Inorganic sulfur compounds - 587 entries found
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Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for sulfur dioxide
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the skin and eyes; pneumotoxic effects, including oedema and bronchoconstriction (the respiratory tract is the primary target system for sulfur dioxide toxicity); haematological effects, including methaemoglobinaemia; neurological effects; cytogenic effects; chromosome aberrations.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Dec. 1998. xix, 185p. Illus. approx. 560 ref.
Carbon disulphide absorption during xanthate reagent mixing in a gold mine concentrator
A xanthate reagent mixer at a gold mine concentrator was exposed to carbon disulphide by extensive skin contamination with xanthate powder and solution during the reagent mixing process. Absorption of carbon disulphide was confirmed by the detection of urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA). Drager colorimetric tube testing during subsequent mixing recorded a maximum concentration of at least 60ppm carbon disulphide. An illness consisting of predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms began 20h after the exposure. Although this may have been due to carbon disulphide toxicity this is by no means certain. The need for engineering controls, impervious protective clothing and full-face respirators with particulate and organic vapour cartridges is discussed. Topics: carbon disulfide; case study; determination in air; determination in urine; fatigue; gold mining; migraine; respirators; skin absorption; threshold limit values; toxic effects; urinary metabolites; vomiting; xanthic acids.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.48, No.7, p.469-470. 4 ref.
Ghittori S., Maestri L., Contardi I., Zadra P., Marraccini P., Imbriani M.
Biological monitoring of workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) in a viscose rayon fibers factory
Topics: carbon disulfide; confounding factors; determination in air; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; viscose rayon industry.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1998, Vol.33, No.5, p.478-484. Illus. 22 ref.
Kumagai S., Samukawa S., Nishimura H.
Dust exposure level of a primary school teacher
Summary in English. Topics: airborne dust; calcium carbonate; calcium sulfate dihydrate; determination in air; educational institutions; exposure evaluation; particle size; respirable dust.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Apr. 1998, Vol.74, No. 4, p.156-161. Illus. 7 ref.
Schneider J.S., Tobe E.H., Mozley P.D., Barniskis L., Lidsky T.I.
Persistent cognitive and motor deficits following acute hydrogen sulphide poisoning
Topics: acute poisoning; hydrogen sulfide; case study; cognitive performance; movement disorders; nervous function tests; neurological effects; tomography.
Occupational Medicine, May 1998, Vol.48, No.4, p.255-260. Illus. 23 ref.
Cox C., Que Hee S.S., Tolos W.P.
Biological monitoring of workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Topics: carbon disulfide; 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid; determination in urine; exposure tests; personal sampling; respirators; rubber industry; urinary metabolites; USA; viscose rayon industry.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1998, Vol.33, No.1, p.48-54. 31 ref.
Cadmium and its inorganic compounds
Cadmium et ses composés minéraux [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 91-1435. Acute toxicity: strong emetic; renal damage; irritation of the respiratory tract; delayed symptoms; pulmonary oedema. Chronic toxicity: nephrotoxic effects; respiratory diseases (emphysema); bone diseases; lung and bronchial; staining of the teeth; effects on reproduction. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.05mg/m3; ceiling value = 0.05mg/m3 (cadmium oxide). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.048-010-00-5 (cadmium compounds), No.048-001-00-4 (cadmium sulfide), No.048-002-00-0 (cadmium oxide); T, R22, R40, R48/23/25, S22, S36/37, S45, 215-147-8 (cadmium sulfide); T, R49, R22, R48/23/25, S53, S45, 215-146-2 (cadmium oxide). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 6p. Illus. 36 ref.
Mercury and its mineral compounds
Mercure et composés minéraux [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 90-45. Acute toxicity: skin absorption; respiratory tract irritation; encephalopathy; renal damage. Chronic toxicity: mercury poisoning; tremor; peripheral neurological disorders; loss of teeth; mercurialentis; eczematous dermatosis; sensitization; chromosome changes and spontaneous abortions. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.05mg/m3 (mercury vapour); 0.1mg Hg/m3 (inorganic compounds). EEC numbers and mandatory labelling codes: No.080-001-00-0; T; R23, R33, S7, S45, 231-106-7 (mercury); No.080-003-00-1; T+; R28, R34, R48/24/25, S36/37/39, S45, 231-299-8 (mercury dichloride). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 6p. Illus. 36 ref.
Sulfure d'hydrogène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 95-856. Acute toxicity: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; asphyxia; respiratory insufficiency; pulmonary oedema; cardiovascular disorders; arrythmia; metabolic disturbances. Chronic toxicity: neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); irritation of the eyes, skin (dermatitis) and respiratory tract (bronchitis); digestive disorders; may increase the risk of abortion. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 7mg/m3 (5ppm); ceiling limit = 14mg/m3 (10ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.016-001-00-4; T+, N, F+, R12, R26, R50, S9, S16, S28, S36/37, S45, S61, 231-977-3. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 5p. Illus. 20 ref.
Acide sulfurique [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 88-767. Acute toxicity: corrosion and irritation of skin and mucous membranes; delayed pulmonary oedema; chemical burns. Chronic toxicity: dental erosion; respiratory disorders. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 1mg/m3; ceiling limit = 3mg/m3. EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.007-005-00-7; C, R35, S26, S30, S45, 231-639-5. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 5p. Illus. 23 ref.
Disulfure de carbone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 95-853. Acute toxicity: disorders of the central nervous system; narcosis; respiratory failure. Chronic toxicity: neurological effects; retinopathy; hypoacusia; blood pressure disorders; cardiotoxic effects; respiratory diseases; digestive disorders; liver damage; menstrual disorders; spermatogenic disturbances; parodontopathy. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 10ppm (30mg/m3); ceiling value = 25ppm (75mg/m3). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.006-003-00-3; T, F, R11, R36/38, R62, R63, S16, S33, S36/37, S45, 200-843-6.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM, 2000. 6p. Illus. 27 ref.
Rix B.A., Villadsen E., Lynge E.
Cancer incidence of sulfite pulp workers in Denmark
The overall cancer risk among workers in two Danish sulfite pulp mills was close to the expected. The risk of stomach cancer was doubled, as was the risk of pancreatic cancer. For men with known pulp exposure, the risk of lung cancer was slightly increased. Other cancers with elevated risks were leukaemia and soft-tissue sarcomas. The excess risks observed in this study are in accordance with those of other studies from sulfite pulp mills. Topics: cancer; cohort study; gastrointestinal cancer; leukaemia; long-term study; lymphoma; morbidity; pulp and paper industry; sarcomas; sulfites; tumour of the pancreas.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1997, Vol.23, No.6, p.458-461. 23 ref.
Nishio Y., Kamada Y., Kitahara K.
Two cases of severe ocular chemical injuries
Kogyoseihin niyoru ganfushoku no nirei [in Japanese]
Summary in English. Two cases of severe ocular chemical injury are described. In one, a man sustained injury to the right eye after exposure to concentrated sulfuric acid. Despite conventional treatment for ocular acid burns secondary glaucoma developed, which was effectively treated by trabulectomy. The excised tissues revealed nearly complete necrosis. The second case involved hydrofluoric acid burns to both eyes. Corneal opacity increased and secondary glaucoma developed, which was treated by operation 4 weeks after the accident. Topical administration of calcium gluconate solution was also started. The cornea improved slightly after treatment. The cases illustrate that both conventional treatment and surgery may improve outcome in severe ocular chemical injury. Topics: hydrofluoric acid; case study; chemical burns; eye injuries; glaucoma; sulfuric acid.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1997, Vol.45, No.7, p.470-474. Illus. 13 ref.
Sińczuk-Walczak H., Szymczak M.
Rhythm patterns of basic brain bioelectric activity in workers chronically exposed to carbon disulfide
Topics: carbon disulfide; electroencephalographic changes; neurological effects; Poland; viscose rayon industry.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1997, Vol.10, No.4, p.429-440. Illus. 16 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Barium sulphate - Risk assessment document
Topics: baritosis; barium sulfate; criteria document; exposure evaluation; lung deposition; sampling and analysis; threshold limit values; toxic effects; toxicology; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. iv, 46p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Sama S., Kriebel D., Woskie S., Eisen E., Wegman D., Virji M.A.
A field investigation of the acute respiratory effects of metal working fluids - II. Effects of airborne sulfur exposures
Topics: aerosols; cross-sectional study; cutting fluids; determination in air; exposure evaluation; functional respiratory disorders; irritants; metalworking industry; oil mist; pulmonary function; respirable dust; spirometry; sulfur; USA; ventilatory capacity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1997, Vol.31, No.6, p.767-776. 28 ref.
Urano H., et al.
Increases of thrombomodulin activity and antigen level on human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with asbestos and man-made mineral fibers
The potential influences of crocidolite asbestos fibres and man-made mineral fibres (potassium titanate whisker and magnesium sulfate whisker) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells were investigated by measuring the activity and antigen level of thrombomodulin (TM) on the cell surface. Significant increases in both TM activity and TM antigen level were observed on cells treated with asbestos fibres at concentrations which showed no cytotoxic effect on the cells. Extensive increases were also observed with man-made mineral fibres. The increases in TM activity and TM antigen levels on cells exposed to these fibres may represent the physiological reaction of cells induced by the fibres.
Industrial Health, July 1997, Vol.35, No.3, p.359-366. 16 ref.
Bhambhani Y., et al.
Effects of 10-ppm hydrogen sulfide inhalation in exercising men and women: Cardiovascular, metabolic and biochemical responses
The acute effects of 10-ppm hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhalation, a concentration equal to the 8h TWA occupational exposure limit recommended by NIOSH, were examined in 28 healthy volunteers, after two 30-minute exercise sessions at 50% of their maximal oxygen uptake. A decrease in oxygen uptake, with a concomitant increase in blood lactate, was observed in men and women. No significant changes were observed in arterial blood parameters and cardiovascular responses. There was a tendency for muscle lactate to increase and citrate synthase to decrease in both sexes in the presence of H2S. These changes in oxygen uptake are probably caused by an inhibition of aerobic capacity of the exercising muscle. The appropriateness of the current occupational exposure limit for H2S should therefore be re-examined.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1997, Vol.39, No.2, p.122-129. 36 ref.
Bonnard N., Brondeau M.T., Clavel T., Falcy M., Hesbert A., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Schneider O.
Dioxyde de soufre [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: respiratory symptoms (bronchiolitis, pulmonary oedema, obstructive respiratory impairment); skin and eye irritation. Chronic toxicity: chronic pharyngitis and bronchitis; emphysema; worsening of preexisting asthma. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 5mg/m3 (2ppm); ceiling value = 10mg/m3 (5ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.016-011-00-9; T, R23, R36/37, S7/9, S45, 231-195-2. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 5p. Illus. 31 ref.
Nickel ammonium sulfate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. May irritate and burn the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. May cause skin allergy and an asthma-like allergy. May affect the kidneys.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.
Pepłońska B., Szeszenia-Dąbrowska N., Sobala W., Wilczyńska U.
A mortality study of workers with reported chronic occupational carbon disulfide poisoning
The mortality of a group of 2291 viscose rayon plant workers with chronic occupational carbon disulfide poisoning diagnosed during the years 1970-1990 was investigated to end 1992. Analysis of mortality in male subjects showed an excess risk of death from all causes compared with the general population of Poland. Increased mortality was also observed for diseases of the circulatory system, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, atherosclerosis, colon cancer and diseases of the nervous and sense organs. Among women a significant risk of death from atherosclerosis was noted.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1996, Vol.9, No.4, p.291-299. 12 ref.
Bhambhani Y., Burnham R., Snydmiller G., MacLean I., Lovlin R.
Effects of 10-ppm hydrogen sulfide inhalation on pulmonary function in healthy men and women
A group of 9 men and 10 women inhaled medical air or 10ppm hydrogen sulfide for 15min during cycle exercise at 50% of their maximal aerobic power. Routine pulmonary function tests were administered at rest and immediately after the two exposure conditions. No significant changes in pulmonary function variables were observed and none of the subjects experienced any signs or symptoms as a result of hydrogen sulfide exposure. Oral inhalation of 10ppm hydrogen sulfide at an elevated metabolic and ventilation rate does not significantly alter pulmonary function in healthy men and women.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1996, Vol.38, No.10, p.1012-1017. 20 ref.
Data sheet. Synonym: chromium sulfate. May enter the body when breathed in. May irritate the eyes and skin. May cause skin allergy.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-68, USA, 1996. 6p.
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. Corrosive to the eyes and skin. Irritates the respiratory tract. May cause dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting. It is a flammable liquid.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.
Fowler C.M., Bray J.A.
Health and Safety Executive
A test method to determine the susceptibility to cracking of linepipe steels in sour service
This report describes a test method for determining the susceptibility of pipeline steels, bends, flanges and fittings, including all associated welds, to hydrogen damage caused by exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. The method involves exerting a known stress level on a full ring specimen of the linepipe in a hydrogen sulfide environment; crack initiation and propagation are determined by ultrasonic monitoring and hydrogen permeation measurements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 81p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics Society of Western France - Meetings of 24 and 25 November 1994
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'ouest - Séances des 24 et 25 novembre 1994 [in French]
Main subjects dealt with in papers presented at the 24-25 Nov 1994 meeting of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France: lipoatrophy of lower extremities due to repetitive strain injuries; health hazards of cleaning staff: musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, in particular occupational dermatitis, and carpal-tunnel syndrome; asthma due to bisulfites in a laundry; use of pesticides in banana plantations.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.219-231.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for carbon disulfide: Update
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: neurotoxic effects; cardiac diseases; liver damage; chemical burns.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 1996. 219p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp82.pdf [in English]
Zachariae C.O.C., Agner T., Menné T.
Chromium allergy in consecutive patients in a country where ferrous sulfate has been added to cement since 1981
Cement eczema used to be a common occupational disease in Denmark. Since 1981, ferrous sulfate has been added to all cement produced in Denmark to reduce the amount of soluble hexavalent chromate to below 2mg/kg (2ppm). The aim of this study was to analyze a sample of consecutive chromate-sensitive patients in an urban tertiary referral centre with respect to primary cause of sensitization, in a geographical area where the risk of chromate exposure from cement had been reduced. In the 6-year period January 1989 to December 1994, a total of 4,511 patients were patch tested with the European standard series, including chromate. Seventy nine patients were diagnosed as chromate sensitive. Relevant chromate exposure was established in 34 of these patients. Leather was the most frequent source of chromate sensitization (47%). Chromate sensitization from cement was considered likely in 10 out of 34 subjects. Of these, seven had been sensitized before 1981, two had been sensitized by non-occupational exposure to cements, and only one had been sensitized from occupational cement exposure in the 6-year period.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1996, Vol.35, No.2, p.83-85. 10 ref.
Bhambhani Y., Burnham R., Snydmiller G., MacLean I., Martin T.
Effects of 5ppm hydrogen sulfide inhalation on biochemical properties of skeletal muscle in exercising men and women
13 men and 12 women completed exercise tests while breathing 0ppm (control) or 5ppm hydrogen sulfide (50% of its occupational exposure limit). Immediately after exercising, skeletal muscle samples were taken and analyzed for concentrations of markers of anaerobic and aerobic metabolism. The only significant finding was a decrease in citrate synthase in men exposed to hydrogen sulfide. In women, no significant changes were observed in any of the markers measured. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide at 50% of its exposure limit might inhibit aerobic metabolism during exercise in healthy men.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1996, Vol.57, No.5, p.464-468. 38 ref.
Terzaghi G.F., Settimi L., Peverelli C., Sevosi L., Duca P.G.
Experimental assessment of the effectiveness of 4 types of cleansing agents for 3 types of dyes to which workers are exposed in the dying and printing industry
Valutazione sperimentale di efficacia di 4 tipi di detergenti per 3 tipi di coloranti ai quali sono esposti i lavoratori delle tinto-stamperie [in Italian]
This study reports on the assessment of the effectiveness of four types of skin cleansers for three types of dyes involved in occupational exposure in the dye and printing industry. A randomized double blind trial, involving each time eight workers, yielded a statistical significant difference between the effectiveness of the detergents: i.e. sodium hydrosulfite detergent was superior to that of commonly used tensioactive agents for all three categories of tested dyes.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1996, Vol.87, No.1, p.44-50. Illus. 3 ref.
Hirata M., Ogawa Y., Goto S.
A cross-sectional study on nerve conduction velocities among workers exposed to carbon disulphide
The report examines nerve conduction velocities (NCV) in the ulnar nerve (motor, slower motor fibre and mixed), the peroneal nerve (motor, MCV) and the sural nerve (sensory, SCV) among 46 Japanese workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) and 28 control normal workers. MCV and SCV in the CS2-exposed group were significantly reduced, compared with those of the control group, but no significant difference in NCVs of the ulnar nerve was noted between the two groups. These findings indicate the existence of a toxic effect of CS2 exposure on the NCV, predominantly evident in the lower limbs of the examined workers. On removal from CS2 exposure, NCV recovery seemed to be possible.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1996, Vol.87, No.1, p.29-34. 18 ref.
Sulphur trioxide, oleum and sulphuric acid mist
This report concerns major hazards associated with acute exposure to sulfuric acid mist resulting from spillages of sulfur trioxide or oleum. Contents: properties, manufacture, uses, storage and handling of sulfur trioxide and oleum; health effects of acid aerosols (respiratory irritation, respiratory impairment, bronchoconstriction at high exposure levels); formation and dispersion of sulfuric acid mist. In appendix: toxicity data from human and animal studies; descriptions of incidents and test releases; modelling releases of sulfur trioxide vapour; availability of atmospheric moisture and implications for dispersion behaviour.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1996. vi, 70p. Illus. 43 ref. Index. Price: GBP 25.00.
Falcy M., Jargot D., Reynier M.
Dithionite de sodium [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: sodium hydrosulfite. Acute toxicity: nausea; vomiting; diarrhoea; depression of the nervous central system; cyanosis, collapse. Chronic toxicity: irritation of the skin and ocular mucous membranes. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.016-028-00-1; Xn, R7, R22, R31, S7/8, S26, S28, S43, 231-820-0. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 3p. Illus. 10 ref.
Tan X., Vanhoorne M.
Cardiovascular effects of exposure to carbon disulfide
Topics: carbon disulfide; cardiovascular diseases; epidemiologic study; healthy worker effect; literature survey; morbidity; mortality.
Archives of Public Health, 1995, Vol.53, No.7-8, p.329-349. 32 ref.
Vanhoorne M.H., et al.
A mailed-questionnaire survey of ex-workers: A tool to evaluate the healthy-worker effect in cross-sectional studies
In a questionnaire survey of 149 former workers of a viscose-rayon plant who had been exposed to carbon disulfide at work, 89 subjects reported having left the plant for health reasons. These included eye irritation (53.7%), gastrointestinal complaints, complaints concerning the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves, heart or lung problems and skin problems. The average duration of employment decreased significantly with the intensity of exposure to carbon disulfide. Results suggest that the findings of a cross-sectional study of current workers in the same plant may represent underestimates of some conditions, in particular eye irritation.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July/Sep. 1995, Vol.1, No.3, p.252-256. 21 ref.
Frentzel-Beyme R., Domizlaff I.
Epidemiologic study on solvent-induced diseases
Studie über die Epidemiologie lösemittelbedingter Erkrankungen [in German]
The present knowledge of the toxic and carcinogenic effects caused by exposure to solvents in the varnish industry from published case studies and epidemiologic studies is reviewed. The following solvents are covered: butyl alcohol, butyl acetate, carbon disulfide, chloromethane, dichloromethane, dimethylformamide, ethyl acetate, glycol ethers, methoxyethanol, cellosolve, hexane, isopropyl alcohol, methanol, 2-hexanone, butanone, styrene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene and xylene.
Umweltbundesamt, Postfach 33 00 22, 14191 Berlin, Germany, 1995. 235p. 436 ref.
Vanhoorne M., de Rouck A., de Bacquer D.
Epidemiological study of eye irritation by hydrogen sulphide and/or carbon disulphide exposure in viscose rayon workers
In the framework of an extensive health survey, 123 male viscose rayon workers exposed to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and/or carbon disulfide (CS2) and 67 controls not exposed to either of these chemicals answered questions on eye irritation complaints in a self-administered questionnaire. The exposed subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of eye pain, burning and photophobia. Adjustment for age and smoking in logistic regression revealed significantly more eye complaints for all workers that were highly exposed. In a postal survey one-third of the ex-workers of the same viscose rayon factory reported having left the factory because of eye complaints, indicating that their occurrence may be underestimated in the cross-sectional study.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 1995, Vol.39, No.3, p.307-315. Illus. 26 ref.
Chu C.C., Huang C.C., Chen R.S., Shih T.S.
Polyneuropathy induced by carbon disulphide in viscose rayon workers
A study was carried out in order to understand the prevalence of polyneuropathy and correlations among the clinical manifestations, electrophysiological findings and degree of exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) in workers from a viscose rayon factory. 163 workers received a detailed physical and neurological evaluation. Fixed point air samples were analyzed for CS2. Nerve conduction velocity was studied in 26 workers with symptoms similar to neuropathy. The results show that the outbreak of polyneuropathy was attributed to higher concentrations of CS2 in fibre cutting areas. Even in other jobs with relatively lower concentrations of CS2, the hazard of subclinical polyneuropathy cannot be overlooked.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.404-407. 24 ref.
Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an irritant gas under normal atmospheric conditions. It dissolves in water to produce an acidic solution which is readily oxidized to sulfuric acid. Though SO2 in the atmosphere has some natural sources (volcanic activity and metabolic release by marine organisms), its principal sources are from the combustion of sulfur-containing fossil fuels (coal and heavy oils). The main hazards of exposure to SO2 are breathing difficulties, with particularly serious consequences in asthma sufferers. After reviewing measurement methods and the evidence for health risks, this document recommends an Air Quality Standard of 100ppb (measured over a 15min averaging period) for SO2, a level often exceeded in urban air in the United Kingdom (max. level recorded in 1993: 614ppb).
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1995. vii, 27p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: GBP 5.95.
Hydrosulfite de sodium [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1995. 3p. 10 ref.
Heida H., Bartman F., van der Zee S.C.
Occupational exposure and indoor air quality monitoring in a composting facility
Air sampling was carried out in a covered enclosure used for the aerobic composting of organic wastes originating from vegetable, fruit and garden refuse. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds and hydrogen sulfide encountered in the exhaust air of the facility were relatively low; the limonene level was elevated, but was still below the Dutch threshold limit value. Air concentrations of microbial agents were extremely high; both total bacteria and gram-negative bacterial counts exceeded the provisional Dutch guideline of 10,000cfu/m3 for indoor working environment air. The number of fungi, especially those known to cause respiratory tract disorders, approached the hazardous exposure level.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1995, Vol.56, No.1, p.39-43. Illus. 13 ref.
Simonsen L., Midtgård U., Lund S.P., Hass U.
Nordic Council of Ministers
Occupational neurotoxicity: Evaluation of neurotoxicity data for selected chemicals
Previously determined criteria for evaluating published data on the neurotoxicity of chemicals (see CIS 95-000) were applied to the literature on 79 common industrial chemicals. Data were too sparse to permit classification of 28. Of the rest, eight were classified as probably and 16 as possibly neurotoxic, and the following 27 as definitely neurotoxic: acrylamide, acrylonitrile, aluminium, arsenic, sodium azide, borax, boric acid, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, potassium cyanide, ethanol, ethylene oxide, hexachlorophene, manganese, mercury, methanol, methyl bromide, methyl butyl ketone (2-hexanone), methyl chloride, methyl methacrylate, n-hexane, nitrous oxide, styrene, thallium, toluene, trichloroethylene, triorthocresyl phosphate.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 119p. Bibl.ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Peroxodisulphate salts in air
This data sheet describes a method for the determination of sodium, ammonium and potassium peroxodisulfate salts in air. The method is suitable for sampling over the range 15min to 8h. Qualitative and quantitative detection limits are 0.29µgmL-1 and 0.96µgmL-1 respectively. Principle: a measured volume of air is drawn through a filter mounted in an inhalable dust sampler. The filter and sample are treated with water and the mixture swirled on an orbital shaker. The resulting solution is diluted with water and the peroxodisulfate concentration determined using mobile phase ion chromatography.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, June 1995. 8p. 20 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Carbon disulphide - Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
Topics: antifertility effects; carbon disulfide; cardiovascular disorders; criteria document; diseases of eyes and related structures; endocrine effects; limitation of exposure; Netherlands; neurotoxic effects; skin absorption; threshold limit values; toxicology.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 Den Haag, Netherlands, 1994. 141p. 127 ref.
Hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans
Hydrogène sulfuré et mercaptans [in French]
Data sheet on the effects, the determination and the sampling of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and of mercaptans in the atmosphere and biological matter. Even today H2S is one of the gases that cause the greatest number of fatal occupational accidents following acute exposure. The acute effects of mercaptans are on the whole less drastic. Main points covered: metabolic fate; toxicity; exposure monitoring; treatment after acute exposure; exposure limits: H2S (ceiling: 10ppm, TWA: 5ppm); methylmercaptan (TWA: 0.5ppm); ethylmercaptan (TWA: 0.5ppm); butylmercaptan (synonym butanethiol, TWA: 0.5ppm); phenylmercaptan (synonym thiophenol, TWA: 0.5ppm).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 1994, No.103, 8p. 148 ref.
Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide in the sour gas industry - Some unresolved issues
This literature survey deals with the effects of exposure to hydrogen sulfide in the natural gas industry. It is stressed that the acute toxicity of hydrogen sulfide is well known. However, exposure-response data are confined to lethal doses. There is some evidence that long-term exposure to hydrogen sulfide causes eye irritation. Further studies are needed for confirmation.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.66, No.3, p.153-160. Illus. 54 ref.
Cold-impregnated aluminium. A new source of nickel exposure
A case of work-related allergic contact dermatitis in an engraver with nickel allergy is reported. Investigations revealed that the majority of aluminium sheets he was working with were positive to the dimethylglyoxime test, indicating that nickel was being released. It is concluded that cold-impregnated aluminium is a new source of nickel exposure probably previously unknown to dermatologists.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1994, Vol.31, No.1, p.22-24. 14 ref.
Sulfure d'hydrogène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; asphyxia; respiratory insufficiency; pulmonary oedema; cardiovascular disorders; arrythmia; metabolic disturbances. Chronic toxicity: neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); irritation of the eyes, skin (dermatitis) and respiratory tract (bronchitis); digestive disorders; may increase the risk of abortion. French exposure limit: 10ppm (14mg/m3) (VLE).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1994. 4p. 20 ref.
Stanosz S., Kuligowski D., Pieleszek A., Żuk E., Rzechuła D., Chlubek D.
Concentration of dopamine in plasma, activity of dopamine beta-hydroxylase in serum and urinary excretion of free catecholamines and vanillylmandelic acid in women chronically exposed to carbon disulphide
Paper presented at the symposium Occupational Medicine in Industry - MEDICHEM, held in Lodz (Poland), 27-29 Nov. 1991.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.7, No.3, p.257-261. 19 ref. ###
Peter C., Bohne-Matusall R., Hoting E., Egmose K.
Material testing of protective gloves for hairdressers
Materialprüfung von Arbeitsschutzhandschuhen für den Friseurberuf [in German]
Most of the protective gloves used by hairdressers are made of natural or nitrile latex. The breakthrough times and permeation rates of the hair dye constituents ammonium persulfate and paraphenylenediamines as well as of glyceryl monothioglycolate, used in permanent waves, were determined. The glove made of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber was impermeable to all chemicals tested for the testing period of 60 minutes. The natural latex glove was impermeable to glyceryl monothioglycolate for the 60-minute period but was penetrated by the other chemicals after 24 and 38 minutes.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Jan.-Feb. 1994, Vol 42, No.1, p.10-14. Illus. 34 ref.
Perbellini L., Maranelli G., Lombardini F., Gandini G., Brugnone F.
Carbon disulfide in blood - A method for storing and analysing samples
Concentrations of free and acid-labile carbon disulfide (CS2) in human blood were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. CS2 was measured in the blood of 27 subjects treated with disulfiram (which is partially biotransformed into CS2) and in that of 62 controls. In blood, a small part of CS2 is free (it can be analyzed without any blood treatment); most CS2 is bound ("acid labile"), and requires acid hydrolysis to become free and detectable. During storage at 4°C, free and acid-labile CS2 in blood decreased respectively to 26% and 27% of the initial concentration within a month. In fresh samples, median free CS2 concentrations were of 139ng/L in normal subjects. Acid-labile CS2 concentrations were much higher (median 2743ng/L). Free and acid-labile CS2 in blood were closely correlated. Blood samples stored at -80°C maintained a constant concentration of CS2 over almost three weeks.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1994, Vol.85, No.2, p.171-178. Illus. 18 ref.
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