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Inorganic sulfur compounds - 587 entries found

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  • Inorganic sulfur compounds

1994

CIS 95-139 Perbellini L., Maranelli G., Lombardini F., Gandini G., Brugnone F.
Carbon disulfide in blood - A method for storing and analysing samples
Concentrations of free and acid-labile carbon disulfide (CS2) in human blood were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. CS2 was measured in the blood of 27 subjects treated with disulfiram (which is partially biotransformed into CS2) and in that of 62 controls. In blood, a small part of CS2 is free (it can be analyzed without any blood treatment); most CS2 is bound ("acid labile"), and requires acid hydrolysis to become free and detectable. During storage at 4°C, free and acid-labile CS2 in blood decreased respectively to 26% and 27% of the initial concentration within a month. In fresh samples, median free CS2 concentrations were of 139ng/L in normal subjects. Acid-labile CS2 concentrations were much higher (median 2743ng/L). Free and acid-labile CS2 in blood were closely correlated. Blood samples stored at -80°C maintained a constant concentration of CS2 over almost three weeks.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1994, Vol.85, No.2, p.171-178. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 94-1990 Koizumi A., Aoki T., Tsukada M., Naruse M., Saitoh N.
Mercury, not sulphur dioxide, poisoning as cause of smelter disease in industrial plants producing sulphuric acid
Several episodes of "smelter disease" previously assumed to be caused by sulfur dioxide (SO2) poisoning have been reported in workers replacing pipes in sulfuric acid manufacturing plants. At a plant in Akita, Japan 20 such workers were affected despite wearing either respirators with SO2 cartridges or face masks with supplied air. Blood and urine measurements confirmed heavy mercury exposure. It was concluded that the illness was caused by inhalation of mercury fumes generated from mercuric sulfate in the piping sludge and by dermal exposure to the sludge. The wearing of encapsulated suits with a supplied-air system is recommended.
Lancet, 4 June 1994, Vol.343, No.8910, p.1411-1412. 4 ref.

CIS 94-1647 Nicholson P.J., Ferguson-Smith J., Pemberton M.A., Campbell A., Edwards J.N., Ferner R.E.
Time to discontinue the use of solutions A and B as a cyanide 'antidote'
Literature concerning the use of solutions A and B (15.8% ferrous sulfate in 0.3% citric acid and 6% sodium carbonate, respectively) as a first-aid treatment for cyanide poisoning is reviewed along with an analysis of reports of incidents at a major cyanide producing facility. The current opinion in the UK is that solutions A and B should not be used as a first-aid measure in the management of cyanide poisoning. Similarly, oral sodium thiosulfate or activated charcoal should not be used. The recommended first-aid treatment of symptomatic cyanide poisoning is 100% oxygen and amyl nitrite, irrespective of the route of exposure.
Occupational Medicine, July 1994, Vol.44, No.3, p.125-128. 15 ref.

1993

CIS 96-1986 Hydrogen sulfide
Data sheet. Can enter the body by inhalation and through the skin. Exposure to high levels can cause immediate death. May cause eye irritation, pain, redness and blurred vision. May irritate the lungs and cause oedema. May affect the central nervous system. It is a highly flammable gas.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1993. 6p.

CIS 96-2229
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for nickel: Update
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: lung diseases; heart diseases; haematotoxic effects; renal diseases; skin rashes; skin sensitization; asthma; carcinogenic effects (lung and nasal cancer).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Apr. 1996. 151p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-1597 Nickel sulphide
International Chemical Safety Card. Short-term exposure effects: irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization; carcinogenic effects. Occupational exposure limit: 1mg/m3 (as nickel) (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 96-1243 Barium sulphate
International Chemical Safety Card. Long-term exposure effects: affect the lungs (baritosis). Occupational exposure limit: TLV 10mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-853 Carbon disulfide
Disulfure de carbone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: strong irritation of the skin; chemical burns; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system) and digestive disorders. Chronic toxicity: behavioural and neurotoxic effects (central and peripheral nervous system); visual function disorders; may affect the retina and optic nerve; cardiovascular disorders; may affect blood coagulation; menstrual disorders; spermatogenic disturbance; severe respiratory impairment. French exposure limit: 25ppm (75mg/m3) (VLE).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1993. 6p. 27 ref.

CIS 94-1510 Potassium sulfide
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; corrosion of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; chemical burns; pulmonary oedema.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1678
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Carbon disulfide
Carbon disulfide has a high exposure potential because of its volatility and good absorption capability. Acute toxicity is mainly confined to neurotoxic effects, although effects are also seen in the liver, heart, testes and skin; at high concentrations it is embryotoxic. Long-term exposure affects the central and peripheral nervous systems, the eye (optic nerve), the cardiovascular system and, less severely, the liver and kidneys.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1993. xvi, 161p. ca. 330 ref. Price: DEM 88.00.

CIS 94-1699
Health and Safety Commission
Design and construction of road tankers used for the carriage of carbon disulphide. Approved Code of Practice
This Code of Practice provides practical guidance with respect to regulation 6(a)-(c) of the Road Traffic (Carriage of Dangerous Substances in Road Tankers and Road Tanker Containers) Regulations 1992. Contents: scope of the Code; specifications for the vehicle (engine; electrical system; driver's cab; fire extinguisher container); specifications for the tank and its fittings (tank design and mounting; tank materials; allowable stress; tank divisions, baffles and ring stiffeners; valves and safety relief devices).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. vi, 9p. 10 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 94-1307 Krstev S., Peruničić B., Farkić B., Varagić M.
Environmental and biological monitoring in carbon disulfide exposure assessment
Carbon disulfide (CS2) exposure was evaluated in a viscose fibre plant. Environmental exposure was measured by static area sampling and by personal monitoring, while biological indicators of exposure were determined in urine. Environmental exposure as determined by personal samplers (TWA) was twice as high than when measured by static area sampling: 62.2mg/m3 compared to 31.1mg/m3 in the spinning rooms, and 18.3mg/m3 compared to 12.2mg/m3 in the viscose manufacturing departments. Determination of biological exposure indicators showed some correlation with environmental exposure results, particularly for urinary TTCA levels. Using a linear regression equation, a biological limit value for TTCA, corresponding to the Yugoslav MAC of 30mg/m3 for CS2, was calculated (9.89mg/g creatinine) for the study population, which is higher than in other investigations. This is probably due to different air and urine sampling methodologies.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.473-481. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 94-1335 Meredith T.J., Jacobsen D., Haines J.A., Berger J.C., van Heijst A.N.P.
World Health Organization (WHO)
Antidotes for poisoning by cyanide
These monographs summarize and assess the clinical use, mode of action and efficacy of oxygen, sodium thiosulfate, hydroxocobalamin, dicobalt edetate, amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, 4-dimethylaminophenol, methylene blue and toluidine blue as antidotes in the treatment of cyanide poisoning. Information provided includes: animal and volunteer studies of pharmacodynamics and toxicology; clinical studies; summary of evaluation (advised routes and dose, other therapy, adverse effects, restrictions of use); model information sheet. An introductory overview covers potential sources of cyanide, toxicity of cyanide in man, mechanism of toxicity and clinical features, laboratory findings, biological detoxification of cyanide, protective measures for occupational exposure, treatment.
Cambridge University Press, The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, United Kingdom, 1993. xxv, 177p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-962 Wilhelm V.
Occupational safety and health on waste disposal sites - Hazards and pollution by gas emissions
Arbeitsschutz an Deponien - Gefährdungen und Belastungen durch Deponiegas [in German]
Anaerobic decomposition of the organic components in waste produces a gas which consists mainly of carbon dioxide and methane. It also contains traces of harmful substances such as dichloromethane, hydrogen sulfide, benzene and vinyl chloride. A design of outgassing facilities which prevents explosions and health hazards is outlined.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1993, Vol.105, No.9, p.614-616, 618-619. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 94-993 Payne M.P., Shillaker R.O., Wilson A.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus pentasulphide
No useful human data are available on the effects of repeated exposure to phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide or phosphorus pentasulfide. Single exposure of humans to airborne phosphorus oxychloride has been reported to cause conjunctivitis, pharyngitis and respiratory tract irritation, including pulmonary oedema; repeated exposure has resulted in asthmatic bronchitis and emphysema. Single exposure to airborne phosphorus trichloride has been reported to lead to irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; repeated exposure has caused pharyngeal irritation and pronounced asthmatic bronchitis leading to pulmonary emphysema. Phosphorus pentachloride may cause irritation of the eyes and the respiratory tract. No reliable human data are available on the carcinogenic or genotoxic potential of these substances or on their reproductive toxicity.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. iii, 23p. 87 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 94-348 Approved Code of Practice for the prevention of sulphur fires and explosions
Contents of this revised Code of Practice (see CIS 90-974): interpretation; definitions; dust explosions; hazard rating of sulfur; dust explosion prevention and protection (minimization of dust; construction of buildings; fire control; elimination of ignition sources; explosion relief venting; explosion detection and suppression; inerting); specific hazards relating to sulfur handling; liquid sulfur; fertilizers containing sulfur; personal protective equipment and training. Appendices covered: properties of sulfur; health hazards of sulfur dioxide; example of a hot work permit.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Sep. 1993. 40p. 17 ref. Price: NZD 10.00.

CIS 94-281 Fullerton A., Gammelgaard B., Avnstorp C., Menné T.
Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement
The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulfate were used. The cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48h or applied repeatedly every 24h for 96h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulfate and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e. pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulfate (20%) on the skin surface for 96h. The content of water-soluble chromium in ordinary Portland cement may vary due to the alkali sulfate content of the cement.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1993, Vol.29, No.3, p.133-137. 11 ref.

CIS 93-1812 Phosphorus pentasulfide
Pentasulfuro fosforoso [in Spanish]
Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; conjunctivitis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); convulsions; pulmonary oedema; chemical pneumonitis.
Noticias de seguridad, Aug. 1993, Vol.55, No.8. 4p. Insert.

CIS 93-1790 Cadmium sulfide
International chemical safety card. Long term exposure effects: may affect the lungs and kidneys; probable human carcinogen. Occupational exposure limits: TLV (as Cd): 0.05mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 93-1941 Ruijten M.W.M.M., Sallé H.J.A., Verberk M.M.
Verification of effects on the nervous system of low level occupational exposure to CS2
Neurotoxic effects associated with long-term low-level occupational exposure to CS2 were reinvestigated four years after the initial study in the same group of workers. The second study concerned 44 exposed and 31 matched control workers. For both studies a personal cumulative exposure PCE was calculated based on function specific exposure levels and the occupational histories, which were carefully re-established. The exposed workers' average PCE was 192 and 213ppm-yrs (first and second study respectively). Effects were found on the motor nerve conduction velocity of the fast (-0.9m/s) and slow (-1.0m/s) fibres of the peroneal nerve, the sensory nerve conduction velocity in the hand and arm segment of the median (-2.1m/s) and ulnar (-1.3m/s) nerves, and in the sural nerve (-1.3m/s). An increased refractory period was found in the sural nerve (+0.2m/s, + 11%), but not in the peroneal nerve. For the autonomic nervous system an effect was found on the heart frequency response to isometric muscle contraction (-4.7 beats/min, - 26%) and maximal forced respiration (-3.2 beats/min, - 16%). This study shows the importance of a detailed evaluation of past exposure data.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.50, No.4, p.301-307. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 93-1620 Tandon R., Aarts B.
Chromium, nickel and cobalt contents of some Australian cements
The total chromium, nickel and cobalt concentrations of 8 Australian Portland cements ranged from 49 to 99µg/g, 5 to 54µg/g and ≤1 to 13µg/g, respectively. The water-soluble chromate concentrations of the cements ranged from 0.2 to 8.1µg/g, and the sodium sulfate-extractable chromates form 1.4 to 9.7µg/g. Results for water-soluble nickel (≤0.2µg/g) and cobalt (≤0.05µg/g) indicate that the metals are present only as water-insoluble compounds. The significance of the various data is considered from a dermatological point of view. Cement extracts for the analysis of water-soluble hexavalent chromium (chromates) are stable for at least 12 days. The optimum extraction time for hexavalent chromium in cement appears to be 1h. Almost 100% reduction of hexavalent chromium is possible after 1h using 100 x the stoichiometric value of iron (II) sulfate. The chromates can become gradually insolubilised when the solution from the water added is in direct contact with the cement, i.e., over a period of >60min to 7 days, even without the addition of iron (II) sulfate.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1993, Vol.28, No.4, p.201-205. 17 ref.

CIS 93-963 Liu Q., Katsabanis P.D.
Hazard evaluation of sulphide dust explosions
Experiments on sulfide dust explosibility were conducted in a 1m3 explosion chamber. Explosibility parameters for sulfide dust were determined and compared with other types of dusts. The lower explosive limit for a sulfide dust with a sulfur content of 29.86% by weight was found to be 300g/m3. Using non-aluminised explosives to simulate the ignition source in underground mines, the product of the heat of explosion of the explosive and the minimum weight of explosive required for the ignition of the dust was found to be approximately constant, suggesting that it represents a minimum ignition criterion.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Jan. 1993, Vol.33, No.1, p.35-49. Illus. 17 ref.

1992

CIS 95-2017 Aranda S.J., González R.O., Herrera H.C.
Measures of protection against hydrogen sulfide fumes
Medidas preventivas ante emanaciones de ácido sulfhídrico [in Spanish]
The presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) fumes is primarily due to the decomposition of sulfur-containing organic matter (such as fish). This training guide covers: characteristics of H2S; natural, artificial and industrial sources; effects of exposure on the body (can be fatal at concentrations > 200ppm); accident causes; exposure limit in Chile (8ppm = 11.2mg/m3); measures of prevention (general; before, during and after fish unloading operations; emergency measures); first aid; personal protective equipment; detectors; check-list for prevention.
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Casilla 14565, Correo Central, Santiago de Chile, Chile, 1992. 17p. Illus.

CIS 95-1407 Soskolne C.L., Jhangri G.S., Siemiatycki J., Lakhani R., Dewar R., Burch J.D., Howe G.R., Miller A.B.
Occupational exposure to sulfuric acid in southern Ontario, Canada, in association with laryngeal cancer
A case-referent study designed to test the association between exposure to asbestos and nickel and the development of laryngeal cancer was conducted in southern Ontario (Canada) in 1977-1979. For the primary study, the cases were individually matched with neighbourhood controls for sex and age. Personal interviews had secured smoking, alcohol and detailed work histories. To 183 of the male pairs were added retrospective assessments of sulfuric acid exposure for each job, blind of disease status; this constituted the data base for an augmented secondary analysis. Logistic regression revealed statistically significant odds ratios when tobacco and alcohol were controlled. Exposure-response gradients were strongly positive with odds ratios of 1.97 for short duration-low level exposure through 6.91 for long duration-higher level exposure employing progressively more specific definitions of exposure. Asbestos as a confounder and the interaction terms examined were nonsignificant. These findings are corroborative of those of other studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1992, Vol.18, No.4, p.225-232. 25 ref.

CIS 94-313 Vanhoorne M., De Bacquer D., De Backer G.
Epidemiological study of the cardiovascular effects of carbon disulphide
An extensive health survey of 115 male viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) and 76 controls was undertaken. Personal monitoring performed in 17 jobs showed exposures varying from 4 to 112mg/m3. There were no significant differences between exposed workers and controls in the prevalence of angina, history of myocardial infarction, intermittent claudication and ECG signs of ischaemia. Blood pressure, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and the apolipoproteins A1 and B rose while high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, the HDL-cholesterol/apolipoprotein A1 and the LDL-cholesterol/apolipoprotein B ratios decreased significantly with increasing exposure. Adjustment for various factors in multiple linear regression analysis showed significant effects of the CS2 cumulative exposure index on systolic BP, diastolic BP, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoproteins A1 and B, the LDL cholesterol/apolipoprotein B and HDL cholesterol/apolipoprotein A1 ratios.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Aug. 1992, Vol.21, No.4, p.745-752. 52 ref.

CIS 94-113 Sulphur dioxide
Dioxyde de soufre [in French]
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of eyes and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; lung and eye injury. Long-term exposure effects: pulmonary diseases.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-102 Nickel sulphate
Sulfate de nickel [in French]
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects; digestive effects. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitization; asthma; suspected human carcinogen.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p.

CIS 94-61 Carbon disulphide
Disulfure de carbone [in French]
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: toxic. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema (delayed symptoms); neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long-term exposure effects: psychosis; polyneuropathy; arteriosclerosis; antifertility effects; teratogenic efects; dermatitis. EC identification number and labelling codes: 006-003-00-3; F, T; R12-26; S27-29-33-43-45. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 1131 (3; 6.1; I).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 93-1972
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Harmful substances - Clean air in the workplace - Proceedings of the European Community Conference on 2 July 1992 in Dresden
Gefahrstoffe - Saubere Luft am Arbeitsplatz - Vorträge der EG-Tagung am 2. Juli 1992 in Dresden [in German]
Contents: requirements placed by the European Community on air quality monitoring at workplaces; the major air pollutants at workplaces in the new Länder (states) of Germany; what the chemical industry in the new states is doing against air pollution at the workplace; personal protection against exposure to asbestos fibres during building renovation; emissions by diesel engines used in potash mines and in public transportation in the new states; exposure to wood dusts in both the new and old states and reduction of wood dust emissions; extractive ventilation for the elimination of harmful substances from workplaces as practiced in the new states.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1992. 152p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 28.00.

CIS 93-1606 Peterson J.E.
Limitations of ambient air quality standards in evaluating indoor environments
Analysis of the kinds of data used for the derivation of ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) for carbon monoxide and ozone shows that these values are based on the toxicology of the materials and thus are suitable for evaluating potential health effects of indoor environments, especially on the very young, the aged, and the infirm. A similar analysis shows that the AAQSs for suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are strictly empirical and that they should not be used for any but their first, intended purpose. The AAQSs for non-methane hydrocarbons are based on photochemical smog production, not injury of any kind, and have no utility for indoor environment evaluation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.216-220. 29 ref.

CIS 93-1101 Barium sulfate
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Effects of short-term exposure: irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Effects of long-term exposure: baritosis; bronchial irritation.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1992. 6p. 17 ref.

CIS 93-744 Ammonium sulfamate
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Effects of short-term exposure: irritation of the eyes, skin and mucous membranes; respiratory stimulation.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1992. 6p. 13 ref.

CIS 93-917 Halbert A.R., Gebauer K.A., Wall L.M.
Prognosis of occupational chromate dermatitis
To elucidate further the natural history and prognosis of occupational chromate dermatitis, 120 affected patients, diagnosed between 1980 and 1989, were reviewed. 65% of the patients were construction workers with cement-induced chromate dermatitis. Workers at greatest risk of sensitisation were those mixing bagged cement at the work site. The median age at onset of symptoms was 34 years, with 48% having been exposed to chromate for 5 years or less. Only 37% presented to the dermatologist within 12 months of developing symptoms. 76% of patients had ongoing dermatitis at the time of review. Although 48% of the study population had completely changed their occupation to avoid chromate exposure, symptoms persisted in 69%. In view of the potential chronicity of chromate dermatitis and its associated social and occupational impairment, the addition of ferrous sulfate while mixing bagged cement at the work site is recommended. This simple technique targets the workers at greatest risk of becoming sensitised.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1992, Vol.27, No.4, p.214-219. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 93-932 Turner R.M., Fairhurst S.
Health and Safety Executive
Toxicology of substances in relation to major hazards. Sulphuric acid mist
This report reviews the available toxicological data on sulfuric acid mist in order to derive the "dangerous toxic load" (DTL). Because of severe limitations in the data available and variation in toxicity with changes in aerosol particle size, considerable uncertainty exists in the derivation of the DTL for sulfuric acid mist. It is suggested that for risk analyses based on a mist with average particle size of around 1µ, the following relationship is used: DTL = 2.16 x 105 (mg/m3)2min. A table summarises observations made during single exposure inhalation studies in animals.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 21p. 22 ref. Price: GBP 3.50.

CIS 93-600 Hain E., Korallus U.
Lung cancer caused by arsenic-containing pyrites used in sulfuric acid production - An occupational problem carried over from past exposures
Lungenkrebs durch arsenhaltigen Schwefelkies bei der Schwefelsäureherstellung - ein arbeitsmedizinisches Altlasten-Problem [in German]
An increased incidence of bronchial cancer in sulfuric acid production plants became apparent in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1984. Only employees who had worked in the production plants before 1959 were found to be affected. The high exposure to arsenic-containing dusts before 1959 was identified as the cause of the elevated lung cancer incidence. It was due to open roasting of pyrite in manually operated single plate roasters and mechanically operated multiplate roasters, which were in use until 1959. The concentrations of arsenic were far in excess of the exposure limits. Review of the legal aspects of the problem and of compensation. Detailed summaries in English, French and German.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, July 1992, Vol.42, No.7, p.266-276. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 93-493 Sułkowski W.J., Kowalska S., Sobczak Z., Jóźwiak Z.
The statokinesiometry in evaluation of the balance system in persons with chronic carbon disulphide intoxication
In a group of 37 patients with chronic carbon disulfide (CS2) intoxication manifested by encephalopathy, polyneuropathy or psycho-organic syndrome and complaining for vertigo, a statokinesiometric test was performed with open and closed eyes and with visual simulation. Basic test parameters of stabilograms and statokinesiograms were compared with standard values of the control group. Results of the test were in addition verified by electronystagmography with the recording of spontaneous, positional, optokinetic and post-rotatory nystagmus as well as by the eye-tracking test. Statokinesiometry revealed a postural stability disorder in 72.9% of patients. Balance disorders detected by means of this test showed high compatibility with results of electronystagmography, which confirmed damage of the central part of the vestibular system due to CS2 intoxication.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.3, p.265-275. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 93-576 Górski P., Tarkowski M.
Non specific environmental factors and asthma development
Environmental pollutants seem to be responsible for the dramatic increase in allergic disorders that have been observed lately. The best documented environmental factors facilitating allergy development are: ozone, diesel-exhaust particulate matter and tobacco smoke. Formaldehyde and SO2 seem to be very important but still are not sufficiently documented. Mechanisms involved in allergy promotion include: better penetration of allergens across respiratory mucosa and direct modulation of immunological responses.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.3, p.227-236. 95 ref.

CIS 93-492 Bukowski J.A., Sargent E.V., Pena B.M.
Evaluation of the utility of a standard history questionnaire in assessing the neurological effects of solvents
Using a standard battery of medical surveillance questions, a study was undertaken to determine if an increase in reported neurological symptoms was resulting from solvent exposure at a pharmaceutical research, development and manufacturing site. The prevalence of positive responses to 13 history questions pertaining to neurological symptoms was compared between those enrolled in exposed surveillance programmes (n=840) and those enrolled in other, non-solvent exposed surveillance programmes (n=1,042). The ratio of positive responders between the exposed and unexposed groups was used to generate a relative prevalence ratio (RPR). No significantly elevated RPRs were seen after the analysis. These results suggest that workplace solvent exposures in the employees studied did not appear to result in obvious neurological symptoms. However, low-level neurotoxic exposures can cause asymptomatic or sub-clinical disorders. Therefore, more sensitive neurotoxic surveillance systems need to be developed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1992, Vol.22, No.3, p.337-345. 18 ref.

CIS 93-269
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Occupational exposures to mists and vapours from strong inorganic acids and other industrial chemicals
These monographs consist of data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 15-22 Oct. 1991). IARC final classification: occupational exposure to strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); diethyl sulfate and 1,3-butadiene are probably carcinogenic in humans (2A); diisopropyl sulfate is possibly carcinogenic in humans (2B); sulfur dioxide, sulfites, metabisulfites and hydrochloric acid are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 336p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 65.00.

CIS 92-1981 Castiglioni G., Carosso A., Manzoni S., Nebiolo F., Bugiani M.
Results of routine patch testing of 834 patients in Turin
834 consecutive patients (630 female), aged between 26 and 46 years, who were suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, were patch tested with the GIRDCA standard series during 1989-1990. The most frequent sensitisers observed included nickel sulfate, cobalt, Kathon CG, perfumes, potassium dichromate and balsam of Peru. The influence of individual factors such as sex, age and occupation on the patch test results, and the coexistence of 2 or more unrelated but statistically significant sensitivities were evaluated.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1992, Vol.37, No.3, p.182-185. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 92-1951 Dutkiewicz T., Rolecki R., Kończalik J., Świątczak J.
The impact of the chemical industry on the human environment
This article describes the emission of dust and gases into the atmosphere, and of liquid and solid wastes produced by the chemical industry into the environment in general. The impact of the chemical industry on the environment is analysed. Some hazardous agents occurring in the work environment and the resulting morbidity and sickness absenteeism rates among workers in the chemical industry are discussed.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.1, p.13-26. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 92-1877 Riihimäki V., Kivistö H., Peltonen K., Helpiö E., Aitio A.
Assessment of exposure to carbon disulfide in viscose production workers from urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid determinations
The follow-up of environmental carbon disulfide (CS2) exposure and urinary excretion of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) among 20 operatives over a four-day working week in two viscose producing factories confirmed earlier observations that TTCA is a sensitive and reliable indicator of exposure to CS2. Exposure to as low as 0.5-1.0ppm (1.6-3.2mg/m3) of CS2 was associated with detectable amounts of TTCA in urine. Approximately 3% (range 2-6.5%) of absorbed CS2 was detected in urine as TTCA. Consequently, urinary excretion of TTCA, relative to CS2 exposure, increased by about one-third during the working week. Urinary TTCA concentration of 4.5mmol/mol creatinine in a postshift sample corresponded to a TWA exposure to 10ppm CS2 towards the end of the working week.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1992, Vol.22, No.1, p.85-97. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 92-1242 Héry M., Bemer D., Gorner P., Hecht G., Gerber J.M., Hubert G.
Assessment of thoracic and respirable fractions of a sulfuric acid aerosol
Evaluation des fractions thoracique et inspirable d'un aérosol d'acide sulfurique [in French]
An assessment of the thoracic and respirable fractions of sulfuric acid mists was conducted by atmospheric sampling at the workplace using a cascade impactor. Examples are given showing how situations vary widely from one establishment to another and from one sampling point to another. The study shows that the limit value of 0.1mg/m3 (expressed as a thoracic fraction) currently being debated by the ACGIH is much stricter than the current limit value of 1mg/m3, expressed as a respirable fraction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.147, Note No.1882-147-92, p.241-248. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 92-1279 Vanhoorne M.
Epidemiological and medico-social study of the toxic effects of occupational exposure to carbon disulphide
Thesis on the toxic effects of occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The study population consisted of 177 workers in a Belgian viscose rayon factory and 85 referents without exposure to CS2. It is concluded that the present TLV for H2S (14mg/m3) does not appear to offer sufficient protection against eye irritation and that the present TLV for cumulative exposure to CS2 (31mg/m3) does not seem to protect the exposed workers for more than 10 years against the appearance of microaneurysms, the deterioration of colour discrimination, subclinical renal alterations, blood lipid alterations, gastrointestinal complaints, increase of serum GGT, the appearance of (discrete) polyneuropathy and the impairment of male sexuality. Further studies are recommended to clarify the significance of these subclinical findings. Summary in Dutch.
Universiteit Gent, Faculteit Geneeskunde, Dienst voor Hygiëne en sociale Geneeskunde, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent, Belgium, 1992. 221p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

1991

CIS 98-1121 Carbon disulfide
Disulfuro de carbono [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0022 (CIS 90-1451). International Chemical Safety Card. Topics: antifertility effects; carbon disulfide; cardiovascular disorders; central nervous system; chemical hazards; chemical pneumonitis; coronary diseases; data sheet; dermatitis; elimination of spills; environmental pollution; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; gastric disorders; health hazards; IPCS; irritation; labelling; neuropsychic effects; neurotoxic effects; polyneuritis; psychoses; skin absorption; Spain; storage; threshold limit values; translation; unconsciousness; waste disposal.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 98-59 Sulfuric acid
Acido sulfúrico [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 5-0362. International Chemical Safety Card. Topics: chemical burns; chemical hazards; corrosion; corrosive substances; data sheet; delayed effects; dental erosion; elimination of spills; environmental pollution; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; IPCS; irritation; labelling; lung diseases; pulmonary oedema; Spain; storage; sulfuric acid; threshold limit values; translation; waste disposal.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 97-1456 Cadmium sulfide
Sulfuro de cadmio [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0404. International Chemical Safety Card. Long-term exposure effects: may affect the lungs and kidneys; probable human carcinogen. Occupational exposure limit: TLV (as Cd): 0.05mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 95-1604 Potassium sulfide
Sulfuro de dipotasio [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 7-0549. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; corrosive effect on the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; chemical burns; pulmonary oedema.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 95-1216 Barium sulphate
Sulfato de bario [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 10-0827. International chemical safety card. Long-term exposure effects: dust particles may affect the lungs; baritosis (benign pneumoconiosis). Occupational exposure limit: TLV: 10mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 94-1835 Nickel sulfide
Disulfuro de triníquel [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 10-0928. International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: skin sensitization; human carcinogen. Occupational exposure limit: TLV (as Ni): 1mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 93-406 Zinc sulphate heptahydrate
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin, nose and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

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