Inorganic sulfur compounds - 587 entries found
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Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to sulfur dioxide.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of chronic health disorders due to sulfur dioxide (SO2). The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (8 h) should not exceed 2 ppm (5 mg/m3). Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of SO2 in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1974. 112p. Illus. 96 ref. Price: US-$1.50.
Andersen I., Lundqvist G.R., Jensen P.L., Proctor D.F.
Human response to controlled levels of sulfur dioxide.
The effects of 6-h exposures to 1, 5 and 25 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) were studied in 15 young men. Nasal mucus flow rate decreased significantly during 5- and 25-ppm exposures. Pharyngeal air samples yielded less than 1% of the SO2 inhaled. A decrease in maximal expiratory flow rate and FEV@1.0l in these subjects in whom SO2 failed to reach the lungs suggests a nasobronchial reflex bronchoconstriction. Discomfort was proportional to SO2 concentration but never excessive. The effects of SO2 on the function of the upper airways accompanied by only slight discomfort justifies the reduction of the present TLV from 5 to 1 ppm.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan. 1974, Vol.28, No.1, p.31-39. Illus. 26 ref.
Sulphuric Acid Act and Regulations [Guyana]
Basic Law (Act 7 of 1928) relating to sulfuric acid, as amended to 1949, and the Sulfuric Acid Regulations of 1928. Topics: approval; sulfuric acid; corrosive substances; Guyana; law; licensing of undertakings; storage; transport.
Government of Guyana, Georgetown, Guyana, 1973. 6p.
Safety in unloading sulfuric acid from barges
La sécurité dans le déchargement des péniches d'acide sulfurique. [in French]
After some brief remarks on the hazards of sulfuric acid, the author stresses the importance of the safety equipment: the hose between the receiving pipe from the factory and the barge must be flexible enough to take up the latter's movements (pitching, rising as emptying progresses); the fixed pipe may be rigid but must have a minimum of bends, valves and connections, and it is essential to provide a protective cover over joints between hose and valve sockets; the tanks must be protected by an overflow device, or an audible or optical alarm system. The technical safety measures must be completed by personal protective equipment and staff training.
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 1973, No.97, p.26-33. Illus. 3 ref.
The mechanism of the toxic action of molybdenum in the animal organism and the effect of the sulfate ion on the course of the poisoning
Mehanizm toksičeskogo dejstvija molibdena v životnom organizme i vlijanie sul'fat-iona na tečenie intoksikacii molibdenom [in Russian]
A short literature review of the toxicology of molybdenum is followed by the results of animal experiments aimed at determining whether poisoning by this metal can be prevented by adding sulfate ions to drinking water. The mechanism of the toxic action of molybdenum and the activating effect of sulfate on metal excretion are covered in detail. This effect is due to the activation of the enzyme system capable of oxidising the thiomolybdate.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1973, No.12, p.13-17. 15 ref.
Přerovská I., Zvolský P.
Health status of workers suffering from chronic carbon disulfide poisoning, 5 to 19 years after diagnosis of their condition
Zdravotní stav dělníků s chronickou otravou sirouhlíkem po pěti až devatenácti letech od zjištění onemocnění [in Czech]
Report on the state of health of 27 workers who suffered from chronic carbon disulfide poisoning between 1950 and 1965. Duration of exposure at time of diagnosis varied between a few months and 27 years. At the most exposed workposts, carbon disulfide concentrations reached a maximum of 300 and even 400 mg/m3. Except for 3 workers with 100% work disability, all the others were able to remain in active employment without exposure to CS2. None of those examined 5 to 19 years later showed any symptoms of nervous or mental disorder or any symptoms of cerebral arteriosclerosis differing appreciably from the normal. There is no proof that the pulmonary sclerosis which was the cause of death in the case of 2 workers could be ascribed to the action of CS2.
Pracovní lékařství, Feb. 1973, Vol.25, No.2, p.42-46. 17 ref.
Changes of the corticosuprarenal function induced by chronic carbon disulphide poisoning.
The adrenal function of 99 young men (79 with chronic carbon disulfide poisoning, 20 with no exposure to organic solvents) was studied. All of those poisoned had a neurasthenic syndrome, 8 suffered from toxic encephalopathy and 55 were affected by sensorimotor polyneuritis. The endocrinological study (determination of urinary concentrations of 17 hydrocorticosteroids and 17 ketosteroids) revealed the existence of an adrenal insufficiency in 50 subjects (64%). 2 forms of this insufficiency were disclosed: a) a central form due to a reduced secretion of ACTH, and b) a peripheral form with lesions of the suprarenal capsule. The pathogenesis of this disorder is complex: CS2 disturbs the neurohormonal control mechanism, thus causing suprarenal lesions. The study also disclosed a disturbance in circadian rhythm, assumed to be due to a disorder of the central nervous system. Systematic surveillance of these endocrine changes could provide criteria for the diagnosis and study of the evolution of poisoning, and for determining its severity.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1973, Vol.64, No.9-10, p.375-380. 11 ref.
Szendzikowski S., Stetkiewicz J., Wrońska-Nofer T., Zdrajkowska I.
Structural aspects of experimental carbon disulfide neuropathy - I. Development of neurohistological changes in chronically intoxicated rats.
In this first series of investigations, selected areas of the central and peripheral nervous system were examined and the progressive development of structural changes was studied during 1 to 15 months' exposure to 1.5 mg CS2 per l of air. The results are reported and discussed in detail. Gradual destruction of myelinated fibres was observed within the white matter of the spinal cord and in the peripheral nerves. Morphological alterations of the body of nerve cells were also found, but their pathologic nature and their relation to the exposure were disputable even in advanced CS2-induced myelopathy and neuropathy.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 23 May 1973, Vol.31, No.2, p.135-149. Illus. 47 ref.
Wrońska-Nofer T., Stetkiewicz J., Szendzikowski S.
Structural alterations and content of nicotinamide-adenine nucleotides in skeletal muscle of rat in chronic experimental carbon disulfide intoxication.
The development of paresis of the hind limbs and the character of the morphological changes developed under the influence of CS2 at a concentration of 1.5 mg/l for 1 to 14 months were studied. From the 5th month of exposure, muscle atrophy of the denervation type was the constant histological finding. 5 months later a significant fall in the nucleotide level was noted, parallel to apparent paresis of the hind limbs and gross muscular atrophy. No evidence of inflammatory reaction or dystrophic myopathy was found. Reduction of the nucleotide content was therefore attributed to neuropathic muscular dystrophy resulting from the neurotoxic action of CS2.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 23 May 1973, Vol.31, No.2, p.123-134. Illus. 25 ref.
Experimental data on the effect of small concentrations of carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide on the menstrual function and the estrual cycle
Vlijanie malyh koncentracij serougleroda i serovodoroda na menstrual'nuju funkciju ženšěin i ėstral'nyj cikl v ėksperimente [in Russian]
The author observed that women workers employed in the viscose industry and exposed to small concentrations of carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide, as well as to a relatively high surrounding temperature and humidity, suffered more frequently from changes in the ovarian function than non-exposed women. She also observed an estrual cycle of longer duration among female rats exposed to similar conditions in laboratory experiments. A lower carbon disulfide TLV is recommended in the case of simultaneous exposure to hydrogen sulfide.
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1973, No.7, p.24-27. 7 ref.
Factors affecting the onset and course of experimental neurotoxic effects due to carbon disulfide in rats
K otázce některých faktorů, které ovlivňuji vznik a rozvoj experimentální sirouhlíkové neuropatie u krys [in Czech]
2 groups of rats (54 controls and 108 SPF rats) fed differently (inadequate Larsen diet and optimum diet, respectively) were exposed to carbon disulfide in concentrations of 1.2 and 2.4 mg of CS2 per litre of inhaled air, for 6 h a day, 5 days a week during 6 months. SPF rats, which were in good health and received the optimum diet, showed the first symptoms of neuropathy 1 month later than the control rats and their conduction velocity decreased to a lesser extent, as was demonstrated by electromyography. The conclusion is drawn that the course of toxic neuropathy is conditioned by the subject's state of health and general mode of life.
Československá neurologie a neurochirurgie, May 1973, Vol.36, No.3, p.169-173. Illus. 27 ref.
Štepánková K., Juránek J.
Semi-quantitative monitoring of hydrogen sulfide in air
Semikvantitavní stanovení sirovodíku v ovzduší [in Czech]
Description of a simple method for the semi-quantitative field determination of H2S concentrations between 10-9 and 10-6 g/l. The method is based on the use of detector tubes with a filling of silica gel impregnated with silver nitrate and potassium cyanide. For higher concentrations (10-6 g/l), the length of the coloured section of the silica gel column is measured. Lower concentrations (10-9 g/l) are estimated on the basis of the volume of gas which has to flow through the tube before a colour change can be detected.
Chemický průmysl, Jan. 1973, Vol.23, No.1, p.36-38. Illus. 2 ref.
Stýblová V., Holanová V.
The electroencephalogram of workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Nativní elektroencefalogram u pracovníků v riziku sirouhlíku [in Czech]
187 electroencephalograms of workers employed in the production of viscose fibres were compared with the EEGs of control workers and persons with vascular diseases of the brain. A high percentage of abnormal EEGs (36.8%) was recorded in persons exposed to CS2, whereas different percentages were found within the group depending on whether workers not requiring a transfer (22.5@lP) or workers suffering from temporary or permanent disability for work (58.7%) were considered.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1973, Vol.25, No.3, p.90-96.
El-Gazzer R., El-Sadik Y.M., Hussein M.
Changes in zinc and serum proteins due to carbon disulphide exposure.
Serum zinc and proteins were studied in 82 workers in the Egyptian rayon industry, of whom 40 were at the time exposed to carbon disulfide and 9 had been exposed in the past for a year or more; 33 workers without exposure were used as controls. CS2 caused depletion of serum zinc by an increase in the rate of zinc excretion and an increase in all serum protein fractions. All these effects are temporary and improve on cessation of exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1973, Vol.30, No.3, p.284-288. Illus. 25 ref.
Story of a harmless, empty sulfuric acid tank which flew into the air
Story von einem harmlosen, leeren Schwefelsäuretank, der in die Luft flog [in German]
Because a drainage hole had been placed too high, a concentrated sulfuric acid tank which had been emptied still contained, after cleansing with water, a residue of diluted acid which remained stagnant at its bottom. At the dome of the tank, 2 gas drainage outlets had a tendency to suck back, so that hydrogen formed by the attack of the diluted acid on the tank steel accumulated at the top. One week after washing out with water, 2 welders started repairs on the platform which topped the tank. A welding spark was sucked in by a gas drainage outlet and ignited the air/hydrogen mixture in the top of the tank. The explosion which followed threw the tank in the air. Considerations on preventive measures which should have been taken.
Sicher ist Sicher, June 1973, Vol.24, No.6, p.292-293. Illus.
Hernberg S., Nurminen M., Tolonen M.
Excess mortality from coronary heart disease in viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide.
Results of cohort studies covering 343 viscose rayon workers who had been exposed to CS2 for at least 5 years, and 343 matched controls. All the relevant coronary risk factors had been checked in 1967, except for blood pressure, which was slightly higher in the exposed group. A 5.5-year follow-up study showed that 16 men of the exposed cohort had died from coronary heart disease, against 3 in the control group. Other causes of death were evenly distributed. The difference between the risk ratios was statistically significant. Similar results were obtained by comparing the coronary mortality of the exposed cohort with mortality rates in Finland. It is possible to arrive at accurate predictions of death or survival in 88.7% of the exposed group when taking into account not only exposure, but also age, smoking habits, diastolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol level.
Work - Environment - Health, 1973, Vol.10, No.2, p.93-99. Illus. 21 ref.
Changes in the activity of some blood enzymes in tyre-cord plant workers
Izmenenie aktivnosti nekotoryh fermentov krovi u rabotajuščih v proizvodstve kordnogo volokna [in Russian]
The production of tyre-cord fibres gives rise to carbon disulfide (CS2) concentrations which are particularly high in the spinning departments. A number of CS2-exposed workers displayed symptoms of vegetative-vascular dysfunction or an asthenovegetative syndrome. During the first years of exposure, the activities of the erythrocyte and serum cholinesterases and of the blood ceruloplasmin were enhanced, whereas after 11 to 15 years of exposure these activities were reduced.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1973, No.6, p.21-23. 6 ref.
Alarie Y., Busey W.M., Krumm A.A., Ulrich C.E.
Long-term continuous exposure to sulfuric acid mist in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs.
In evaluating the effects of sulfuric acid mist as a pulmonary irritant, 3 variables must be taken into account: concentration, particle size and duration of exposure. Groups of cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs were exposed to sulfuric acid mist of varying concentrations and particle size. Exposures were for 78 weeks in monkeys and 52 weeks in guinea pigs. Detailed results of the study are given.
Archives of Environmental Health, July 1973, Vol.27, No.1, p.16-24. Illus. 30 ref.
Djurić D., Poštić-Grujin A., Graovac-Leposavić L., Delić V.
Disulfiram as an indicator of human susceptibility to carbon disulfide - Excretion of diethyldithiocarbamate sodium in the urine of workers exposed to CS2 after oral administration of disulfiram.
The authors assume that CS2 and disulfiram (Antabuse) are metabolised by the same enzyme systems. They hope to establish, therefore, that the urinary excretion of diethyldithiocarbamate (disulfiram metabolite) after oral administration of disulfiram runs parallel to the individual's capacity to detoxicate sulfur compounds. If the hypothesis is correct, the simple disulfiram test would be useful in predicting individual susceptibility to CS2 poisoning. Applied to preplacement job examination, it would be possible to select only resistant workers. Further investigations are necessary.
Archives of Environmental Health, June 1973, Vol.26, No.6, p.287-289. 5 ref.
Bagon D.A., Crosby M.T., Hardy H.L., Simmons J.H.
A personal sampling technique for simultaneous determination of hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide in air.
A personal sampling device is described which may be used to determine the mean personal exposure of workers to hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide in high fire risk areas in viscose rayon and cellulose film factories. The device consists of a 2-chamber respirator cartridge connected to a respirometer and face piece. Hydrogen sulfide is collected in the first chamber containing cotton wool impregnated with cadmium acetate and a humectant, while the second chamber, containing molecular sieve (type 5A) material, collects the carbon disulfide. The hydrogen sulfide is subsequently liberated by acid in an analytical train and estimated by methylene blue formation. The carbon disulfide is subsequently released by heating in a stream of nitrogen and estimated by colour formation in an ethylene diamine-copper acetate reagent.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1973, Vol.16, No.2, p.133-139. Illus. 4 ref.
Šimko A., Jindřichová J., Kovařík J., Preiningerová O., Klímová A., Finková A., Kořísko F.
Some findings of the state of health of female workers occupationally exposed to the risk of carbon disulfide poisoning
Einige Erkenntnisse über den Gesundheitszustand der unter Schwefelkohlenstoff-Risiko arbeitenden Frauen [in German]
Results of a systematic study carried out over 3 years of 35 female viscose workers in Czechoslovakia. An account is given of analyses carried out at the workplace as well as medical tests covering internal medicine, gynaecology, ophthalmology, neurology and psychiatry. The conclusion drawn from these examinations is that there is no particular risk of carbon disulfide poisoning for female viscose workers provided that the TLV - even for single peak value concentrations - is not exceeded.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, June 1973, Vol.23, No.6, p.173-179. Illus. 45 ref.
Acceptable concentrations of hydrogen sulfide.
This standard, sponsored by the American Industrial Hygiene Association and approved on 14 Aug. 1972, provides information for the recognition, evaluation and control of occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide. Sections cover: chemical, physical and toxic properties of hydrogen sulfide and its occurrence; acceptable concentrations (maximum peak exposure, 50ppm for 10min; ceiling concentration, 20ppm; time-weighted average (8-h working day), 10ppm); sampling procedures and analytical methods.
ANSI Z37.2-1972, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 1972. Standard approved 14 Aug. 1972. 8p. 12 ref. Price: US-$2.50.
Mancuso T.F., Locke B.Z.
Carbon disulphide as a cause of suicide - Epidemiological study of viscose rayon workers.
In a longitudinal epidemiological study of U.S. viscose rayon workers employed during the period 1938-1948 and observed to 1968, a higher rate of suicide was found among 4,899 white males and females aged 25-64 in certain departments and occupations. The results are set out in numerous tables. It is postulated that, in addition to the acute and subacute toxic effects of carbon disulfide, biochemical and pathological changes intiated by carbon disulfide during occupational exposure may persist over a long span of time and that delayed biological effects of abnormal mental and social behaviour may occur in subsequent years in response to further environmental and social stresses. A national study should be carried out to assess the nature and extent of the population at risk, and research to establish the biochemical precursors to mental illness attributable to carbon disulfide should be carried out.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1972, Vol.14, No.8, p.595-606. 44 ref.
Lead-acid storage batteries.
Discusses the construction and use of motor-car and industrial batteries of this type. Safe working methods include: avoiding ignition sources; vent cap maintenance; safe lifting procedures; determining hazardous areas; ventilation; acid neutralisation and removal. Treatment of acid burns, personal protective equipment, showers and eye-wash fountains are also dealt with.
Data Sheet 635, National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1972. 9p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: US-$0.50.
Lihačeva E.I., Kuz'mina F.S.
Hepatic haemodynamics in sulfur dioxide poisoning
K voprosu o sostojanii vnutripečenočnoj gemodinamiki u bol'nyh s hroničeskoj intoksikaciej sernistym gazom [in Russian]
Liver rheography of 50 cases of chronic sulfur dioxide poisoning showed that the clinical picture of toxic hepatitis is accompanied by hepatic circulation disorders which are even more pronounced in cases complicated by cholecystitis and cholangitis. These disorders were observed in around 25% of cases even in the absence of other toxic hepatic lesions. The rheogram changes do not indicate general cardiovascular insufficiency and are due to the toxic effect of sulfur dioxide of the hepatic vascular system.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1972, Vol.16, No.2, p.15-19. Illus. 10 ref.
Kovařík J., Jindřichová J., Šimko A.
Results of long-term observation of women exposed to carbon disulfide
Enseignements recueillis ŕ la faveur de l'observation au long cours de femmes exposées ŕ un risque de sulfocarbonisme [in French]
35 female viscose workers were subject to long-term observation by specialists. The hazard was estimated on the basis of time-weighted average exposure to atmospheric carbon disulfide during the shift, and urine iodazide testing was also carried out. The workplace atmospheric carbon disulfide concentration never exceeded the maximum allowable concentration of 50mg/m3. Special reference was paid to neurological symptoms. Comparison with non-exposed controls revealed no significant symptoms. Comparisons between 2 groups of female workers employed under different technical working conditions revealed no appreciable differences. The effect of carbon disulfide on women is no greater than it is on men.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Jan.-Feb. 1972. Vol.33, No.1-2, p.45-50. 14 ref.
Retinal microaneurysm in carbon disulfide workers in Yugoslavia
Fundus angiography and prednisolone-augmented glucose-tolerance testing of Yugoslav artificial-silk workers revealed microaneurysms in 30 of 103 carbon disulfide exposed workers and in 1 out of 9 controls; microaneurysm clearly tended to increase with increasing length of exposure. Glucose tolerance tests were positive in 24 out of 68 exposed workers and in 1 out of 7 controls. The disparity is not statistically significant. There was no trend towards high blood-sugar levels with increasing length of exposure. Carbon disulfide-exposed Yugoslav workers present the same retinal vascular changes as those observed in Japanese workers with similar exposure.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1972, Vol.24, No.2-3, p.66-70. Illus. 26 ref.
The MSA hydrogen sulfide detector
This guide is to assist instructors in enabling trainees unfamiliar with the MSA hydrogen sulfide detector to learn the proper operation and care of the instrument. It is in 4 parts: suggestions to the instructor; introduction to the course; text of course; and visual aids. The course is supplemented by a questions and answers section and an instructor's course evaluation form. Sixteen visual aids are available in various forms (slides, flip charts, etc.).
Instruction Guide 4, Bureau of Mines, Publications Distribution Branch, 4800 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA, Apr. 1972. 34p. Illus.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, Westmont, New Jersey
Sulfur trioxide (sulfuric anhydride) - SO3
Main physical properties, hazards to health and relevant control measures. The recommended maximal atmoshperic concentration (8H) is 1mg/m3 or 0.3ppm by volume. Methods of sampling and analysis in air are outlined, and advice is given on emergency treatment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1972, Vol.33, No.1, p.53-55. 12 ref.
(Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenessenschaften, Bonn)
Preventive medical examination criteria - Hydrogen sulphide hazards
Berufsgenossenschaftliche Grundsätze für arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorgeuntersuchungen - Gefährdung durch Schwefelwasserstoff [in German]
A review of the points to which the physician should pay particular attention in medical examinations directed at the prevention and early detection of hydroen sulphide poisoning. It also contains information on the scope of pre-employment medical examinations and periodcal medical examinations, specifies the criteria which the physician should apply in evaluating the fitness of persons for work involving a hydrogen sulphide hazard, and indicates the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen sulphide, the Federal German maximum allowable concentration, the sources of hazard, absorption and mode of action of hydrogen sulphide, the clinical picture of hydrogen sulphide poisoning and reference to the Federal German legislation on the employment of women and young persons in jobs where there is a possibility of exposure to dangerous substances.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Arbeitshygiene, July 1972, Vol.7, No.7, p.208-210. 6 ref.
Carbon disulfide metabolites excreted in the urine of exposed workers - Parts I and II
Two metabolites of carbon disulphide causing a positive iodine-azide reaction have been isolated and identified by the authors in the urine of workers exposed to CS2: the first is 2-mercapto-2-thiazolinone-5 (deal with Part I), and the second is thiocarbamide (Part II). Presence of a third unidentified metabolite was revealed chromatographically. The techniques used are described in detail, and the results presented and discussed. Work is proceeding on the isolation and identification of the third metabolite.
Archives of Environmental Health, July 1972, Vol.25, No.1, p.38-44. Illus. 14 ref.
Kwas siarkowy [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 0.1mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1971. 2p.
Siarkowodór [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 10mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1971. 2p.
Accidental mixing of incompatible chemicals, followed by multiple fatalities, during a bulk delivery
During the transfer of bulk liquid sodium hydrosulfide from a tank truck to a tannery storage tank, the transfer hose was erroneously connected to an open vat containing a tanning liquor. Hydrogen sulfide was released when the chemicals reacted, and 12 tannery workers were overcome by the toxic gas; 6 died as a result of the accident. The investigation pointed to a failure in communications between the truck driver and the tannery foreman, to a lack of instructions, and to the need for adequate labelling in order to ensure clear identification of the chemicals involved by all parties concerned.
National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, D.C. 20591, USA, 26 Aug. 1971. 9p. (Available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22151, USA. Accession No.PB.203402).
Kuljak S., Stern P.
Protective effects of glutathione and xanthinol nicotinate against carbon disulphide poisoning in the mouse
Experiments with mice, which received 100mg glutathione per kg body weight and were then exposed to carbon disulfide inhalation at the acute LD50, showed that glutathione has a protective action. The same dose of xanthionol nicotinate, administered under similar conditions provided protection against the effects of CS2 inhalation. The mechanism of protective action for each substance is discussed and the differences highlighted.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1971, Vol.22, No.2, p.137-142. Illus. 11 ref.
Law No.706 of 19 July 1961 concerning the use of white lead in painting [Italy]
L. 19.7.1961, n.706 - Impiego della biacca nella pittura [in Italian]
This law prohibits in general the use in painting and varnishing of lead carbonate (white lead), lead sulfate and other pigments containing these substances. However, white paints with less than 2% Pb content may be used. Further provisions allow some derogations, but the employment of women and minors in the presence of lead carbonate is always prohibited, and special measures are foreseen for the labelling, handling and spraying of these substances, for their use in varnishing, for the provision of work clothes and personal protective equipment, and for the reporting of cases of lead poisoning and for medical surveillance.
In: Zucchetti R., Igiene del lavoro e prevenzione delle malattie professionali, Buffetti Editore, Via Sud Africa 29, 00144 Roma, Italy, 1987 (ISBN 88-19-48201-0, price: ITL 60,000), p.337-340. Also in: Gazzetta ufficiale, 9 Aug. 1961, No.197.
Convention 13 concerning the use of white lead in painting [ILO]
Convention 13 concernant l'emploi de la céruse dans la peinture [OIT] [in French]
Convenio 13 relativo al empleo de la cerusa en la pintura [OIT] [in Spanish]
One of the first international instruments ever adopted in the field of occupational safety and health. The use of white lead and lead sulfate, and all products containing these pigments, in the internal painting of buildings is, except for derogations, prohibited. Even when permitted, minors and women are not allowed to do any painting work with these substances. The Convention also prescribes safety and hygiene rules to be applied when working with these substances.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1921. 4p.
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C013 (Convention 13) [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convdf.pl?C013 (Convention 13) [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convds.pl?C013 (Convenio 13) [in Spanish]
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