Inorganic sulfur compounds - 587 entries found
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Sugimoto K., Goto S., Hotta R.
An epidemiological study on retinopathy due to carbon disulfide - CS2 exposure level and development of retinopathy.
Methods and results of an ophthalmoscopic study in 289 workers with exposure to carbon disulfide in a viscose-rayon staple plant, and 49 controls, are described. Workers having either a diabetic family history or exposure to organic solvents were excluded. Retinal abnormalities characterised by microaneurysms, haemorrhages and exudates were found in 89 (30.8%) of the exposed workers and 2 (4.1%) of the controls. Results clearly showed an increasing prevalence of retinopathy with increasing duration and concentration of CS2 exposure. The retinopathy progressed through 4 stages of a classification used by the authors. They propose the name "retinopathia sulfocarbonica" for these retinal abnormalities.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 28 Apr. 1976, Vol.37, No.1, p.1-8. Illus. 11 ref.
Gabovič R.D., Muraško V.A.
Influence of carbon disulfide on the gastrointestinal tract of viscose workers and laboratory animals
Vlijanie serougleroda na organy piščevarenija rabočih viskoznogo proizvodstva i ėksperimental'nyh životnyh [in Russian]
The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders in workers employed in spinning and finishing rooms, in which carbon disulfide concentrations were close to the Soviet TLV (10mg/m3), was increased after 5 years of exposure. In animal experiments 100mg/m3 CS2 produced marked enzyme disturbances in the liver, pancreas and mucosae of the small intestine, while 10mg/m3 promoted infiltration of trypsine into the blood and impaired enzyme activity in the small intestine and certain hepatic functions. These changes are seen in the early stages of poisoning. Considerations on a possible revision of the TLV.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1975, No.10, p.50-52. 2 ref.
Course of cardiovascular disease due to chronic carbon disulfide poisoning
O razvitii i tečenii izmenenij serdečno-sosudistoj sistemy pri hroničeskoj intoksikacii serouglerodom [in Russian]
Results of haemodynamic and cardiological examinations carried out in 151 subjects with chronic carbon disulfide poisoning. Apart from neurological disorders, the patients frequently complained of pain in the region of the heart. Cardiovascular symptoms were typically a tendency either to hypotension or (more frequently) hypertension. Cardiac disorder consisted principally of diffuse dystrophy accompanied by a slight impairment of the contractility of the myocardium. Dynamic tests showed that the cardiovascular disorder had a tendency to persist in most cases, mostly developing into chronic hypertensive disease. These disorders are linked to dysregulation of the nervous system, in particular of its autonomic centres.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1975, No.6, p.11-15. 5 ref.
Multiple hazard substances: ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile and carbon disulfide
Stoffe mit mehreren gefährlichen Eigenschaften: Äthylenoxid - Acrylnitril - Schwefelkohlenstoff [in German]
Toxicity and explosibility of these substances; heat production hazard by polymerisation; hazardous concentrations and chemical reactions; transportation hazards.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Nov. 1975, Vol.27, No.11, p.452-455.
Schmitt C.R., Cagle G.W.
Sulfamic acid cleaning solution for 4,4'methylenebisorthochloroaniline (MOCA).
MOCA is highly soluble in some organic solvents (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, etc.), but these solvents present fire and toxicity hazards. In preliminary solubility studies with aqueous solutions it was observed that sulfamic acid solution dissolved MOCA completely. A mixture of 1.0wt% sulfamic acid and 0.5vol.% liquid surfactant-solution was most effective. MOCA-contaminated surfaces were cleaned to less than the analytical detectable limit of 10µg.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1975, Vol.36, No.3, p.181-186. 5 ref.
Wolff R.K., Dolovich M., Rossman C.M., Newhouse M.T.
Sulfur dioxide and tracheobronchial clearance in man.
Inhalation of 5ppm sulfur dioxide had no significant effect on tracheobronchial clearance as determined by measurement of removal of a technetium Tc 99m albumin aerosol (mass median diameter 3µ), in 7 men and 2 women. Pulmonary function tests showed a 10% reduction only in maximal mid-expiratory flow (p<0.01). Coughing did not affect clearance.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov. 1975, Vol.30, No.11, p.521-527. Illus. 31 ref.
Contribution to the study of the role of sulfur dioxide in respiratory disease - A case of accidental occupational poisoning
Contribution à l'étude du rôle en pathologie respiratoire de l'anhydride sulfureux, à propos d'une observation d'intoxication professionnelle accidentelle. [in French]
M.D. thesis. General observations on SO2 (physical and chemical properties, processes, natural phenomena etc. giving rise to SO2 emanations, industrial uses, conditions necessary for poisoning, mode of action and pathogenesis, monitoring) are followed by observations on a case of acute poisoning concerning a chemist involved in a laboratory accident. The pathology (eye burns, acute pulmonary oedema, rapidly resolving, severe progressive chronic lung disease) is similar to that observed by other authors. Animal experiments and investigations in man, referred to in this thesis, throw more light on the mode of action of SO2 on the respiratory tract. The last part of this work is devoted to atmospheric SO2 pollution, where SO2 is potentiated by other pollutants and by weather conditions.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants-Malades, Paris, France, 1975. 63p. 51 ref.
Dantín Gallego J.
Diagnosis of carbon disulfide poisoning
Diagnostic de l'intoxication par le sulfure de carbone. [in French]
This communication to the Second International Symposium on Toxicology of Carbon Disulfide (Banja Koviljaça, Yugoslavia, 29 May 1971) describes the difficulties encountered by the plant physician in the differential diagnosis of CS2 poisoning at its prodromal, initial, chronic and late stages (importance of previous health and work records, clinical examination, EEG, psychological and neuro-phychiatric tests, histopathology). Danger of confusing symptoms with those of neurasthenia, hysteria, multiple sclerosis, chronic alcoholism, etc.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1975, Vol.66, No.3, p.221-229. 16 ref.
Manu P., Hilt M., Pacuraru D.
Changes of haemostasis in chronic carbon disulfide poisoning.
Results of an investigation in 30 patients hospitalised with a diagnosis of chronic carbon disulfide poisoning. Changes in haemostasis were investigated by examining the thromboelastic tracings and studying the global coagulability and morphology, and platelet function. Main changes noted: increase of clot retraction, visible on the thromboelastogram and in the test tube; increase of platelet aggregation; increase of endogenous thromboplastin production and coagulation rate, reflecting a tendency to hypercoagulability. A direct correlation was found between these changes in coagulability and the rise of serum lipoproteins. The mechanism by which dyslipidaemia brings about hypercoagulability is presumed to be the following: increase of platelet aggregation, augmentation of the phospholipid factor of haemostasis and activation of factor XIII (F.S.F.).
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1975, Vol.66, No.3, p.185-191. Illus. 21 ref.
Atlasov A.G., Novikova A.G.
Colorimetric determination of sulfuric acid aerosols in the presence of sulfates
Kolorimetričeskoe opredelenie aėrozolja sernoj kisloty v prisutstvii sul'fatov [in Russian]
The procedure is used to determine sulfuric acid in aerosols that form during the electrochemical deposition of copper, zinc, nickel, etc. from sulfuric acid electrolytes. It is based on the formation of triiodide ions from iodide-iodate mixtures in the presence of strong inorganic acids. The sensitivity of the colorimetric determination is 10µg/5ml.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1975, No.1, p.75-77. 2 ref.
The occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in a rayon factory
Über das Vorkommen von Herz- und Gefässkrankheiten in einer Rayon-Fabrik [in German]
Computerised statistical analysis of the family data, occupational history and diagnostic data in 1,046 workers with and without CS2 exposure in a rayon factory. Air CS2 concentrations were mostly 30-60mg/m3. There was no significant difference in the incidence of cardiovascular disease between the workers of different departments. Further analysis on the basis of a coronary-risk profile revealed a higher risk for shift workers irrespective of CS2 exposure. The shift system as such thus involves responsible factors.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 19 Sep. 1975, Vol.35, No.3-4, p.279-290. Illus. 8 ref.
McCammon C.S., Quinn P.M., Kupel R.E.
A charcoal sampling method and a gas chromatographic analytical procedure for carbon disulfide.
A test method for sampling and analysing samples for carbon disulfide (CS2) is described. CS2 was adsorbed on charcoal tubes, eluted with benzene, and determined with a gas chromatograph equipped with a sulfur flame photometric detector. The sensitivity of the method was 1µg. The tubes were also tested for breakthrough volumes, sample stability, and the effect of air transport and temperature changes.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1975, Vol.36, No.8, p.618-625. Illus. 8 ref.
Rizzo S., Franco G., Malamani T.
Epidemiological survey of the symptomatology observed in subjects exposed to carbon disulfide
Indagine epidemiologica sulla sintomatologia presentata da esposti a solfuro di carbonio [in Italian]
Results of an epidemiological survey among 185 workers in the rayon viscose industry, and literature survey on the organic effects of exposure to CS2. Although special industrial hygiene measures were adopted, the morbidity rate was high among the workers exposed to carbon disulfide, with disorders of the respiratory and digestive tracts, the cardiovascular system and the nervous system predominating.
Lavoro umano, Jan. 1975, Vol.27, No.1, p.1-17. 84 ref.
Cortez Pimentel J., Peixoto Menezes A.
Liver granulomas containing copper in vineyard sprayer's lung.
An account of 3 cases of vineyard sprayer's lung following exposure to Bordeaux Mixture (copper sulfate solution neutralised with hydrated lime) for 3-15 years. Study of the liver at autopsy and percutaneous biopsy revealed in each case histiocytic and non-caseating granulomas with inclusions of copper, identified by histochemical techniques. The occupational exposure to copper sulfate, the concomitant presence of the characteristic pulmonary lesions of vineyard sprayer's lung and the finding of copper-containing liver granulomas suggest a new aetiology of hepatic granulomatosis.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Feb. 1975, Vol.111, No.2, p.189-195. Illus. 19 ref.
Serum thyroxine in the early diagnosis of carbon disulfide poisoning.
Carbon disulfide (CS2) is known to cause neurological symptoms and vascular lesions which, however, are manifest only after several years of exposure or at high CS2 concentrations. Earlier studies suggested that a fall in serum thyroxine might be an early indication of toxicity, before the advent of clinical lesions. In this investigation serum thyroxine and blood lipids were assayed in 45 subjects exposed to CS2 for 1-20 years. Serum thyroxine levels appeared to be statistically correlated with exposure time, and the results confirm that serum thyroxine assay may be used as a reliable test in the early diagnosis of CS2 poisoning. Determination of serum lipids, on the other hand, offers no such reliability.
Archives of Environmental Health, Feb. 1975, Vol.30, No.2, p.85-87. Illus. 9 ref.
Herrero F., Pence L.
Neurological complications of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning
Complicaciones neurológicas en la intoxicación por el ácido sulfhídrico (SH2) [in Spanish]
Clinical picture of 2 cases of accidental hydrogen sulfide poisoning; one serious, with 2-min respiratory arrest, then coma lasting 3 weeks followed by Lance and Adam's syndrome (myoclonus). The other case was less serious (3-min loss of consciousness followed by peripheral neuropathy which responded to treatment after 3 weeks). Review of 18 published cases of H2S poisoning with neurological complications following on hypoxia of the central nervous system, but not specifically connected with H2S. The treatment administered is described.
Revista de Neurología, Mar.-Apr. 1975, Vol.3, No.11, p.149-154. Illus. 12 ref.
Tolonen M., Hernberg S., Nurminen M., Tiitola K.
A follow-up study of coronary heart disease in viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulphide.
2 cohorts of 343 men each were formed and matched. One cohort comprised viscose rayon workers with at least 5 years' exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2), the other workers from a paper mill with no such exposure. Relevant coronary risk factors were equally distributed in both groups, with the exception of blood pressure which was slightly higher in the exposed group; this is interpreted as an effect of exposure rather than a risk factor. A 5-year follow-up showed that not only is coronary mortality increased but also that milder forms of coronary heart disease (CHD) are more common among rayon workers. Moreover, exposure to CS2 seems to worsen the prognosis of CHD in addition to increasing its incidence. Further study of the exposure-response relationship is urgently needed to define the non-effect level.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1975, Vol.32, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 14 ref.
Sal'nikova L.S., Čirkova E.M.
Gonadotropic and embryotropic effects of carbon disulfide
O gonadotropnom i ėmbriotropnom dejstvii serougleroda [in Russian]
Analysis of the results of research carried out in rats, to determine the relation between the magnitude of the embryotropic and gonadotropic effects of CS2 and the degree of exposure to this substance, showed that exposure to the USSR maximum permissible concentration (10mg/m3) has a significant embryotoxic effect. At a concentration 5 times lower CS2 causes an abnormal increase in weight ratios of certain organs of first generation progeny. No adverse effect on male gonads was observed after one-time or repeated exposure.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1974, No.12, p.34-37. 16 ref.
Kuljak S., Stern P., Ratković D.
Contribution on the action of CS2 in the central nervous system.
Results of in vitro and animal experiments demonstrating the formation of H2S by reaction of CS2 with primary amines, followed by the reaction of the dithiocarbamates thus formed with the -SH groups of some amino acids. In small doses, CS2 activates choline acetylase; in large doses it has an inhibiting effect. Degenerative changes in the globus pallidus region were found by microscopy of cerebral tissue. Administration of penicillamine, glutathion and xanthinol nicotinate protected animals from lethal poisoning. The authors believe it probable that the toxic action of CS2 blocks the active -SH groups of the choline-acetylase molecule in the central nervous system, where CS2 accumulates.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1974, Vol.65, No.5-6, p.193-201. Illus. 20 ref.
Chronic subclinical carbon disulfide poisoning.
The characteristic features of chronic subclinical carbon disulfide (CS2) poisoning were delineated by analysing the results obtained in a cross-sectional study of clinical or potential coronary heart disease (CHD), polyneuropathy (PN), disturbed microcirculation of the ocular fundus (EYE) and behavioural symptoms (BS) among 97 workers exposed to CS2 in a viscose rayon plant and 96 controls. 59% of exposed and 29% of the unexposed were affected by more than one disorder. The excess morbidity in the exposed group was due to combinations of EYE with PN or BS or with both and additionally with CHD. Ocular fundus findings are the most sensitive indicator of chronic CS2 poisoning and are essential for diagnosis. The probability that the syndrome is caused by CS2 exposure can be estimated for all combinations of the disorders studied.
Work - Environment - Health, 1974, Vol.11, No.3, p.154-161. Illus. 13 ref.
Seppäläinen A.M., Tolonen M.
Neurotoxicity of long-term exposure to carbon disulfide in the viscose rayon industry - A neurophysiological study.
A neurophysiological study was performed in 118 male viscose rayon workers, exposed for several (average 15) years to carbon disulfide (CS2), and 100 control workers. The exposed group included 53 men whose exposure had terminated some years before the investigation. Conduction velocities of the nerves were generaly lower in exposed men than in controls. 48% of exposed and 24% of unexposed men had reduced conduction velocity in 2 or more nerves. Cessation of exposure did not reverse the impaired conduction velocity. The prevalence of abnormal electroencephalograms was higher among the exposed subjects. Considering the mean concentrations of CS2 plus hydrogen sulfide in the plants studied, the accepted threshold limit value for CS2 of 20ppm is too high.
Work - Environment - Health, 1974, Vol.11, No.3, p.145-153. Illus. 22 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to sulfuric acid.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to exposure to sulfuric acid. The time-weighted average exposure (8h) should not exceed 1ppm over a 40-h week. The proposed standard applies to the processing, manufacture, and use of sulfuric acid, or its release as an intermediate by-product or impurity. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of sulfuric acid in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices. These criteria were not designed for the population-at-large and any extrapolation beyond general occupational exposures is not warranted.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland. PB-233 098/3WJ, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA, 1974. 100p. Illus. 56 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$8.00/Microfiche US-$1.45.
Properties and essential information for safe handling and use of mixed acid (nitric-sulfuric acid mixtures).
Properties of the nitric-sulfuric acid mixtures (in various proportions depending on users' requirements); health hazards; fire hazards; engineering control; employee safety (education and training, personal protective equipment); fire fighting; shipping, labelling, handling and storage; tank and equipment cleaning and repair; waste disposal; medical management; and first aid.
Chemical Safety Data Sheet SD-65, Manufacturing Chemists Association, 1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, USA, Revised 1974. 15p. Price: US-$0.50.
Parker C.D., Strong R.B.
Evaluation of portable direct-reading sulfur dioxide meters.
An investigation of 6 types of marketed portable SO2 meters sensitive to SO2 concentrations in the 1-50ppm range was carried out under contract for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The survey covered: market survey; accuracy of manufacturer's calibration; performance (humidity and temperature effects, interferences, etc.) and physical characteristics; recommended construction performance and standards; recommended quality control standards. An analysis of SO2 data is appended.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-105, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Post Office Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA, Sep. 1974. 152p. Illus. 6 ref.
Review of the methods for determination of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere
Prikaz metoda za određivanje sumporova dioksida u atmosferi [in Serbocroatian]
This literature survey describes and assesses assay methods based on determination of the sulfate by oxidation (lead dioxide, turbidimetry, barium chloranilate, electrical conductivity analysis, acidimetry and thorine methods) or of the sulfite (determination in iodine or alkaline solution, with fuchsin, iodo-thiosulfate, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, etc.), based on measurement of sulfur dioxide (hydrogen flame emission spectrophotometry, gas chromatography), on adsorption on silica gel or in phenanthroline solution, and on polarography.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1974, Vol.25, No.4, p.435-451. 82 ref.
Přerovská I., Pícková J., Drdková S.
Role of carbon disulfide in the causation of atherosclerosis
Effets du sulfure de carbone sur l'athérogénèse. [in French]
Results of clinical and laboratory studies in 34 workers at a viscose factory who had been first examined 12 years previously. For 8 years these workers had been exposed to CS2 concentrations of the order of 200µg/l, with occasional peaks of 1,000µg/l. The rise in serum cholesterol and phospholipid levels and total blood lipids as against controls was significant at a level that did not exceed 5%. The 3 cases each of infarction and of diabetes observed were also not significant. From these results it cannot be concluded that CS2 plays a major role in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in persons exposed to this occupational hazard.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1974, Vol.35, No.12, p.971-976. 13 ref.
Vineyard sprayer's lung - Clinical aspects.
All known cases of vineyard sprayer's lung, first described in 1969, have been caused by the inhalation of "Bordeaux mixture", a pesticide containing copper sulfate. A review of the pathological features of the disease is followed by an account of 15 cases diagnosed at the Lisbon University Hospital. These cases are analysed from the clinical, radiographic and laboratory points of view in an attempt to define the various clinicopathological forms of the disease and methods of diagnosis. The high incidence of lung cancer found in those with vineyard sprayer's lung may be related to the copper found in their lesions.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Nov. 1974, Vol.110, No.5, p.545-555. Illus. 10 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to sulfuric acid.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of sulfuric acid on the health and safety of workers. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (10-h working day) should not exceed 1mg/m3 over a 40-h week. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of a standard. Procedures for sampling and analysis of sulfuric acid in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)74-128, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1974. 90p. Illus. 56 ref. Gratis.
CO, CO2, SO2 - Occurrence, effects on man, and determination
CO, CO2, SO2 - Vorkommen, Wirkung auf den Menschen und Messung [in German]
Industrial sources of these gases are listed, and the acceptable and dangerous concentrations in the air are indicated. Reference is made to the detector tubes available.
Drägerheft, July-Sep. 1974, No.297, p.6-11. Illus. 6 ref.
Schaffernicht H., Deicke H.
Continuous personal dosimetry of phenol and sulfur dioxide at the workplace by means of colorimetric methods
Kontinuierliche personengebundene Messung von Phenol und Schwefeldioxid am Arbeitsplatz mit Hilfe colorimetrischer Methoden [in German]
Description of a portable apparatus weighing 2kg for semi-continuous dosimetry over a period of 8h. Air is aspirated by a membrane pump and conducted onto a colorimetric test paper strip, which moves every 4min for phenol and every 2min for sulfur dioxide. Concentrations are identified by coloured zones of varying intensity. Details are given as regards reactive agents, procedure, durability of test paper, etc.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 12 Mar. 1974, Vol.33, No.1, p.71-77. Illus. 3 ref.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 22. Sulfur
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 22. Soufre. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between sulfur and 25 inorganic substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1974, No.77, Note No.933-77-74, p.605-607.
Tomasini M., Chiappino G., Spotti D.
Research on the incidence of coronary disease among retired viscose-rayon plant workers with a history of occupational exposure to carbon disulfide
Indagine sull'incidenza di coronaropatie in pensionati ex-lavoratori di una industria di viscosa-rayon esposti a solfuro di carbonio [in Italian]
Following-up previous research on the relation between occupational exposure to CS2 and coronary disease, the authors carried out an investigation on 177 retired workers of the viscose-rayon industry (145 living; 32 deceased). Records concerning the deceased subjects showed 3 times more coronary or sclerotic heart disease than among non-exposed controls. 76 of the retired workers still living had been exposed to CS2; 69 had not. Comparing these 2 groups, otherwise completely alike as regards age, habits and life style at retirement, the authors discovered a significantly raised tendency to coronary disease among the first-mentioned group; this tendency was more pronounced among those who had been most exposed to CS2. The authors believe that CS2 exposure involves a definite coronary disease hazard.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1974, Vol.65, No.9-10, p.368-378. 15 ref.
Assessment of a two-rate ventilating system for gang-type centrifugal spinning machines
Ocenka dvuhrežimnoj ventiljacii centrifugal'nyh prjadil'nyh mašin s brigadnym obsluživaniem [in Russian]
Description of an exhaust ventilation system for viscose-rayon gang spinning machines which ensures equal exhaust volumes on all spinning units which are equipped with individual fans in addition to the common exhaust fan at the plenum outlet. As soon as the enclosure is opened for attending, the system is automatically switched to a higher exhaust flowrate to reduce exposure to carbon disulfide to an admissible level. The advantages of this two-rate system are discussed from the points of view of occupational hygiene and economy.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.24-25. Illus.
Synthetic detergents - Technical preventive measures
Les détergents synthétiques - Prévention technique. [in French]
The article is confined to a study of hazards encountered in 2 categories of operations involved in manufacturing detergents: sulfonation and sulfation, and condensation with ethylene oxide. These hazards are analysed in detail with the corresponding preventive measures. Those of sulfonation and sulfation derive from the reactive nature of sulfuric acid and oleum with organic matter (accidental contact), metals, minerals, and water (explosion), from inhalation of sulfuric chlorohydrin (chlorosulfonic acid) and from the caustic action of soda and potash. The hazards of condensation with ethylene oxide consist mainly in its explosivity and that of its decomposition products, which in addition are toxic. Mention is made of the hazards common to the 2 operations: slipping; work in vats, tanks, or apparatus.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 Boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 1974. 14p. 6 ref. Gratis.
Freundt K.J., Liebewirth H.
Variations in some clinical-chemical parameters in the serum of subjects after alcohol ingestion and continuous carbon disulfide inhalation
Verhalten einiger klinisch-chemischer Parameter im Serum von alkoholisierten Personen nach kontinuierlicher Schwefelkohlenstoff-Inhalation [in German]
A study of the influence of alcohol consumption in subjects exposed to 20, 40 and 80ppm of CS2. Variations in the following parameters were determined during and after exposure: cholesterol, CA++, inorganic phosphate, total bilirubin, albumin, total protein, uric acid, urea nitrogen, glucose, lactic dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase. Interpretation of variations found in total bilirubin and in glucose. Conclusions: subjects with moderate blood alcohol levels, exposed to CS2 concentrations of 20ppm or less, did not suffer significant effects; changes in blood serum composition found in routine examinations could not always be attributed to inhalation of CS2, but could have been induced by alcohol consumption.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Sep. 1973, Vol.24, No.9, p.266-271. Illus. 8 ref.
Lukáš E., Kotas P., Obrusník I.
Copper and zinc levels in peripheral nerve tissue of rats with experimental carbon-disulphide neuropathy.
The levels of zinc and copper in the peripheral nerve tissue of 2 groups of rats with carbon disulfide neuropathy were estimated. The neuropathy was evoked by inhalation of 3.6mg CS2/l of air (variant 1) or 2.4mg CS2/l of air (variant 2). Stationary Zn levels were found in control and exposed animals in both of the experimental variants, while the levels of copper increased by 135% in experiment 1 and 127% in experiment 2. These results, together with previous experience such as the apparently protective effects of Zn and Cu salt-enriched diet, suggest that changes in metal metabolism deserve attention as a possible pathogenic link in the development of carbon disulfide poisoning.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1974, Vol.31, No.4, p.288-291. Illus. 17 ref.
New advances in the toxicology of carbon disulfide.
Text of the 1972 Yant Memorial Lecture. The author presents an over-all review of carbon disulfide toxicology, discussing in particular the effects of diet and CS2 metabolism in man in the light of recent research.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1974, Vol.35, No.2, p.55-61. 36 ref.
Knave B., Kolmodin-Hedman B., Persson H.E., Goldberg J.M.
Chronic exposure to carbon disulfide: Effects on occupationally exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system.
51 employees of a viscose factory in Sweden exposed to carbon disulfide were examined and compared with a non-exposed matched control group. General medical examination revealed a higher prevalence of angina pectoris among exposed subjects. Furthermore, the exposed group manifested symptoms and signs of neurological abnormality involving the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Work - Environment - Health, 1974, Vol.11, No.1, p.49-58. Illus. 18 ref.
Method permitting individual determination of carbon disulfide, mercaptans and dimethyl sulfide in air
Metod razdel'nogo opredelenija serovodoroda, merkaptanov i dimetildisul'fida v vozduhe [in Russian]
Description of colorimetric methods for the separate determination of carbon disulfide, mercaptans and dimethyl sulfide in the same atmosphere. These methods require an air sample of 1-2l. The error is 5-20%, depending on the concentrations in the samples at hand. Examples of concentrations detected in a cellulose and paper factory.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.63-65. 2 ref.
Vysočina I.V., Konstantinova I.K., Skvorcova N.N.
Influence of sulfur dioxide on glycogenolysis in the lungs and liver
Vlijanie sernistogo gaza na glikogenoliz v legkih i pečeni [in Russian]
Report on research undertaken in white rats to determine the effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) inhalation on glycogenolysis. A concentration of 10mg/m3 of SO2 produced a dramatic fall in the pulmonary adenosine triphosphate level (to 3 times lower than the control value), while the lactic acid level was doubled. Anaerobic glycogenolysis in the lung homogenate tended to increase. No effect of SO2 on anaerobic glycogenolysis in the liver tissue was observed at the concentration studied. The authors point to the carcinogenic effects of SO2.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.3-6. 11 ref.
Methods for the detection of toxic substances in air - Carbon disulphide vapour.
Details of the properties, occurrence and toxic effects of carbon disulfide are followed by a description of the general principles of first aid and the method of detection. The standard method for the detection of low concentrations of carbon disulfide in industy is based on its interaction with diethylamine and copper acetate to produce the coloured compound copper diethyldithiocarbamate. Instructions for carrying out the test and details of the apparatus used are given.
Booklet No.6, H.M. Factory Inspectorate, Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1974. 11p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: £0.19.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 17. Hydrogen sulfide. Sulfides
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 17. Hydrogène sulfuré. Sulfure. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between various substances and hydrogen sulfide, sulfides in general, and chromium, tin and sodium monosulfides, arsenic, tin and sodium disulfides, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus sesquisulfide, antimony and boron trisulfides, nitrogen, mercury, barium, benzene-diazonium and calcium sulfides and auric and ferrous sulfides, in particular. The references used are given for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1974, No.75, Note No.904-75-74. p.279-284.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 16. Sulfuric acid. Sulfates
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 16. Acide sulfurique. Sulfates. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between different substances and sulfuric acid, alkaline-earth sulfates in general and chromous, ammonium, diethyl, dimethyl and sodium sulfates, in particular. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1974, No.75, Note No.903-75-74. p.275-277.
Korallus U., Ehrlicher H., Wüstefeld E.
Trivalent chromium compounds - Results of an occupational health survey
Dreiwertige Chromverbindungen - Ergebnisse einer arbeitsmedizinischen Untersuchung [in German]
The first part of this article outlines briefly the chemistry and uses of trivalent chromium compounds and provides a literature survey of medical findings; it is devoted mainly, however, to the results of a retrospective morbidity survey carried out in 2 workshops producing compounds (oxide and sulfate) of trivalent chromium in a large chemical works. It was not possible to pinpoint "black spots" of disease incidence or to establish the existence of a carcinogenic effect. The second part gives the results of a detailed analysis of the incidence of disease in the 2 workshops concerned; the data were processed by computer. This analysis confirms the conclusion reached in the first part of the article, namely that trivalent chromium compounds have no specific pathogenic action, as they are practically inert in the form of dust.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Mar. 1974, Vol.9, No.3, p.51-54, and Apr. 1974, No.4, p.76-79. Illus. 13 ref.
Magos L., Green A., Jarvis J.A.E.
Half-life of CS2 in rats in relation to its effect on brain catecholamines.
Catecholamine concentrations in the brain and the sensitivity of rats to amphetamine-induced stereotype were investigated immediately after and 20h after a 4-h exposure to 2mg/l of CS2. Estimation of the half-life of CS2 in the blood, liver and whole animal shows that changes measured 20h after exposure cannot be ascribed to the presence of CS2 in the body. Despite the rapid elimination of free and reversibly-bound CS2 from the body, a decrease in the noradrenaline concentration in the brain and an increase in the sensitivity of animals to the stereotype induced by 6.0mg/kg amphetamine was observed 20h after exposure. The implication of these findings is discussed in relation to the increased frequency of coronary heart disease among workers exposed to CS2.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 31 Jan. 1974, Vol.32, No.4, p.289-296. Illus. 23 ref.
III. International symposium on toxicology of carbon disulphide.
Brief account of a symposium organised by the Permanent Commission and International Association on Occupational Health (Cairo and Alexandria, Egypt, 4-9 May 1974). 39 papers were presented and discussed. Subjects for discussion included: the cardiovascular effects of CS2 (on which conflicting reports were made); TLVs; excretion products and metabolic effects of CS2; psychological effects of CS2 changes in the EEG; research for a satisfactory quantitative test for CS2; exposure of women to CS2. The 13 recommendations made are reproduced.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1974, Vol.16, No.7, p.483-484.
Lieben J., Menduke H., Flegel E.E., Smith F.
Cardiovascular effects of CS2 exposure.
In order to evaluate the effects of CS2 on the cardiovascular system, a survey was conducted of 1,979 men of 45 years or more with 10 or more years of employment in 4 man-made fibre plants. 1,498 worked in 3 rayon plants under conditions of possible, medium or heavy exposure to CS2; 481 worked in an acetate plant with no CS2 exposure. The only statistically significant finding of the study was a higher blood pressure in the rayon plant workers over the acetate plant workers, but the blood pressure reading did not correlate with increase in CS2 air concentration.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1974, Vol.16, No.7, p.449-453. 12 ref.
Zislin D.M., Sterehova N.P.
Clinical characteristics of several stages of chronic occupational sulfur dioxide poisoning
Kliničeskaja harakteristika različnyh stadij hroničeskoj professional'noj intoksikacii sernistym gazom [in Russian]
Results of examinations carried out on 300 workers aged 25 to 50 years exposed for more than 10 years to gases and dust evolved during the reduction of copper ores (sulfur dioxide: 200-300 mg/m3; copper, silica, iron, lead and arsenic dusts). A description is given of clinical pictures observed at several stages of poisoning, which affects not only the respiratory system, but also the hepatobiliary system and the stomach (chronic gastritis).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1974, No.1, p.14-19. 16 ref.
Brüderl R., Benini A.
Polyneuritis due to chronic carbon disulfide poisoning
Polyneuritis als Folge chronischer Schwefelkohlenstoffvergiftung [in German]
Presentation and discussion of 5 cases of carbon disulfide poisoning among workers in a viscose manufacturing plant exposed to concentrations between 23 and 65 mg/m3. Apart from symptoms of polyneuritis, the authors noted cases of insomnia, headache, irritation, circulatory disorders, loss of libido and impotence, gastric disorders and loss of weight. Polyneuritis symptoms persisted after cessation of exposure, whereas the others disappeared.
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift - Journal suisse de médecine, 5 Jan. 1974, Vol.104, No.1, p.15-18. 15 ref.
Rosensteel R.E., Shama S.K., Flesch J.P.
Occupational health case report - No.1.
A report of an investigation of the spinning and cutting areas of a viscose rayon manufacturing plant. The study population for the combined environmental-medical evaluation consisted of 27 spinnermen and 28 cuttermen. It was determined that: (1) exposures to carbon disulfide vapours at the concentrations found in this environment are toxic to cuttermen or others working in the cutter area; (2) spinnermen are exposed to levels of carbon disulfide within recommended limits but may be exposed occasionally to levels of carbon disulfide potentially toxic to them; (3) hazard exists for any worker exposed to excessive levels of carbon disulfide because of the dizziness which may result. Environmental and medical recommendations are made.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1974, Vol.16, No.1, p.22-30. Illus. 28 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to sulfur dioxide.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of chronic health disorders due to sulfur dioxide (SO2). The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (8 h) should not exceed 2 ppm (5 mg/m3). Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of SO2 in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1974. 112p. Illus. 96 ref. Price: US-$1.50.
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