Inorganic sulfur compounds - 587 entries found
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Smith D.B., Krause L.A.
Analysis of charcoal tube samples for carbon disulfide using a photoionization detector.
A gas chromatograph equipped with a photoionisation detector was used to detect carbon disfulfide eluted from charcoal tubes with acetonitrile. Overall sampling and desorption efficiency was close to 100%. The sensitivity of the method enables concentrations of 0.1ppm CS2 to be determined in a 10l air sample. Advantages over other detectors include ease of operation and greater sensitivity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1978, Vol.39, No.12, p.939-944. Illus. 10 ref.
Kelada F., Euinton L.E.
Health effects of long-term exposure to sodium sulfate dust.
Medical studies, including lung function and blood and urine analysis, were undertaken in 119 workers at 5 sodium sulfate surface solution mines. Exposures were up to 31 years. All findings were in the normal range. There was no significant difference between 42 and 77 workers with more and less than 10 years' exposure respectively.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1978, Vol.20, No.12, p.812-814. 21 ref.
Fradkin B.I., Petrov B.A.
Determination of volatile sulfur compounds in the workplace air by gas chromatography
Gazohromatografičeskoe opredelenie serosoderžaščih gazov v vozduhe proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij [in Russian]
A method developed primarily for determination of hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide is described. Air is sampled in tubes filled with silica gel. The tubes are heated to 150-170°C for desorption. The chromatograph is equipped with a thermal conductivity detector. Analysis takes 16min, and accuracy is ±5%.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1978, No.6, p.53-54. 2 ref.
Gabovič R.D., Motuzkov I.N., Švajko I.I.
Effect of ultraviolet prophylaxis on tolerance to the toxic effect of carbon disulfide
Vlijanie ul'trafioletevoj obespečennosti organizma na ego tolerantnost' k toksičeskomu dejstviju serougleroda [in Russian]
Report of experiments in 140 rats and in 90 viscose rayon spinning workers. The workers' absence and medical records and visual function were used as criteria. Resistance to the effects of carbon disulfide was greatly influenced by UV radiation. Prophylaxis with suberythematous doses activates processes responsible for adaptation to the toxin and for its neutralisation, UV prophylaxis is recommended for workers exposed to carbon disulfide, especially in autumn and winter.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1978, No.6, p.38-41. Illus. 4 ref.
Cirla A.M., Bertazzi P.A., Tomasini M., Villa A., Graziano C., Invernizzi R., Gilioli R., Bulgheroni C., Cassitto M.G., Jacovone M.T., Camerino D.
Endocrinological functions and sexual behaviour, neurological and neurophysiological impairment, and behavioural alterations in carbon disulphide workers.
These 3 papers presented at the IVth International Symposium on Occupational Health in the Production of Artificial Fibres at Helsinki, Finland, 6-10 June 1977, report on studies in 254 viscose rayon workers exposed to CS2 and 54 controls. The first study (Cirla et al., p.118-129) showed disturbances of thyroid hormones, reduction of sex hormones and impaired sexual potency in exposed workers. The second study (Gilioli et al., p.130-143) showed predominantly psycho-organic disturbances and electromyographic and conduction velocity changes related to exposure. The third study (Cassitto et al., p.144-150) used a battery of intelligence, personality and memory tests, and discusses their value as indicators of mental impairment by CS2.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1978, Vol.69, No.2, p.118-150. 56 ref.
Studies on pancreatic endocrine function and changes of the eye-ground in workers exposed to carbon disulfide.
The response of blood glucose, serum insulin (IRI), serum C-peptide, plasma pancreatic glucagon and serum growth hormone (HGH) to oral glucose loading (100gm) and retinal changes was studied in workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2). The results suggest that CS2 exposure causes hypofunction of pancreatic cells and hyposecretion of HGH. There was no reduction of glucose tolerance. There appears to be a relation between the diminished response of IRI and the pathogenesis of diabetic-like retinopathy in workers exposed to CS2. Summary in English.
Folia Endocrinologica, 20 Feb. 1978, Vol.54, No.2, p.174-186. Illus. 33 ref.
Incidence of cardiovascular diseases in the Dutch viscose rayon industry.
Three studies are reported. The first, in 2 viscose rayon plants, 1968-1974, showed no differences in the frequency of cardiovascular disease in departments with and without carbon disulfide (CS2) exposure. The second, a case-control study in 1962-1965, also showed no relation between CS2 exposure and cardiovascular disease. The third, a prospective cohort study of originally 3 groups of 100 shift and non-shift workers, reexamined after 3 years, again showed no significant differences in respect of cardiovascular disease. Workers exposed to concentrations below the TLV of 62mg/m3 are in the author's opinion not more liable to develop cardiovascular disease than non-exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1978, Vol.20, No.5, p.346-350. 3 ref.
Sugimoto K., Goto S., Kanda S., Taniguchi H., Nakamura K., Baba T.
Studies on angiopathy due to carbon disulfide - Retinopathy and index of exposure dosages.
Retinopathy (microaneurisms, small dot haemorrhages) and the coded resting and postexercise findings suggestive of coronary heart disease (CHD) were studied in 420 male workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) and 390 non-exposed. Retinopathy was detected in 24.4% of the exposed and 3.8% of the non-exposed workers by colour fundus photography. Among exposed workers, there was a significant correlation between retinopathy and index of exposure dosages (a value calculated from worker history and time-weighted average CS2 concentrations). The relation between retinopathy and exposure duration was not so high. The occurrences of coded resting and postexercise "coronary" ECG findings were not related to the index of exposure dosages. Risk factors for CHD such as total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, beta-lipoproteins, blood pressure, obesity and skinfold thickness were simultaneously studied. These variables were not important in the development of angiopathy due to CS2, especially the so-called retinopathia sulfocarbonica.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1978, Vol.4, No.2, p.151-158. Illus. 14 ref.
Uševa G., Pavlova S.
Results of a prophylactic study in workers occupationally exposed to carbon disulfide
Resultati ot profilaktično izsledvane na rabotnici v profesionalen kontakt săs serovăglerod [in Bulgarian]
Results of examinations of 170 male workers in the viscose rayon industry exposed to carbon disulfide at a concentration of 10mg/m3 (Bulgarian exposure limit) or above, and a control group of 100 workers. Studies included the iodine-azide test, urinary creatinine, ceruloplasmin activity, and blood cholesterol and β-lipoprotein. A positive exposure test was obtained in 31% of the exposed workers, in whom ceruloplasmin activity tended to be low.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1978, Vol.21, No.1, p.37-42. Illus. 18 ref.
Schlesinger R.B., Lippmann M., Albert R.E.
Effects of short-term exposures to sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate aerosols upon bronchial airway function in the donkey.
Donkeys were exposed to H2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 aerosols (particle size 0.3-0.6µm) for one hour. Short-term or persistent slowing of mucociliary clearance of an inert test aerosol followed single exposures of 194-1,364µg/m3 H2SO4. These levels produced no measurable change in pulmonary flow resistance, dynamic compliance or regional deposition. (NH4)2SO4 exposures up to approx. 2,000µg/m3 had measurable effect on resistance, compliance, regional deposition, or clearance.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1978, Vol.39, No.4, p.275-286. Illus. 42 ref.
Bitron M.D., Aharonson E.F.
Delayed mortality of mice following inhalation of acute doses of CH2O, SO2, Cl2 and Br2.
The single doses given by inhalation were: 320ppm formaldehyde (CH2O), 900, 1,400 or 1,900ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2), 170 or 290ppm chlorine (Cl2) and 240 or 750ppm bromine (Br2). Mortality was measured over the following weeks. At 320ppm, the toxicity sequence was Cl2>>Br2>CH2O>>SO2. The time of death depended markedly on exposure duration in the case of CH2O and Br2. Thus Cl2 is by far the most toxic compound, followed by Br2, then by CH2O, with SO2 being the less toxic of the four.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1978, Vol.39, No.2, p.129-138. 16 ref.
Smith T.J., Wagner W.L., Moore D.E., Archer V.E., Gillam J.D.
Chronic sulfur dioxide exposure in a smelter - I. Exposure to SO2 and dust: 1940-1974 - II. Indices of chest disease.
The first of these 2 articles (p.83-87) describes the copper smelter and reports the results of stationary area and personal sampling. Average time-weighted personal exposure was generally 1-5mg/m3, having varied little over 34 years. Personal protective equipment was consistently used. The second article reports on lung function tests and questionnaire surveys of all men working in the smelter and mine truck maintenance shops (controls). Forced vital capacity and FEV1 were significantly reduced in association with chronic exposures of 1-6mg/m3. The present recommended occupational exposure limit of 5.2mg/m3 (2ppm), which is primarily based on acute effects, requires reconsideration. Account should also be taken of the fact that other sulfur oxides and particulates often accompany SO2.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1978, Vol.20, No.2, p.83-95. 58 ref.
Kuz'mina F.S., Lihačeva E.I.
Liver and lung blood flow in subjects with chronic occupational poisoning by fluorine compounds and sulfur dioxide
Sostojanie krovoobraščenija v pečeni i legkih u bol'nyh s hroničeskimi professional'nymi intoksikacijami soedinenijami ftora i sernistym gazom [in Russian]
Rheographic liver and kidney examinations in 207 workers engaged in cryolite preparation and copper reduction showed circulatory disorders in the preclinical stage. Their incidence (reduced blood pressure and flow in the liver, vascular dystonia, predominance of hypertension) increased as the poisoning was more severe. The usefulness of hepatic and pulmonary rheography as a complementary test in the early diagnosis of occupational poisoning was demonstrated.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1977, No.12, p.23-26. 9 ref.
Tereščenko Ju.A., Tarlov E.L., Derevjankin Ju.S., Timofeeva L.N., Romanova V.Ja., Harlamova G.V.
Prevalence and clinical course of chronic carbon disulfide poisoning in relation to CS2 concentration
Rasprostranennost' i kliničeskoe tečenie hroničeskoj intoksikacii serouglerodom pri različnyh ego koncentracijah [in Russian]
Results of clinical examinations and laboratory tests covering 678 employees of a tyre cord factory who were exposed to various concentrations of CS2 (over 10mg/m3 in spinning rooms and in chemical departments; under 10mg/m3 in cord twisting and maintenance shops, etc.). Exposure to >10mg/m3 causes chronic poisoning with functional nervous disorders, disturbances of myocardial metabolism, increased sympathicoadrenal system activity, and lowering of erythrocyte lipoprotein levels. Where the CS2 level remains below 10mg/m3, cases of chronic CS2 poisoning are less frequent and the symptoms less pronounced. These observations emphasise the advisability of lowering the TLV recently adopted in the USSR.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1977, No.10, p.17-21. Illus. 9 ref.
Gul'ko S.N., Pikul'skaja A.F.
Cardiovascular system status of workers employed in the viscose industry
Sostojanie serdečno-sosudistoj sistemy u rabočih viskoznogo proizvodstva [in Russian]
Results of clinical examinations and laboratory tests covering 53 workers exposed to carbon disulfide for 5-15 years. Compared with healthy controls, the workers showed symptoms of cardiovascular disorders, a tendancy to hypertension and reduced blood irrigation of the myocardium, especially affecting the left ventricle. Disturbances of lipid metabolism, which was also observed in these workers, seemed to be a causative factor in this premature atherosclerosis.
Vračebnoe delo, Apr. 1977, No.4, p.113-116. 14 ref.
Tarlov E.L., Derevjankin Ju.S., Tereščenko Ju.A., Harlamova G.V.
Nature and frequency of heart disorders in chronic carbon disulfide poisoning
Harakter i častota kardial'nyh narušenij pri hroničeskoj serouglerodnoj intoksikacii [in Russian]
Evaluation of data from clinical and electrocardiographic examinations of 521 viscose rayon industry workers exposed to carbon disulfide, some with poisoning. The severity and frequency of heart diseases and ECG changes depended on the stage and the clinical picture of chronic poisoning. The nature of the ECG changes was a reflection of either physiological adaptation or of pathological cardiac effects, which are proportional to functional nervous system disorders. Non-specific heart diseases can be diagnosed as functional cardiopathic syndrome with predominantly neurogenic or dystrophic disorders.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1977, No.8, p.34-38. 19 ref.
Kopecký J., Šmejkal J., Krivucová M.
Toxicity of calcium salts of 2-dithiocarbamoylcarboxylic acids
Toxicita vápenatých solí některých 2-dithiokarbaminokarboxylových kyselin [in Czech]
Carbon disulfide reacts with amino acids in the body to produce toxic dithiocarbamoylcarboxylic acids. In these animal studies on the metabolism and toxic effects of carbon disulfide, calcium dithiocarbamate derivatives of glycine, DL- and L-alanine, DL- and L-glutamic acid, L-tryptophan, and DL- and L-methionine were prepared. The intravenous LD50 of these salts and of carbon disulfide was determined. The toxicity of the salts was higher than that of carbon disulfide. Toxicity was inversely proportional to the molecular weight: thus calcium dithiocarbamoylacetate was about 6 times more toxic than carbon disulfide. The calcium salts were generally slightly less toxic when formed from L- than from DL-amino acids.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1977, Vol.29, No.3, p.85-88. 22 ref.
Properties; uses; containers; shipping regulations (labelling, etc.); storage; hazards; safety rules for handling; personal protective equipment (self-contained breathing mask, impervious gloves and aprons); gas freeing and use of air line or hose mask when cleaning residues from reaction vessels; fire and explosion hazards (enclosure of electrical equipment, etc.); toxicity; poisoning symptoms; first aid; skin absorption; USA (OSHA) threshold limit value: 20ppm not to be exceeded at any time during 8h shift; max. peak (10min): 50ppm; ACGIH recommends a TLV of 10ppm for an 8h time-weighted-average exposure; NIOSH recommends limitation of exposure to a ceiling concentration of 15mg/m3 (10ppm) for 10min.; medical examinations; waste disposal.
Data Sheet 284, Revision A, National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 60611, USA, 1977. 4p. Illus. 7 ref.
Fabbri L., Mapp C., Furlanis D.
Respiratory changes on chronic exposure to low SO2 levels
Alterazioni respiratorie da esposizione cronica a basse concentrazioni di SO2 [in Italian]
Radiological and lung function studies in 57 workers in a food factory exposed to 1.5-8.2mg/m3 sulfur dioxide and 49 controls. The incidence of chronic bronchitis and respiratory impairment was higher in the exposed group. Reduction of the exposure limit to 1ppm (2.6mg/m3) is proposed.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1977, Vol.68, No.1, p.38-50. 21 ref.
Carbon bisulfide (carbon disulfide).
Recommendations for the prevention of the hazards of carbon disulfide, especially fire and toxic hazards, which are described. Contents: uses; properties; shipping; storage and handling; toxic effects; tank and vessel entry; waste disposal; threshold limit values; ventilation; personal protection; medical examinations; first aid.
Data Sheet 341, Revision B (Extensive), National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 4p. 7 ref.
Usutani S., Nishiyama K., Kimura H., Sugawara K., Kida K., Takamatsu Y., Matsuura K., Sawada Y., Chiang Y.
An accident caused by hydrogen sulfide generated under a special condition.
Report on a fatal accident that occurred to workers removing shuttering from a concrete floor cast over 3 wooden tanks impregnated with creosote, intended for storage of soy sauce. When the liquid residue in the tank was stirred during reconstruction of the accident, 600-1,100ppm H2S was detected in the air, but the O2 concentration did not change appreciably. In a model experiment with samples of the liquid in the tank, a higher concentration of H2S was generated by stirring while water was added than by stirring alone. The accident was attributed to H2S that had been generated under the particular conditions of storage. Summary in English.
Hirosaki Medical Journal, Mar. 1977, Vol.29, No.1, p.143-156. Illus. 11 ref.
Safety problems during transport and storage of molten sulfur
Voprosy bezopasnosti pri transportirovke i hranenii rasplavlennoj sery [in Russian]
Reasons in favour of transporting and storing sulfur in the liquid state (technological, occupational hygiene and economic advantages) are set out. Two explosions occurring during transfer of molten sulfur transported by barge are reported. Stress is laid on the explosion hazards associated with the low conductivity of sulfur (accumulation of static electricity), formation of hydrogen sulfide during cooling, and pyrophoric deposits of ferrous sulfur which form on the tank walls. Prevention measures recommended: earthing; exhaust of hydrogen sulfide during transfer and regular monitoring of its concentration; protection of tanks against corrosion by hydrogen sulfide.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Mar. 1977, No.3, p.42-43.
Tereščenko Ju.A., Tarlov E.L., Medvedev V.N., Udinceva A.N.
Structure of the gastric mucosae and secretion function in chronic carbon disulfide poisoning
Struktura slizistoj oboločki i sekretornaja funkcija želudka pri hroničeskoj intoksikacii serouglerodom [in Russian]
Results of tests by submaximal histamine stimulation (modified Lambling's method) and gastric biopsy in 41 female workers with carbon disulfide poisoning. In 34 cases damage to the gastric mucosae suggesting gastritis was observed (gastritis without atrophy or with moderately marked or pronounced atrophy of the mucosae). Atrophic gastritis was accompanied by varying degrees of inhibition of the secretory function depending on the severity of the atrophic changes.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1977, No.2, p.21-24. 10 ref.
Miyoshi T., Tanada S., Boki K.
Properties of thirteen kinds of adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, methyl sulfide, trimethylamine, and ammonia.
Report on tests with 5 silicates, 4 activated carbons and 4 zeolites to determine their adsorptive properties for the removal of odorous pollutants from the air, and the mechanism of adsorption. Two types of activated carbon were the most suitable adsorbent for methanethiol, methyl sulfide and trimethylamine (particle surface area >17Ĺ), and 2 types of zeolite for hydrogen sulfide and ammonia (<17Ĺ). Adsorption was influenced more by the porous structure than the surface properties of the adsorbents.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Jan. 1977, Vol.19, No.1, p.2-7. 19 ref.
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
Information on: properties, uses, containers, shipping regulations, storage, personnel hazards, handling, personal protective equipment, ventilation, fire and explosion hazards, electrical equipment, poisoning symptoms, first aid, burn treatment, toxicity, threshold limit values, medical examinations, and waste disposal.
Data sheet 325, 1977, Revision B (Pars. 11 and 12), National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 5p. 2 ref.
Fracchia M., Pierce L., Graul R., Stanley R.
Desorption of organic solvents from charcoal collection tubes.
Carbon disulfide is a poor desorber of many compounds, and it is necessary to determine its desorption efficacy (DE) for each analyte sampled. This paper reports on studies testing the hypothesis that DEs determined for single analytes cannot be used for analysis of complex mixtures. Toluene, n-butanol, cellosolve acetate and n-butyl cellosolve were tested separately and together. A significant increase in DE was noted in the polar analytes of the mixture. There is an urgent need for further investigation of adsorbents and eluting agents using common solvent mixtures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1977, Vol.38, No.3, p.144-146. 3 ref.
Electroencephalography in the diagnosis of early cerebral changes due to carbon disulfide
Die Elektroencephalographie in der Diagnostik der frühzeitigen Hirnschädigung durch Schwefelkohlenstoff [in German]
250 workers with an average of 11 years' CS2 exposure in viscose fibre production were given long-term clinical and EEG examinations. The results are summarised, and some cases are described in detail with reproduction of EEGs. The findings are related to age. Analysis of 344 EEGs and comparison with controls showed that CS2 causes vascular encephalopathy. The abnormality was diffuse in exposed workers and focal in patients with cerebral vascular disease. The frequency of alpha activity was lower (<9Hz) in exposed workers than in healthy controls. Electroencephalography is regarded as being of great importance in the early diangosis of the central nervous effects of CS2.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 25 Feb. 1977, Vol.38, No.4, p.263-282. Illus. 20 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to carbon disulfide. The time-weighted average exposure (10h working day) should not exceed 3mg/m3 (1ppm by volume) over a 40h week. The ceiling concentration is 30mg/m3 (10ppm) for any 15min period. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the following heads: biological effects of exposure, environmental data and biological monitoring and development of the standard. Research needs are defined and procedures for sampling and analysis in air are detailed; useful additional information is given in appendices.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-156, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, May 1977. 185p. 131 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to hydrogen sulfide. The time-weighted average exposure (10h working day) should not exceed 15mg/m3, as determined with a sampling period of 10min, over a 40h week. Evacuation of the area shall be required if the concentration equals or exceeds 70mg/m3. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the following heads: biological effects of exposure, environmental data and analytical methods and development of the standard. Research needs are defined and procedures for sampling and analysis in air are detailed; useful additional information is given in appendices.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-158, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, May 1977. 149p. 171 ref.
Evaluation of indicator tubes - Part V. Sulfur dioxide
Utvärdering av vissa analysampullers tillförlitlighet - V. Svaveldioxid [in Swedish]
Six tubes (Auer 824; Bacharach 19-203; Dräger CH 317; Gastec 5L and 5La; MSA 92 623) were tested for accuracy, effects of temperature and humidity and interferences. All tubes had acceptable measuring ranges, but the length of stain requirement was met only by the Auer and Gastec 5L. The accuracy depended on the humidity; the effect of temperature was difficult to separate from the effect of humidity. The Auer and Bacharach tubes were unacceptable, the Dräger and MSA nearly acceptable and the Gastec 5L and 5La were acceptable. English summary.
Undersökningsrapport 1977:13, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1977. p.27. 9 ref. Price: Swe-cr.5.00.
Maximum permissible concentration of carbon disulfide in workplace air
A propos de la concentration maximale admissible de sulfure de carbone dans l'air des locaux de travail. [in French]
MD thesis investigating whether the TLVs for CS2 (especially the time-weighted average (TWA) limit of 60mg/m3 or 20ppm) recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists can be considered medically reliable, given the risk of carbon disulfide atherosclerosis. Biochemical data on CS2 exposure (preference is given to determination of urinary metabolites - the iodine azide test - as a test of exposure) are followed by 2 chapters devoted to a literature survey of toxicological data from animal experiments and observations in humans (neurological, cardiovascular, biochemical and endocrine effects). Animal studies revealed no toxicity at 20ppm CS2, but the results cannot be readily extrapolated to man. Clinical and epidemiological studies in exposed workers suggest such effects at concentrations below 20ppm. Until more thorough studies have been performed, a TWA of <10ppm is proposed.
Université de Paris Val-de-Marne, Faculté de médecine de Créteil, Paris, France, 1977. 57p. 89 ref.
Pepys J., Hutchcroft B.J., Breslin A.B.X.
Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents - Persulphate salts and henna in hairdressers.
Exposure tests in 2 hairdressers with occupational asthma are described. One had an immediate marked asthmatic reaction to the mixing of a bleach containing potassium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide and immediate skin test reactions to sodium and potassium persulfate; the other showed a non-immediate asthmatic reaction and negative skin tests to the persulfate preparations and immediate skin and bronchial reactions to a henna extract. Thus the nature of the asthmatic response may differ from subject to subject.
Clinical Allergy, July 1976, Vol.6, No.4, p.399-404. Illus. 11 ref.
Ginsburg S.E., Peršaj L.K.
Clinical and EEG correlations in chronic carbon disulfide poisoning
Kliniko-ėlektroėncefalografičeskie sootnošenija pri hroničeskoj intoksikacii serouglerodom [in Russian]
Results of clinical and EEG examinations in 60 workers having symptoms of carbon disulfide poisoning; these results show a close correlation between the clinical findings and the EEG tracings. EEG changes showed preferential lesions of the limbic and reticular systems. As compared to disturbances of the hypothalamus of different aetiology, the authors observed a predominance of low-frequency β rhythms, increasing in intensity according to chronicity of poisoning. They therefore came to the conclusion that EEG changes of this type constitute a compensation and adaptation mechanism accompanying brain damage.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1976, No.6, p.16-20. Illus.
Dumkin V.N., Ryžkova M.N., Korenevskaja S.P., Harlamova S.F., Milkov L.E.
Glucocorticoid function of the adrenal glands in the pathogenesis of chronic carbon disulfide poisoning
Gljukokortikoidnaja funkcija nadpočečnikov v patogeneze hroničeskoj intoksikacii serouglerodom [in Russian]
The authors determined, by partition chromatography, the levels of 11-deoxy-17-hydroxytetrahydrocorticosterone, cortisone and their derivatives in urine samples from 40 workers with carbon disulfide poisoning (varying from initial stages to pronounced symptoms). They observed a decrease in basal excretion and modifications of the levels of constituent fractions. Administration of small doses of adrenalin provoked reactions of the hypophysio-corticoadrenal system, which were proportional to the severity of damage to the hypothalamus. The data obtained facilitate a differential approach to the treatment of carbon disulfide poisoning.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1976, No.6, p.12-16. 15 ref.
Thompkins F.C., Becker J.H.
An evaluation of portable, direct-reading H2S meters.
Report on the evaluation of the physical and performance (measured under controlled conditions) characteristics of 9 commercially available portable direct-reading hydrogen sulfide monitoring devices. Characteristics considered include: portability; readout; recorder output; simplicity of operation; instruction manuals; safety approval; ruggedness; sample conditioning; calibration; useful range; accuracy; zero drift; warm-up time; response time; operating humidity and temperature ranges; interferences and linearity; calibration stability. Test methods are described and the results are given in tabular form.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-137, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1976. 167p. Illus.
Tuttle T.C., Wood G.D., Grether C.B.
Behavioral and neurological effects of carbon disulfide.
Behavioural and neurological tests for carbon disulfide exposure were performed on 100 viscose rayon workers and 50 non-exposed controls. They included medical and electrodiagnostic examinations, electromyograms, nerve conduction velocity, reaction time, coordination, visual search, short-term memory, and visual acuity. Exposure evaluation, which was indirect, was based on work history and urine tests. Polyneuropathy was found in 13% of the exposed subjects. Ulnar nerve damage, reaction time, visual search dexterity and perceptual organisation correlated with exposure. Regression equations for predicting neurotoxic effects were validated, suggesting the possibility that it might not be necessary to study all the individual chemical compounds in certain groups. Recommendations for further tests and research are given. The appendices contain the testing methods and questionnaire forms.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-128, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Dec. 1976. 156p. Illus. 24 ref.
The application of a new carbon disulfide exposure test in occupational health.
The widely used iodo-azide test (IAT) for measuring exposure to carbon disulfide is compared with gas chromatographic determination (1) with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and (2) with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). The GC methods were consistent with each other but not with the IAT. The results obtained with these 3 methods in 23 exposed and 6 non-exposed workers are compared. The GC methods have both better sensitivity and specificity than IAT. For qualitative purposes the 2 GC methods are better suited than the IAT when exposure is below the TLV. The GC-FPD method especially gives a better relation with exposure and is more sensitive than the IAT.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 15 Dec. 1976, Vol.38, No.2, p.115-120. 4 ref.
Tolonen M., Hernberg S., Nordman C.H., Goto S., Sugimoto K., Baba T.
Angina pectoris, electrocardiographic findings and blood pressure in Finnish and Japanese workers exposed to carbon disulfide.
The response to a standardised angina pectoris and infarction questionnaire, the occurrence of coded resting and post-exercise ECG findings suggestive of coronary heart disease, and blood pressure, were studied in 417 Japanese and 237 Finnish workers exposed to carbon disulfide in viscose rayon plants. There was no excessive prevalence of coronary ECG findings in the exposed group. The prevalence of angina pectoris and blood pressure values did not differ markedly between the exposed and unexposed Japanese workers. In contrast, the exposed Finnish subjects experienced angina pains more frequently, and had higher blood pressures than controls. The importance of exercise tests and ECG in pre-employment and periodic examinations in the viscose rayon industry for the identification of CHD-prone individuals is outlined.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 6 Sep. 1976, Vol.37, No.4, p.249-264. 34 ref.
Sugimoto K., Goto S., Hotta R.
Studies on chronic carbon disulfide poisoning - A 5-year follow-up study on retinopathy due to carbon disulfide.
Direct ophthalmoscopic/colour fundus photographic examinations and the prednisolone glucose tolerance test were performed in 214 male carbon disulfide workers, 3 times in 5 years, to determine the influence of exposure cessation or continued exposure on retinopathy. Results are summarised as follows: progression to a more developed stage of retinopathy was higher in the group with continuing exposure; no progression was found in workers with exposure of 10 years or less; disappearance or improvement of retinopathy was higher in the group removed from exposure, even after long duration of exposure; mean blood-glucose values were higher in workers with retinopathy than without. Similarities in the clinical pictures of chronic carbon disulfide poisoning and diabetes are discussed. Insulin deficiency was not investigated.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 6 Sep. 1976, Vol.37, No.4, p.233-248. Illus. 9 ref.
Djadičeva T.V., Pines A.G., Hohol'kova G.A., Asriev Ė.A.
Occupational hygiene during soil fumigation with carbon disulfide emulsion
Gigiena truda pri fumigacii počvy ėmul'siej serougleroda [in Russian]
Carbon disulfide in water emulsion is a good fumigant for phylloxera control. Air samples obtained during soil fumigation of vineyards and during filling of the fumigation equipment showed the Soviet TLV for CS2 (1mg/m3) to be exceeded by a factor of 2.5 to 6.7. Samples taken 4h after the treatment still showed levels close to the TLV. It is recommended that work in vineyards should be interrupted until the next day after fumigation, and that personnel undertaking fumigation should be adequately protected.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1976, No.3, p.44-45. 3 ref.
Martynova A.P., Zelenkin A.N., Goljakova L.P., Milkov L.E., Grodeckaja N.S., Agadžanova A.A.
Clinical and experimental studies on the biological effects of low levels of carbon disulfide
Kliniko-gigieničeskie i ėksperimental'nye issledovanija vozdejstvija na organizm malyh koncentracij serougleroda [in Russian]
Results of more than 10,000 carbon disulfide determinations in the air of viscose rayon spinning rooms and of medical examinations in 380 workers exposed to CS2 and 390 controls. Morbidity (automatic disturbances, polyneuritis, hypertension) was markedly higher in the exposed group. In studies in rats (exposure to 1, 10 and 100mg/m3) prolonged inhalation of the 2 lower levels caused functional and pathological changes (red and white blood cell counts, haemoglobin). Consequences of this chronic exposure included gonadotrophic effects in females, seen as disturbances of the oestrus cycle. Reduction of the Soviet TLV from 10 to 1mg/m3 is proposed.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1976, No.5, p.25-28. Illus. 8 ref.
Ajtbaev T.H., Almanijazova V.M., Abylkasymova A.S.
Isolated and combined effects of low concentrations of hydrogen fluoride and sulfur dioxide in chronic experiments
Izolirovannoe i kombinirovannoe dejstvie malyh koncentracij ftoristogo vodoroda i sernistogo angidrida v uslovijah hroničeskogo ėksperimenta [in Russian]
White rats were exposed to 0.25 and 0.5mg/m3 (the Soviet TLV) of hydrogen fluoride and to 5 and 10mg/m3 (the Soviet TLV) of sulfur dioxide for 6h daily for 4 months. Rats inhaling only one of the gases showed an increase in haemoglobin and reduced oxygen consumption and enzyme disturbances. The results in the rats inhaling both gases indicated a synergistic effect of these substances.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1976, No.5, p.6-10. 11 ref.
Franco G., Malamani T., Pozzi U.
Preclinical changes in contractile efficiency of the myocardium as an early sign of carbon-disulfide poisoning
Alterazioni precliniche dell'efficienza contrattile del miocardio come segno precoce di intossicazione solfocarbonica [in Italian]
18 subjects with an average exposure to 10-60mg/m3 carbon disulfide (CS2) of 18 years at a viscose fibre manufacturing plant were studied. There were no clinical or functional signs of cardiopathy. They showed characteristic changes in the systolic intervals of the left ventricle: reduction of the left ventricular ejection phase and prolongation of the isometric contraction time. A defect in the mechanical performance of the heart is considered responsible. Possible interference of CS2 at various biochemical levels is discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, 1976, Vol.67, No.5, p.483-495. Illus. 76 ref.
Antweiler H., Brockhaus A.
Respiratory frequency, flowrate and minute volume in non-anaesthetised guinea-pigs during prolonged exposure to low concentrations of SO2 and NO2.
Guinea-pigs were exposed to 10mg/m3 SO2, NO2, or a combination of both, for up to 6 months. There was no significant change in respiratory rate, flow rate or minute volume, or in weight gain. Discussion.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, July 1976, Vol.19, No.1, p.13-16. 12 ref.
Survival experience of a cohort of carbon disulphide exposed workers from an eight-year prospective follow-up period.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality was studied in 343 men from a viscose rayon factory in Finland, with >5 years' exposure. CHD mortality was >2-fold that of matched controls. Life expectancy at 25-54 years was 2 years shorter. Mortality had decreased since protection measures had been instituted, reducing exposure to <10ppm. It appears that such measures can lessen CHD mortality in formerly excessively exposed workers.
International Journal of Epidemiology, 1976, Vol.5, No.2, p.179-185. Illus. 12 ref.
Moore D.E., Smith T.J.
Measurement of protection factors of chemical cartridge, half-mask respirators under working conditions in a copper smelter.
The ratio between average sulfur dioxide concentrations sampled simultaneously outside and inside the respirator mask, the protection factor, was calculated for 3 common respirators. The factors were 22, 18 and 13. The sampling units, data collection and statistical analysis were discussed. The protection was poor; respirator strap tension, facial hair and work activities are significant among the factors that decrease protection during work.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1976, Vol.37, No.8, p.453-458. 7 ref.
H50, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Prevention Association, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJ.
Mixed acid (nitric-sulphuric acid mixtures).
Details are given of uses of nitric-sulfuric acid mixtures, hazards, fire precautions, fire fighting, relevant British regulations, source of further information, physical and chemical properties.
Fire Prevention, Sep. 1976, No.115, p.49-50.
Levaggi D.A., Zerrudo R., Karels G., Oyung W., Feldstein M.
An integrated manual impinger method for the simultaneous determination of NOx and SOx in source effluents.
A manual procedure is outlined which utilises an alkaline permanganate sampling train for the simultaneous collection of nitrogen and sulfur oxides from stationary sources. Dependent on anticipated concentration, samples of up to an hour's duration may be taken. Analysis of the collected NOx and SOx is simple, accurate and fast. For oxides of nitrogen, the collected nitrites are converted to nitrates. The total nitrate is then reduced to nitrite, diazotised and coupled to form a red dye. This is all accomplished with a commercial reagent. The sulfur oxides are determined by the turbidimetric barium sulfate procedure. Data are shown comparing the proposed method from numerous types of emission sources, both with accepted methods and newer instrumental techniques. The ability to sample simultaneously for NOx and SOx has many advantages, i.e. power plants, boilers, and other sources where both gases are of interest for compliance and/or source inventory purposes.
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, Aug. 1976, Vol.26, No.8, p.783-786. Illus. 7 ref.
Tanner R.L., Newman L.
The analysis of airborne sulfate - A critical review.
The current state of analytical methodology for airborne sulfate is reviewed. Methods for determination of total aerosol sulfur (X-ray fluorescence, reduction and determination as hydrogen sulfide, electron spectroscopy and flame photometry) and total soluble sulfate (wet chemical methods) are assessed. A more detailed review of the newer techniques for determination of airborne sulfate follows (thermal volatilisation, solvent extraction, gas phase ammonia titration, miscellaneous and auxiliary analytical methods). Size distribution methods and filter sampling difficulties with the particles are enumerated. Experiments are suggested which use new, improved and potentially applicable determination techniques to obtain a better understanding of the generation, transport, transformation and removal processes, that, in turn, determine the identity and concentrations of sulfate species in ambient air.
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, Aug. 1976, Vol.26, No.8, p.737-747. 130 ref.
Dangwal S.K., Kadam V.T., Metkari M.A.
Optimum aeration rate while determining low concentrations of carbon disulphide in urine of rayon workers.
A brief note on the selection of the optimum rate of aeration when determining the quantity of free carbon disulfide excreted in the urine of viscose workers. As this quantity is usually very small, certain precautions must be taken if reliable results are to be obtained. It is recommended to use one midget impinger to absorb the gas liberated by aeration, to maintain an aeration rate of 300ml/min during 20min and to use a multiplication factor of 2 to obtain the amount of CS2 actually present in the urine.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1976, Vol.37, No.2, p.123-124.
Sugimoto K., Goto S., Hotta R.
An epidemiological study on retinopathy due to carbon disulfide - CS2 exposure level and development of retinopathy.
Methods and results of an ophthalmoscopic study in 289 workers with exposure to carbon disulfide in a viscose-rayon staple plant, and 49 controls, are described. Workers having either a diabetic family history or exposure to organic solvents were excluded. Retinal abnormalities characterised by microaneurysms, haemorrhages and exudates were found in 89 (30.8%) of the exposed workers and 2 (4.1%) of the controls. Results clearly showed an increasing prevalence of retinopathy with increasing duration and concentration of CS2 exposure. The retinopathy progressed through 4 stages of a classification used by the authors. They propose the name "retinopathia sulfocarbonica" for these retinal abnormalities.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 28 Apr. 1976, Vol.37, No.1, p.1-8. Illus. 11 ref.
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