynamischer Belastung [in German]
Research methods and results are described for CS2 absorption at different levels of physical effort and exposure. Physical work stimulates CS2 absorption, while the respiratory flow determines the absorbed dose relative to the concentration. Therefore physical workload is of prime importance for the rate of absorption. It should be considered during the establishment of permissible concentration levels in the workplace.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1983, Vol.29, No.8, p.444-448. Illus. 14 ref.
Wägar G., Tolonen M., Tanner P., Helpiö E.
Serum gonadotropins and testosterone in men occupationally exposed to carbon disulfide
69 men exposed to CS2 in viscose rayon production and 22 non-exposed controls were studied. Duration of exposure was 1-36 years. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were significantly higher in the exposed men, that of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) significantly lower. Luteinising hormone (LH) values were significantly higher in 24-31 year-old exposed men than similar-aged controls. SHBG, FSH, LH and free testosterone index were significantly different from controls in men aged <39 years exposed to CS2 for 1-9 years, whereas when exposure was ≥10 years, only FSH levels were significantly different in this age group from controls. In men aged ≥40 years after 10 years of exposure, only FSH and LH were significantly higher. Levels of CS2 well below the TLV of 30mg/m3 may affect the hormonal balance in the pituitary-gonadal axis, suggesting an increased risk of latent primary gonadal insufficiency.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1983, Vol.11, No.4-6, p.691-701. Illus. 20 ref.
A tube diffusion dosimeter for sulfur dioxide
The design of this dosimeter incorporates a tube diffusion element, liquid absorption reservoir (0.08M tetrachloromercurate) and a porous plastic mass transfer element. Laboratory and field tests confirmed that the dosimeter was reliable for SO2 concentrations between 2.5 and 15ppm. Exposed dosimeters require refrigeration and analysis within 24h. A colorimetric method (NIOSH method 160) is used for analysis. Estimated overall accuracy for the method is approximately ±10%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1983, Vol.44, No.9, p.631-637. Illus. 20 ref.
(Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen)
Liquid sulfur dioxide - Storage and use
Vloeibaar zwaveldioxyde - opslag en gebruik [in Dutch]
Contents of these directives: competent Dutch authorities; definitions; physical and toxic properties of SO2; placement of storage tanks (safe distances); construction of tanks, piping and accessories; maintenance and inspection; safety measures (leak detection and alarm system, rescue plan, personal protection, intervention in cases of leaks or fires, first aid); selection and training of personnel. In appendices: diagrams (vapour pressure, specific heat, water solubility, density, viscosity, distances); schematic diagram of storage installation showing location of safety valves; example of a permit-to-work.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1983. 92p. Illus.
Central Coordinating Committee, French National Health Insurance Fund (Comité central de coordination, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Risks of hydrogen sulfide poisoning
Risques d'intoxication présentés par l'hydrogène sulfuré [in French]
Recommendations adopted 23 Feb. 1983. They cover operations requiring access to reservoirs, tanks, drains and sewers containing deposits or residues which can liberate hydrogen sulfide. Special provisions are given for the treatment of deposits and residues with acids, for operations on tank equipment, and for the cleaning of wells. Commentaries on some of the recommendations are included.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1983, No.112, Note No.1441-112-83, p.403-405.
Getting the hydrogen sulfide problem taped - reliably
The MDA/Sieger Model 7600 continuous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) monitor is described. Humidified sample gas is drawn through a paper detector tape impregnated with lead acetate. Measurement of H2S at <3.5ppm is possible. A photocell detector enables the machine to gauge the stain and a microprocessor calculates the H2S concentration. The H2S level is displayed on a liquid crystal display. The device incorporates an automatic alarm signal which is triggered at pre-set concentration levels.
Process Engineering, May 1983, Vol.64, No.5, p.49. Illus.
Bariumsulfidi [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit: 0.5mg/m3. Harmful if inhaled or ingested. The dust irritates the skin, the eyes and the mucous membranes. High concentrations can cause muscular cramps and increased pulse rate. Long term exposure can cause eczema. Mandatory European labelling: XN, R20, R22, R31, S28.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Rikkihiili [in Finnish]
This material safety data sheet contains information on product classification, chemical characteristics, fire and explosion data, means to diminish exposure, emergency treatment and waste disposal. Carbon disulfide is very toxic when inhaled (TLV = 30mg/m3) and is absorbed throuth the skin (LD = 300mg/kg). Narcotic and neurological effects. Highly flammable. Mandatory European labelling: F, T, R12, R26, R38, S27, S29, S33, S43, S45, S23, S38, S46.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Dihydrogensulfid [in Swedish]
Criteria document in the form of a review of the world literature on hydrogen sulfide. The toxic effects of the gas on the central nervous system are due to inhibition of the terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial electron transport system. The gas is also an irritant, producing pulmonary oedema and conjunctival damage at concentrations below those affecting the central nervous system. As the irritation is a warning of the presence of hydrogen sulfide, threshold concentrations for irritation should be taken into consideration in establishing an occupational exposure limit.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 27p. 67 ref.
This data sheet covers the hazards involved in working with or near hydrogen sulfide and the measures to be taken to avoid injury. Contents: properties and uses; containers, shipping regulations; storage and handling; personnel hazards; personal protective equipment; ventilation fire and explosion hazards; electrical equipment; symptoms of poisoning; first aid; treatment of burns; toxicity; exposure standards (ACGIH TLV 10ppm 8h TWA); medical examinations; waste disposal; bibliography.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL. 60611, USA, 1982. 4p. Bibl.
This revised data sheet covers the hazards associated with sulfuric acid and the measures that should be taken to avoid physical harm. Contents: properties; uses; containers; shipping regulations; storage; personnel hazards; handling (carboys, drums, tank cars, tank trucks and barges); personal protective equipment and respirators; toxicity; threshold limit values (ACGIH TLV 0.25ppm; OSHA PEL 1mg/m3; NIOSH PEL 1mg/m3); monitoring and measurement procedures; common operations and controls; fire and explosion hazards; electrical equipment; symptoms of poisoning; first aid procedures; treatment of burns; recommended medical surveillance; disposal procedures for spill and leaks.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL. 60611, USA, 1982. 7p. 23 ref.
Blood electrolysis levels in long-term occupational exposure to carbon disulphide
The effects of ≤25 years exposure to low air concentrations of carbon disulfide (CS2) were examined in a group of 95 workers in a viscose rayon plant. Workers exposed for ≤5 years had increases in plasma sodium and chlorine levels and decreases in erythrocyte potassium and calcium levels as well as decreases in the calcium transmembrane gradient, the calcium/magnesium ratio in both blood compartments and in the calcium/phosphorus ratio in erythrocytes. Exposure for >10 years caused a slight increase in plasma potassium and a decrease in plasma calcium and in the sodium transmembrane gradient and an increase in the potassium/calcium plasma ratio. Workers with 6-10 years exposure showed effects falling between these two. Because of excessive individual variability in blood electrolyte values they cannot be recommended as laboratory signs of chronic CS2 effects.
Industrial Health, 1982, Vol.20, No.4, p.325-333. Illus. 20 ref.
Jarym-Agaeva N.T., Gorskaja R.V., Putilina O.N.
Photometric determination of sulfur dioxide in air
Fotometričeskoe opredelenie sernistogo angidrida v vozduhe [in Russian]
Sulfur dioxide is absorbed from air in a solution of KIO3. A series of redox reactions involving potassium iodate and iodide gives the coloured triiodide ion. The absorbance of the I3- at 364nm is determined and converted to SO2 concentration by means of a calibration curve and known dilution factors. The sensitivity of the method is 1mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1982, No.4, p.56-57. Illus. 7 ref.
Sealing boreholes during raising and lowering operations
Germetizacija ust'ja skvažiny pri spusko-pod"emnyh operacijah [in Russian]
Drilling crews are protected from outflows of hydrogen sulfide during movement of the drilling tube by sealing off the space below the rotor with a specially designed seal, for which a drawing is given. The space below the seal is vented to a flare where hydrogen sulfide is destroyed. Besides combining features of packed and mechanical seals, the new design includes a reservoir of a recently formulated proprietary solution for neutralisation of hydrogen sulfide.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Mar. 1982, No.3, p.44. Illus.
Kangas J., Turunen E., Louhelainen K.
Exposure to sulfur compounds in pulp mills
Rikkiyhdisteet selluloosatehtaiden työilmassa [in Finnish]
Sulfur compound concentrations were measured in the air of 4 pulp mills using the sulfite digestion process, and in 6 using the sulfite process. The compounds measured were hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide. In sulfite mills the concentration of sulfur dioxide was also measured. Between 100 and 160 air samples were taken in each mill. Analysis was by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometer. The highest concentrations of sulfur compounds were those of sulfur dioxide in sulfite process mills, and those of methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide in sulfite process mills. They often exceeded the TLVs. Sulfur compound concentration by location in the mills is analysed. Maintenance, cleaning and laboratory workers are most exposed to sulfur compounds, since production workers work in well-ventilated control rooms.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1982. 41p. Illus. 70 ref. Price: Fmk.25.00.
Waldman M., Vaněček M.
Volumetric method for the determination of carbon disulphide in air using personal sampling and adsorption by active charcoal
The CS2 is desorbed from the charcoal directly in the sampling tube by discontinuous chromatographic elution with 8ml water-alcohol solution of potassium hydroxide. A concentrated acetate buffer and a mixture of sodium azide and iodine are added to the eluate. The amount of free iodine reacting with azide is proportional to the CS2 concentration in the reaction mixture. Unreacted free iodine was retitrated with arsenite solution. The CS2 content is estimated from calibration curves. Mercaptans, hydrogen sulfide, xanthogenates and sulfides had no effect on the determination. Advantages of the method are minimal need for instrumentation, and stability of stock reagents.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1982, Vol.25 , No.1, p.5-15. Illus. 22 ref.
Two cases of residual symptoms after hydrogen sulfide poisoning
The long-term clinical courses (22 and 7 years) are described. The chief residual symptoms were headache, heaviness of the head, visual disorders, hypertension, insomnia, disturbances of memorisation and thinking, and impairment of intelligence. Computerised tomography showed slight dilation of the ventricles and slight cortical atrophy. Cerebral angiography revealed remarkable distortion and coiling of the cerebral artery in one case.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1982, Vol.30, No.3, p.225-230. Illus. 10 ref.
Mannix R.C., Phalen R.F., Kenoyer J.L., Crocker T.T.
Effect of sulfur dioxide-sulfate exposure on rat respiratory tract clearance
Rats were exposed to 5ppm sulfur dioxide gas and 1.5mg/m3 sulfate aerosol for 4h in this study of the clearance of inhaled insoluble radioactive tracer particles from the lungs. Arrangements to simulate gas/particle interactions such as occur in industrial atmospheres were made. The sulfur pollutant atmosphere did not produce a statistically significant alteration in either early (nasopharyngeal and tracheobronchial) or late (parenchymal) clearance rates.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1982, Vol.43, No.9, p.679-685. Illus. 20 ref.
Franco G., Malamani T., Germani L., Candura F.
Assessment of coronary heart disease risk among viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide at concentrations of about 30 mg/m3
70 male workers and 70 controls were studied in 1972-1979. Environmental carbon disulfide levels were below 35mg/m3. No differences were found between the 2 groups with regard to risk factors for coronary heart disease and lipid metabolism parameters.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1982, Vol.8, No.2, p.113-120. Illus. 40 ref.
Spyker D.A., Gallanosa A.G., Suratt P.M.
Health effects of acute carbon disulfide exposure
A health survey and pulmonary function tests were carried out on 27 patients who suffered acute exposure to carbon disulfide as a result of accidental leakage from a railroad tank car. Subtle changes in pulmonary function were transient. Residual permanent lung damage seems unlikely. None of the patients evaluated sustained injury lasting beyond the first few post-exposure days. The physical and chemical properties, toxicology and ecology of carbon disulfide are reviewed.
Clinical Toxicology, 1982, Vol.19, No.1, p.87-93. 15 ref.
Kelly W.F., Ackrill P., Day J.P., O'Hara M., Tye C.T., Burton I., Orton C., Harris M.
Cutaneous absorption of trivalent chromium: tissue levels and treatment by exchange transfusion
Description of a case in which a man was accidently immersed in hot acidic trivalent chromium sulfate solution but none was swallowed. The clinical course was dominated by burns, intravascular haemolysis and acute renal failure. Blood concentrations of chromium were measured during treatment, and tissue concentrations were measured at death. Exchange transfusion reduced blood chromium concentration by two-thirds. The total quantities of chromium absorbed and removed by various routes were calculated. In-vitro studies showed that the chromium solution did not directly cause haemolysis.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1982, Vol.39, No.4, p.397-400. Illus. 12 ref.
Šišović A., Fugaš M.
Determination of sulfur dioxide by acidimetry in the presence of ammonia
Određivanje sumpor-dioksida acidimetrijskom metodom u prisutnosti amonijaka [in Serbocroatian]
Description of a method enabling sulfur dioxide concentrations to be corrected when obtained by acidimetric titration in the presence of ammonia. Sulfur dioxide and ammonia can be efficiently collected in the same absorbing solution (0.06% H2O2). If the excess of ammonia or sulfur dioxide is determined by titration and total ammonia by colorimetry, the amount of bound sulfur dioxide can be calculated from the difference. The method has been successfully evaluated with samples of known composition and is suitable for the field.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1982, Vol.33, No.1, p.17-26. Illus. 7 ref.
Labour Inspectorate (Arbeidsinspectie)
Carbon disulfide - safe handling in ports
Zwavelkoolstof - Veilige behandeling in de haven [in Dutch]
Contents of this data sheet: physical and chemical properties; hazards (fire and explosion hazards, toxicity and health damage, symptoms); rules for transport and containers; declaration on docking and preparations for unloading; safety measures (barrels and cylinders containing carbon disulfide should be kept away from any source of heat; detection and repair of leaks; fire fighting; prevention of poisoning by wearing respirators and taking certain precautions; storage and handling of carbon disulfide in barrels and cylinders; pipeline transfer; first aid in the event of contact with skin or eyes, or in cases of inhalation); marking of containers (danger symbols and warning notices).
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 2nd edition l982. 11p. Illus. Price Gld.0.50.
White I.R., Catchpole H.E., Rycroft R.J.G.
Rashes amongst persulphate workers
Report of an investigation in a factory manufacturing ammonium and potassium persulfate. Workers involved especially in the manufacture of potassium persulfate developed itchy red papules and eczematous patches on the wrists and forearms, hands, neck and face; the eruptions usually commenced within a month of start of employment, improved during a period of absence but sometimes recurred rapidly on return. Control measures introduced include: improved dust extraction procedures around the sieving and packing areas; use of gloves over long-sleeved overalls; daily washing of contaminated gloves.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1982, Vol.8, No.3, p.168-172. Illus. 7 ref.
Acide sulfamique [in French]
Sections of this toxicology data sheet cover: synonyms; appearance; uses; pathology (affects the skin and eyes); industrial safety (personal protection).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd quarter 1982, Vol.22, Special Toxicology Issue (Supplement to No.86) p.11. 2 ref.
Coe J.E., Douglas R.B.
The effect of contact lenses on ocular responses to sulphur dioxide
Tear production was measured in the eyes of 6 subjects exposed to sulfur dioxide at 50ppm for 5min when the eyes was unshielded and when it was shielded with a contact lens. In the unshielded eye tear production increased an average of 83%. In the shielded eye no increase in tear production occurred. No subjects reported any subjective sensation of eye irritation with exposure of the shielded or unshielded eye. The absence of tear production in the shielded eye resulted from physical shielding of the chemically sensitive areas of the cornea and was not the result of the lens interfering with the mechanism of tear production.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1982, Vol.32, No.2, p.92-94. Illus. 6 ref.
Donham K.J., Knapp L.W., Monson R., Gustafson K.
Acute toxic exposure to gases from liquid manure
Report on 6 cases of poisoning following acute exposure to gases from liquid manure in industrial livestock production facilities. In the storage of liquid manure, the activity of anaerobic and facultative microbes results in the production of various gases as metabolic by-products, including CH4, NH3, CO2 and H2S. In the cases in question, H2S appears to have been the main toxic substance involved, and agitation of the liquid manure was important in creating an acute, highly toxic environment. Preventive measures include worker education about the danger of gaseous emanation from liquid manure and limitation of exposure (covers or lids on manure pits, adequate ventilation, etc.).
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1982, Vol.24, No.2, p.142-145. 20 ref.
A morbidity study of viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulphide
Report on a comparative historical cohort study of morbidity in workers exposed to CS2 in a viscose rayon factory and in controls in a cotton mill in Japan between 1966 and 1970, using records of medical tratment. Period prevalence rates of cerebral vascular disease, ischaemic heart disease, hypertensive disease, diabetes mellitus, nephritis and nephrosis, mental disorders and neurological diseases were calculated. Renal disease and hypertension disease were significantly more prevalent in the rayon spinners and cutters with exposure histories of 10 years or more (i.e. the most highly exposed group) than in the workers with no exposure to CS2. When the group of workers with no CS2 was combined with that having negligible exposure and taken as a reference group, ischaemic heart disease was significantly more prevalent in the most highly exposed group than in the reference group. Ratios of period prevalence rates between these groups were 7.6 for nephritis and nephrosis, 2.3 for ischaemic heart disease, and 1.9 for hypertensive disease.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1982, Vol.39, No.1, p.39-44. 22 ref.
Sulfur fires and explosions
This standard, approved as an American National Standard on 2 Dec. 1981, covers: crushing, grinding and pulverising of sulfur (location, construction, and venting of buildings and equipment; electrical wiring and equipment; inert gas; conveyors and collectors; prevention of ignition; housekeeping; fire fighting). Handling coarse sizes of sulfur in bulk in open, semi-enclosed or enclosed spaces; handling of liquid sulfur at normal handling temperatures; handling of liquid sulfur and sulfur vapour at temperatures above 154°C (operating precautions and equipment design). The standard applies to the crushing, grinding, pulverising and handling of sulfur, but not to mining or transportation of sulfur.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 1982. 21p. 10 ref.
US Department of Health and Human Services
Review and evaluation of recent literature - Occupational exposure to sulfuric acid
Contents of this literature survey: human effects of H2SO4; environmental studies; animal toxicity; extent and control of exposure; workplace sampling and analysis; USA TLV: 1mg/m3 TWA; references to standards in other countries; summary and conclusions (hazardous conditions still exist in U.S. plants using H2SO4;effects of H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance, even at low levels).
NIOSH, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, June 1981. 39p. 75 réf.
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid)
Hydrogen sulfide - Safe handling in ports
Zwavelwaterstof - Veilige behandeling in de haven [in Dutch]
Contents of this data sheet: physical and chemical properties; hazards (toxicity and health damage, symptoms, risk of leakage, fire and overpressure if temperature increases rapidly); rules for transport and containers; declaration on docking and preparations for unloading; safety measures (tanks, cylinders, etc. containing hydrogen sulfide under pressure should be kept well away from any source of heat); testing for leakage and repairing leaks; prevention of poisoning incidents, use of respirators, storage of hydrogen sulfide under pressure; slinging of cylinders; first aid in case of contact with skin or eyes, or inhalation); marking of containers.
Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 2nd edition 1982. 10p. Price: Glds.0.50.
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid)
Sulfur dioxide - Safe handling in ports
Zwaveldioxide - Veilige behandeling in de haven [in Dutch]
Contents of this data sheet: physical and chemical properties; hazards (toxicity and health damage, symptoms, risk of leakage and overpressure if temperature increases rapidly); rules for transport and containers; declaration on docking and preparations for unloading; safety measures (tanks, cylinders, etc. containing sulfur dioxide under pressure should be kept well away from any source of heat); testing for leakage and repairing leaks; prevention of poisoning incidents, use of respirators, storage of sulfur dioxide under pressure; slinging of cylinders; first aid in case of contact with skin or eyes, or inhalation); marking of containers.
Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 2nd edition 1982. 10p. Price: Glds.0.50.
Amarnani S.H., Powell R.W.
Early evaluation of potential worker exposure problems associated with the Claus-type sulfur recovery process
The design plans for a Claus-type sulfur recovery unit were reviewed for potential worker exposures to sulfur gases (hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide), ammonia, dusts and noise. Controls for these potential exposures include double mechanical seals for centrifugal pumps carrying sour water, flushing and drain connections for each piece of equipment, closed loop systems for sample collection and other engineering design items. Engineering controls implemented at plant design stage minimise the risks of worker exposure and reduce the cost for retrofit engineering controls.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1982, Vol.43, No.1, p.49-53. Illus. 6 ref.
Kruse A., Borch-Johnsen K., Milling Pedersen L.
Cerebral damage following a single high exposure to carbon disulphide
A healthy 48-year old man was exposed for 20min to carbon disulfide (CS2) in the concentration range 400-470,000ppm as a result of a laboratory fire. He was unconscious for 10min after the exposure. Serious persistent cerebral deterioration developed. Computerised tomography scanning showed cerebral atrophy, neuro-psychological examination established dementia, and measurement of cerebral flow showed reduced cortical flow in the right hemisphere. Symptoms were still present 21 months after the exposure. The observed encephalopathy may be due to the direct toxic effects of CS2, or its metabolites, on the brain or to sequelae after anoxia during unconsciousness.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1982, Vol.32, No.1, p.44-45. 5 ref.
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