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Inorganic sulfur compounds - 587 entries found

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CIS 11-0093 Soskolne C.L., Jhangri G.S., Scott H.M., Brenner D.R., Siemiatycki J., Lakhani R., Gérin M., Dewar R., Miller A.B, Risch H.A.
A population-based case-control study of occupational exposure to acids and the risk of lung cancer: Evidence for specificity of association
Occupational exposure to strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid has been recognized as a carcinogen (Group 1) since 1992. An augmented, secondary data analysis of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer was conducted to assess lung cancer-specific risks using 772 lung cancer cases diagnosed between 1981 and 1985. Individually matched controls on age, gender, and area of residence were identified. Lifetime exposure to 10 acidic agents, including strong inorganic acids and some gases, was assessed from complete lifetime occupational histories in terms of concentration, frequency, and reliability of the various exposure assessments. Smoking-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined for overall and histology-categorized lung cancers using conditional logistic regression. No excess risk for overall lung cancer was associated with any of the acids, and effect modification by gender could not be identified.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.1-8. 24 ref.
A_population-based_case-control_study.pdf [in English]


CIS 11-0072 Morii D., Miyagatani Y., Nakamae N., Murao M., Taniyama K.
Japanese experience of hydrogen sulfide: The suicide craze in 2008
Most of hydrogen sulfide poisoning in Japan involved industrial accidents. However, since January 2008, a burgeoning of suicide attempts using homemade hydrogen sulfide gas has become evident. By April 2008, the fad escalated into a chain reaction nationwide. Mortality of the poisoning was very high. There were 220 cases of attempted gas suicides during the period of March 27 to June 15, killing 208. An introduction of new method of making the gas, transmitted through message boards on the internet, was blamed for this "outbreak". The new method entailed mixing bath additive and toilet detergent. The National Police Agency instructed internet providers to remove information that could be harmful. Of the victims of the fad in 2008, several cases were serious enough that family members also died. Paramedics and caregivers were also injured secondarily by the gas.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 5:28, 3p. Illus. 3 ref.
Japanese_experience.pdf [in English]


CIS 09-1244 Jhun H.J., Lee S.Y., Yim S.H., Kim M.J., Park K.K., Cho S.I.
Metabolic syndrome in carbon disulfide-poisoned subjects in Korea: Does chemical poisoning induce metabolic syndrome?
Mass carbon disulfide (CS2) poisoning was reported at a viscose rayon factory in Korea. This study evaluated the association between CS2 poisoning and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The 170 CS2-poisoned subjects participated in a health examination conducted at a hospital. The 170 controls were selected randomly from the participants of a Korean national health survey. Metabolic syndrome was defined as simultaneously having at least three of following metabolic abnormalities: abdominal obesity; elevated triglyceride; reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; elevated blood pressure; elevated fasting glucose levels. After adjusting for age, gender, education, marital status, alcohol consumption and smoking, CS2-poisoned subjects had an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (prevalence ratio 1.57).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2009, Vol.82, No.7, p.827-832. 26 ref.

CIS 09-888 Serinken M., Karcioglu O., Evyapan F., Sungurtekin H.
Bilateral pneumothorax following acute inhalation injury
A male worker in an upholstery factory in Turkey was confined in the tanning machine for 15 min. On admission into hospital, he was confused with Glasgow coma scale score of 9. His vital signs were as follows: blood pressure 80/58 mmHg; pulse rate 114; respiratory rate 30 bpm; temperature 37.1°C; oxygen saturation 48%. Chest X-ray and bronchoscopy showed lung injury that warranted bilateral tube thoracotomy. The patient was discharged without any sequelae after eight days. Exposure to irritant gases such as sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide can cause severe pulmonary injury.
Clinical Toxicology, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.595-597. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 09-413 Stingeni L., Bianchi L., Lisi P.
Occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from potassium metabisulfite
This article describes the case of a 37-year-old non atopic male agricultural worker with a five-year history of erythema, swelling and scaling on the face. This condition occurred after the grape harvest and persisted through the period of grape fermentation in the wine cellar, during which the patient added potassium metabisulfite to the must to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms and wine oxidation. Patch testing resulted in positive reactions potassium and sodium metabisulfites. When away from work, the dermatitis spontaneously healed in 10 day and there were no relapses when the patient was assigned to other duties in the same vineyard.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2009, Vol.60, No.1, p.52-53. 10 ref.


CIS 08-1293 Chou T.C., Chang H.Y., Chen C.J., Yu H.S., Wu J.D., Sheu S.C., Shih T.S.
Effect of hand dermatitis on the total body burden of chromium after ferrous sulfate application in cement among cement workers
Ferrous sulfate has been added to cement to reduce the prevalence of dermatitis in workers. The objective of this study was to compare the urinary chromium levels before and after ferrous sulfate addition among cement workers with or without hand dermatitis. Thirty-five male workers were recruited in this study for two consecutive years: 2003 without using ferrous sulfate and 2004 after adding ferrous sulfate. Urinary chromium was used as a biomarker to estimate the total body burden of chromium. Urinary chromium concentration showed significant decreases after ferrous sulfate addition. Furthermore, a larger decrease of urinary chromium was observed among workers with hand dermatitis. It is concluded that ferrous sulfate decreases the total body burden of chromium, especially among workers with severe hand dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2008, Vol.59, No.3, p.151-156. 25 ref.


CIS 09-1323 Lee J.A., Thorne P.S., Reynolds S.J., O'Shaughnessy P.T.
Monitoring risks in association with exposure levels among wastewater treatment plant workers
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to hydrogen sulfide and endotoxins, and health symptoms among wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) workers. The exposure levels for specific tasks were measured by personal monitoring. Data on health symptoms were collected by means of questionnaires. Higher risks of respiratory, ocular and skin irritation, neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms were found among WWTP workers compared with unexposed workers. Tasks related to sludge handling and plant inspection showed statistically significant associations with memory and concentration difficulties, throat irritation and stomach pain.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1235-1248. Illus. 57 ref.

CIS 08-758
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Supplementary reports XI (Nos. 2,11a,11b,13,83,85)
Ergänzungsberichte XI [in German]
This document includes translations of supplementary reports, finalized between October 1985 and February 1992, relating to six substances (o-chlorobenzene, m-chlorobenzene, p-chlorobenzene, nonylphenol, carbon disulfide and chloranil) evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to ecotoxicological aspects and the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. Toxic effects in humans are reported.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. 286p. (German); 240p. (English). Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 63.00.

CIS 08-152 Chang S.J., Chen C.J., Shih T.S., Chou T.C., Sung F.C.
Risk for hypertension in workers exposed to carbon disulfide in the viscose rayon industry
This study assessed the hypertension risk for male rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2). A total of 251 exposed workers and 226 unexposed administrative clerks at two rayon plants in Taiwan received health examination and interviews. CS2 levels were measured in air at the worksite. Hypertension was more prevalent among exposed workers (43.4%) than among controls (7.1%) with greater impact on systolic blood pressure than diastolic. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant dose-response relationship between hypertensive risk and cumulative exposure index, with an odds ratio of 15.1 for workers exposed to 343-468 ppm-years of CS2. The overall risk was 7.6 times higher for rayon workers. The risk increased significantly after more than 10 years of employment, suggesting that it takes a long exposure period to develop hypertension for rayon workers with CS2 exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.50, No.1, p.22-27. Illus. 24 ref.


CIS 07-906 Dosne R.
Unusual fire in a sulfur tank
Incendie atypique sur un bac de soufre [in French]
This article describes a fire that occurred in a sulfur tank located in a sulfuric acid plant in the industrial area of a French port. Topics addressed: causal factors (heat wave, lightning); propagation; intervention of firefighting services; organization of the plant's safety services; lessons learned.
Face au risque, Dec. 2006, No.428, p.28-32. Illus.

CIS 07-252 Sodium hydrosulfite
Hidrosulfito de sodio [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for sodium hydrosulfite. The substance is a flammable solid which may ignite in the presence of humidity or air; there is a violent reaction in contact with water. Inhalation may cause severe irritation of the mucosa and upper respiratory tract; very high concentration may cause pulmonary oedema. Ingestion may cause abdominal pain, depression of the central nervous system and death. Contact with the skin causes irritation and skin burns at high concentrations. The substance causes eye irritation and may cause burns and possible eye damage. Prolonged exposure may result in allergic reactions.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2006]. 4p. Illus.

CIS 07-172 Chang S.J., Chang H.Y., Shih T.S., Chou T.C., Chen C.J., Chen P.C., Sung F.C.
Electrocardiographic abnormality for workers exposed to carbon disulfide at a viscose rayon plant
This study investigated electrocardiography (ECG) manifestations for male workers with carbon disulfide exposure at a Taiwanese rayon manufacturing plant. A total of 251 men in the exposed group and 226 controls underwent physical examinations and completed questionnaires. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was much higher in the exposed group (25.9%) than in the reference group (2.7%), with an odds ratio (OR) of 12.8. Foremen were at the highest risk of abnormal ECG (OR=20.6), followed by filament-spinning workers (OR=14.2), viscose manufacturing workers (OR=11.3), and carbon disulfide-manufacturing workers (OR=8.1). Multivariate logistic regression analysis based on cumulative exposure index also showed a dose-response relationship, and the risk of ECG abnormality could be initiated at an exposure history of 31 to 57ppm-years, with an OR of 7.2. The ECG abnormalities observed among workers exposed to permissible levels of carbon disulfide highlight the importance of environmental control of the chemical and of workers' education in exposure prevention at work.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.48, No.4, p.394-399. 22 ref.


CIS 07-180 Guba C., Kuhlmann G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Pollution by sulfuric acid in pickling workshops
Belastung durch Schwefelsäure in Beizereien [in German]
Sulfuric acid is widely used, in particular for treating metal surfaces. Workers in pickling workshops are exposed to sulfuric acid aerosols that have corrosive effects on the skin and the respiratory tract. In this study involving 156 pickling workshops, worker exposure was evaluated by means of ambient and breathing air sampling. Findings showed that most workshops were in compliance with threshold limit values. Measures aimed at limiting worker exposure to sulfuric acid (increase in ventilation flow, local exhaust) were proposed in several cases where MAK values were exceeded.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2005. 52p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: EUR 9.50.,xv=vt.pdf [in German]

CIS 06-756 Carbon disulfide
Disulfuro de carbono [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet on carbon disulfide. Contents: synonyms and chemical formula; exposure limit (ACGIH threshold limit value of 10ppm TWA; skin absorption); health hazards (neurotoxic effects, irritation, cardiovascular effects, skin burns, dermatitis); first aid; fire prevention; measures in the event of spills; handling and storage; control of exposures and personal protection; physical and chemical properties; stability and reactivity; toxicological and ecological data; waste disposal; transport.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Bogotá, Colombia, ca 2005. 4p. Illus.

CIS 06-663 Vermeulen R., Jönsson B.A.G., Lindh C,H., Kromhout H.
Biological monitoring of carbon disulphide and phthalate exposure in the contemporary rubber industry
Urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxyl acid (TTCA), a metabolite of carbon disulfide (CS2), and phthalic acid (PA), a metabolite of phthalates, were studied across factories and departments in the rubber industry. Spot urine samples from 101 rubber workers employed in nine factories were collected on different days. Levels of both biomarkers increased significantly during the working week compared to Sunday. Levels of both biomarkers did not differ markedly between working days. Increases seemed to be restricted to specific factories and or departments, such as moulding and curing. Findings confirm that rubber workers are exposed to various levels of phthalates and CS2 depending on the specific conditions of the factories and departments. Biological monitoring appears to be a reliable means of evaluating exposures to these substances.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.78, No.8, p.663-669. 22 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-255 Cézard C., Mathieu-Nolf M.
Organo-sulfur compounds
Dérivés organiques soufrés [in French]
Organo-sulfur compounds include a wide variety of substances such as mercaptans, sulfides, sulfoxides, benzothiazoles, sulfates, thioureas and sulfones. They are used in the chemical industry and in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, crop protection and chemical warfare (for example as mustard gas). Signs of toxic effects frequently occur in occupational settings. Localized toxic effects are observed for many of the substances that are irritants. Their systemic toxicity is highly variable. Some are sensitizers (sulfides, sulfoxides, sulfates), mutagens (some sulfides in particular), carcinogens (mustard gas) or have been shown to have teratogenic effects in experimental animals (dimethyl sulfoxide).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2005, No.149, 9p. 132 ref.


CIS 04-154 Hendrickson R.G., Chang A., Hamilton R.J.
Co-worker fatalities from hydrogen sulfide
Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that can cause rapid loss of consciousness and respiratory depression without warning. There have been cases of hydrogen sulfide poisoning among workers in numerous industries. This article presents the results of a review of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the 52 occupational deaths related to hydrogen sulfide recorded between 1993 and 1999. Deaths were most commonly reported in workers who were white (85%), male (98%) and in their first year of employment with the company (48%). Common industries included waste management, petroleum and natural gas. In 21% of cases, a co-worker died simultaneously or in the attempt to save others. Proper training and education on the warning signs of hydrogen sulfide may help reduce worker fatalities.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.45, No.4, p.346-350. Illus. 29 ref.


CIS 06-1009 Sulfuric acid
Existing Chemicals Information Sheet. A Worksafe Australia study has concluded that the highest levels of exposure to sulfuric acid are in lead-acid battery manufacturing, and control of exposure could be effective with the use of enclosure and ventilation. Exposures in electrolytic refining of metals are also relatively high, and could be reduced by mist suppression agents, enclosure and ventilation. However, respiratory protection may be required in situations where these measures are not feasible. Exposures from other uses are considered low. Overall, the primary health effects of the chemical are due to the corrosive and irritating nature of the acid. This causes direct local effects on the skin, eyes, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract when there is exposure to sufficient concentrations. The extent of the direct toxicity of the chemical depends on the length of exposure, humidity (both in the environment and respiratory tract) and presence of other chemicals (such as bases) that may neutralize the acid. Exposure limit in Australia (NOHSC 1995, 8h TWA): 1mg/m3.
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, 2003. 6p. 11 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-113 Luo J.C.J., Chang H.Y., Chang S.J., Chou T.C., Chen C.J., Shih T.S., Huang C.C.
Elevated triglyceride and decreased high density lipoprotein level in carbon disulfide workers in Taiwan
The aims of this study were to examine the dose-response relationship of carbon disulfide (CS2) exposure and triglyceride and lipoprotein levels in 132 exposed workers recruited from two viscose rayon plants. Air sampling was performed to determine the CS2 exposure of workers. Demographic data and work history were gathered by self-administered questionnaires. Lipid profile tests were performed by routine methods. The average CS2 exposure concentration was 50.6±25.6ppm in the high-exposure group, 12.9±5ppm in the mid-exposure group, and 3.5±1.2ppm in the low-exposure group. In the high, medium and low exposure groups, elevated triglyceride levels were found in 21 out of 33 workers, 27 out of 64 workers and 14 out of 35 workers, respectively. There was a lower prevalence of elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) level in high CS2 exposure workers versus low-exposure workers (15.2% vs. 31.4%). This study suggests that elevated triglyceride level and decreased HDL level are associated with CS2 exposure. The study also suggests that exposure to CS2 concentrations of above 23.2ppm are significantly associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.73-78. 31 ref.

CIS 05-371 Jhun H.J., Yim S.H., Kim R., Paek D.
Heart-rate variability of carbon disulfide-poisoned subjects in Korea
Mass poisoning by carbon disulfide (CS2) occurred in a viscose factory in Korea affecting 830 employees and causing 38 fatalities. This case-control study evaluated the heart-rate variability (HRV) among CS2-poisoned subjects, to examine whether CS2 affects HRV and whether the effects persist after cessation of exposure. Cases comprised 71 retired male workers with CS2 poisoning, while controls comprised 127 public officials matched by age with no history of organic solvent exposure or cardiovascular diseases. Data on personal habits and medical and occupational histories were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires. Both groups were also subjected to medical examinations, including ECG recordings. Findings suggest that CS2 may cause heart-rate impairment and that its toxic effects persist well after cessation of exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2003, Vol.76, No.2, p.156-160. 32 ref.

CIS 03-1761 Koksal N., Hasanoglu H.C., Gokirmak M., Yildirim Z., Gultek A.
Apricot sulfurization: An occupation that induces an asthma-like syndrome in agricultural environments
The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure on the airways of the workers involved in apricot sulfurization. SO2 levels in air were measured on 15 apricot farms, while the symptom scores of 69 workers were recorded before, during and after SO2 exposure. Physical examination and pulmonary function tests of the workers were also done prior to and after exposure periods. The measured SO2 concentrations ranged between 106.6 and 721.0ppm. Dyspnoea (80%), cough (78%) and eye and nose irritation (83-70%) were the most commonly observed symptoms. The workers had significant decreases in pulmonary functions after SO2 exposure. Decrements in FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, and FEF25-75% showed that the acute effect of SO2 on pulmonary functions of the workers was mostly of the obstructive kind. It is concluded that acute exposure to SO2 induces "asthma-like syndrome" in apricot sulfurization workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.43, No.4, p.447-453. 39 ref.

CIS 03-1087 Chou C.H.S.J.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Hydrogen sulfide: Human health aspects
Conclusions of this criteria document: tolerable concentrations for hydrogen sulfide of 100µg/m3 and 20µg/m3 respectively are based on respiratory effects for short-term (exposure durations of 1-14 days) and medium-term (exposure up to 90 days) inhalation exposures. The odour threshold of hydrogen sulfide varies depending on individuals (mean 11µg/m3). At concentrations greater than 140µg/m3 olfactory paralysis occurs, making hydrogen sulfide very dangerous. Health effects in humans include death, and respiratory, ocular, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and reproductive effects (spontaneous abortion).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2003. iv, 35p. 153 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-536 Rosenberg N.
Persulfates and sulfites
Perfulfates et sulfites [in French]
Persulfates and sulfites are sulfur-containing salts that find use because of their strong chemical reactivity. Persulfates are potent oxidizing agents, mainly used as bleaching accelerators in hairdressing. They may be responsible for contact dermatoses and respiratory symptoms (rhinitis and asthma) that are listed in French schedules of occupational diseases. Sulfites are used for their reducing properties in laundries, paper pulp manufacture, tanning, dyeing, industrial water treatment and photography. They constitute the food additives of the series E220 to E228 and are included as preserving agents in many medical drugs. They may give rise to intolerance symptoms during ingestion or inhalation (rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, Quincke's oedema or anaphylactic shock). The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined a daily admissible level for sulfites in food. Respiratory symptoms that appear in the context of occupational exposures to sulfites are listed in the schedules of occupational diseases.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2003, No.138, 3p. 28 ref.

CIS 03-303 Grasel S.S., Alves V.A.F., da Silva C.S., Cruz O.L.M.., Almeida E.R., de Oliveira E.
Clinical and histopathological changes of the nasal mucosa induced by occupational exposure to sulphuric acid mists
The aim of this study was to assess potential alterations of the nasal mucosa by clinical and histopathological evaluation of workers exposed to sulfuric acid mists at anodizing plants and to correlate the findings with duration of exposure and sulfuric acid concentrations in the air. A total of 52 workers from five plants underwent a clinical evaluation (standard questionnaire, clinical, and ear, nose and throat examination including nasal endoscopy). For the histopathological study, 20 of the 52 subjects (study group) were randomly selected, as well as 11 unexposed subjects (control group), matched by sex, age and smoking habit. Nasal biopsy specimens were obtained from the anterior septum mucosa. The histopathological study revealed squamous metaplasia in 79% and atypia in 5% of the study group samples. No association was found between exposure duration and the clinical and histopathological variables, but a significant association was found between sulfuric acid concentrations higher than 200µg/m3 and pale mucosal patches and ulcerations in the exposed subjects. Logistic regression analysis showed that the exposed subjects had a fivefold risk of developing atypia compared with the unexposed subjects. The risk for histopathological lesions increased with higher sulfuric acid concentrations in the air, revealing an exposure-response relation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.60, No.6, p.395-402. Illus. 20 ref.


CIS 05-523 Skowroń J., Puchalska H.
Potassium persulfate dust
Peroksodisiarczan(VI) potasu-pyły [in Polish]
The main routes of occupational exposure for potassium persulfate are inhalation and skin absorption. Frequent skin rashes, causing both irritant dermatitis and hypersensitivity reactions, were found in workers producing potassium persulfate. Cases of asthma following occupational exposure to persulfates have been reported in hairdressers. Despite the absence of toxicity study data, potassium persulfate is expected to be as irritating as ammonium persulfate. Consequently, a study on rats exposed to up to 21mg/m3 of ammonium persulfate for seven days is the basis of the occupational limit. Rats exposed to 4mg/m3 of ammonium persulfate exhibited symptoms of lung inflammation and/or oedema and loss of body weight. These effects were not significant at exposures of 1mg/m3, which was adopted as the no observed adverse effect level value. Given these data, the threshold limit value (time-weighted average) was calculated to be 0.1mg/m3. No short-term exposure limit value has been determined.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.33, No.3, p.195-205. 18 ref.

CIS 03-1780 Olin A.C., Granung G., Hagberg S., Adriansson M., Brisman J., Dalander O., Karlsson B., Torén K.
Respiratory health among bleachery workers exposed to ozone and chlorine dioxide
A total of 129 bleachery workers in two Swedish pulp mills that use ozone for bleaching were studied together with 80 non-exposed controls. The pulp mills had previously used chlorine dioxide as the bleaching agent. Participants responded to questionnaires and were subjected to spirometry and methacholine challenge testing. Area sampling showed sporadic ozone levels exceeding 0.9ppm. There was a greater prevalence of wheezing (25%) among the bleachery workers with a history of gassings than among the referents (13%). Among current smokers, the proportion with a slightly increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was greater among the bleachery workers. For the period from 1992 to 1996 when the mills were using ozone, there was an increased incidence rate of wheezing among the workers in the bleachery. This finding reinforces the view that repeated peak exposures to irritants must be prevented in pulp mills.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2002, vol.28, No.2, p. 117-123. 28 ref.

CIS 03-539 Newhook R., Meek M.E., Caldbick D.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Carbon disulfide
Conclusions of this criteria document: the nervous system appears to be the critical target for carbon disulfide (reduced conduction velocity and impaired psychomotor performance). Other effects include irritation of the skin and eyes, alterations in serum lipids and blood pressure that are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, systemic opthalmological effects (effects on colour vision, damage of blood vessels of the retina) and, with higher exposures, increased mortality from heart disease. Several reports indicate decreased libido and/or impotence in males occupationally exposed to high concentrations, but there is no evidence of adverse reproductive effects. Data from animal studies indicate that carbon disulfide is embryotoxic and foetotoxic; no carcinogenic effects have been reported.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 42p. Illus. 192 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-280 Göen T., Müller J., Angerer J., Drexler H.
Determination of carbon disulfide at the workplace by sampling on charcoal tubes - Problems and solutions
The aim of the study was to check the reliability and comparability of different analytical methods for ambient monitoring of carbon disulfide (CS2). A stationary sampling system, consisting of a charcoal sampling tube and pump, and two personal sampling systems, consisting of a charcoal sampling tube and a portable pump and of a diffusive charcoal sampler were compared. For passive sampling, the recovery was determined by three different techniques. For a sampling time of six hours, the limit of quantification was 0.2ppm for the personal sampling and 0.01ppm for the stationary sampling system. The within-series precision was between 5 and 8%. For personal sampling, the between-series precision was between 9 and 12% using a passive sampler. The recovery ranged between 45 and 85% depending on the quotient of eluent volume and charcoal mass. The comparison of the two personal sampling methods in a field study using linear regression showed an excellent concordance of the methods. However, it was found that the method for determining air levels of CS2 by passive sampling was associated with high systematic errors, resulting in the possibility of highly underestimated CS2 exposure data.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.63, No.5, p.659-663. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 97-51 Chromosulfuric acid
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. Corrosive effects to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause skin allergy.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p. [in English]


CIS 02-1252 Band P.R., Le N.D., Fang R., Astrakianakis G., Bert J., Keefe A., Krewski D.
Cohort cancer incidence among pulp and paper mill workers in British Columbia
In a cohort of male pulp and paper workers in British Columbia (Canada), 1756 cancer cases were observed in the period 1950-1992. The results of the analysis suggest that long-term work in the pulp and paper industry is associated with excess risks of prostate and stomach cancers and all leukaemias for work in workers engaged in both the kraft and the sulfite processes, and of rectal cancer for work in the sulfite process only.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.113-119. 33 ref.

CIS 02-1251 Andersson E., Hagberg S., Nilsson T., Persson B., Wingren G., Torén K.
A case-referent study of cancer mortality among sulfate mill workers in Sweden
To investigate whether workers in Swedish sulfate pulp mills have an increased risk of death from certain malignancies, 2480 men aged 40-75 at death during 1960-89 in the parishes surrounding four sulfate mills were studied. Exposure assessment was based on information from the personnel files in the mills. It was observed that among all sulfate mill workers, the odds ratio (OR) for death from lung cancer was 1.6, pleural mesotheliomas 9.5, brain tumours 2.6, and liver or biliary tract cancer 2.3. There was an increased mortality from leukaemia among workers in the soda recovery plant (5.9) and bleaching plant and digester house (2.8). In conclusion, sulfate mill workers were at increased risk of dying from lung cancer and pleural mesotheliomas, probably due to exposure to asbestos. Increased risks of brain tumours and cancers of the liver or biliary tract were also found but the aetiology is not obvious.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.58, No.5, p.321-324. 24 ref.

CIS 02-820 Lee J.Y., Yoo J.M., Cho B.K., Kim H.O.
Contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians
This study investigated the frequency, characteristics and causative factors of contact dermatitis in 49 Korean dental technicians. 22 (44.9%) subjects had contact dermatitis, present or past, and the site involved was the hand for all of them. Metals, including potassium dichromate (24.5%), nickel sulfate (18.4%), mercury ammonium chloride (16.3%), cobalt chloride (12.2%) and palladium chloride (10.2%), showed high positive rates in patch test results. 7 positive reactions to the various polyacrylates were found in 3 subjects.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.13-16. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 02-845 Goyer N., Lavoie J.
Emissions of chemical compounds and bioaerosols during the secondary treatment of paper mill effluents
Measurements were taken in summer in 11 Canadian paper mills during a 2- to 3-day period in each mill and identified and quantified the main chemical compounds and the bioaerosols emitted during the biological treatment of paper mill effluents. Sulfur compounds had the highest concentrations in the air. Next were the carbon and nitrogen oxides, ammonia, some organic acids and terpenes, which come from wood. Odour perception thresholds for most of these substances are much lower than those established to protect the health of workers. Gram-negative bacteria were high at only one site, whereas the mould Aspergillus fumigatus was occasionally present at low concentration. The highest concentrations were measured where there was water or dust aerosolization. Emissions are managed by controlling the operations that lead to the dispersion of water and particles into the air and through the wearing of personal protective equipment. Stringent personal hygiene measures remain the best means of prevention for bioaerosols.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.330-341. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 02-810 Pepłońska B., Sobala W., Szeszenia-Dąbrowska N.
Mortality pattern in the cohort of workers exposed to carbon disulfide
To assess the mortality of workers at a viscose factory exposed to carbon disulfide, 2762 male workers employed for at least one year between 1950 and 1985 were enrolled into the study. Total mortality in the cohort was higher than in the general male population in Poland (SMR = 108). A significantly increased risk of deaths was observed for all cardiovascular (SMR = 114) and cerebrovascular (SMR = 208) diseases. Analyses showed a significantly elevated risk of death from the circulatory system diseases in the men of the "highly exposed" group (those employed in the spinning department or first employed before 1974). A statistically-significant trend of mortality from all cardiovascular diseases in relation to the level of exposure (assessed qualitatively) was evident. No clear relationship between duration of exposure and the risk of death was found.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2001, Vol.14, No.3, p.267-274. 29 ref.


CIS 03-294 Fuller D.C., Suruda A.J.
Occupationally related hydrogen sulfide deaths in the United States from 1984 to 1994
There is no unique code for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning in the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. Therefore, fatalities due to H2S poisoning cannot always be identified easily. In this investigation, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) investigation records were reviewed for the period 1984 to 1994 for mention of hazardous substance 1480 (H2S). This allowed the highlighting of the occurrence of 80 fatalities from H2S in 57 incidents, with 19 fatalities and 36 injuries among coworkers attempting to rescue fallen workers. Only 17% of the deaths involved enterprises covered by collective bargaining agreements. OSHA issued citations for violation of respiratory protection and confined space standards in 60% of the fatalities. The use of H2S detection equipment, air-supplied respirators and confined space safety training would have prevented most of the fatalities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.42, No.9, p.939-942. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 01-57 Decanting of a tank truck: Acids and caustic soda
Dépotage d'un camion: acide et soude [in French]
Training material for persons required to make presentations on the safety of tank truck decanting operations involving sulfuric acid or caustic soda, containing an audio cassette, 74 slides and corresponding scripts and notes. The sequence of events is described, from the arrival of the tank truck on the site until its departure: administrative formalities; preliminary precautions prior to the operation; decanting procedures; procedures in the event of an incident. Safety rules applicable to each step in the process are highlighted.
AIX-Audio-Visuel, Chemin de la Blaque, 131000 Aix-en-Provence, France, no date. 25p. Illus. (+audio cassette et 74 slides).

CIS 00-497 Kapias T., Griffiths R.F.
Health and Safety Executive
Modelling the behaviour of spillages of sulphur trioxide and oleum: Further work
The objective of this research project was to investigate theoretically the behaviour of spillages of sulfur trioxide (SO3) and oleum (mixture of SO3 and sulfuric acid H2SO4) and to develop a model describing the behaviour of the resulting cloud. The parameter principally governing the spill behaviour is the amount of water available for reaction. Cloud behaviour is mostly affected by wind speed, vapour evolution rates, atmospheric stability and atmospheric relative humidity.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 2000, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 63p. Illus. 54 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 97-27 Mercurous sulfate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. May cause "shakes", irritability, sore gums, memory loss, increased saliva, personality change, brain damage, kidney damage, skin allergy and grey skin colour. Irritates the skin, eyes and respiratory tract.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1993, 2000. 6p. [in English]

CIS 97-23 Mercuric sulfate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. May cause "shakes", irritability, sore gums, memory loss, increased saliva, personality change, brain damage, kidney damage, skin allergy and grey skin colour. Irritates the skin, eyes and respiratory tract.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1993, 2000. 6p. [in English]

CIS 97-22 Mercuric subsulfate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. May cause "shakes", irritability, sore gums, memory loss, increased saliva, personality change, brain damage, kidney damage, skin allergy and grey skin colour. Irritates the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. May damage the eyes.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1993, 2000. 6p. [in English]


CIS 02-1089 Ammonium bisulfite
Bisulfite d'ammonium [in French]
Hidrogenosulfito de amonio [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Toxicity: decomposes on heating or on contact with acids producing toxic fumes including sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and ammonia.
English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. [in French] [in Spanish] [in English]

CIS 01-1141 Jedrychowski W.
Ambient air pollution and respiratory health in the east Baltic region
Air pollutants of primary concern to human health in the east Baltic region include particulate matter and sulfur dioxide. Exposure to elevated levels of nitrogen dioxide and ozone is also widespread. Coal-fired power and heavy industrial plants constitute major sources of air pollution. Domestic heating with coal causes high local levels in some areas. The rapid growth of motor vehicle traffic results in increased emissions. Several epidemiologic studies performed in the east Baltic region, mainly in Poland, have documented an association between air pollution exposure and adverse health effects, primarily in the respiratory tract. The associations were mainly seen for particulates or sulfur dioxide, and thus they confirmed the findings from other parts of Europe and the United States.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.5-16. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 01-422 Macchioni P., Kotopulos C., Talini D., De Santis M., Masino E., Paggiaro P.L.
Hairdresser's asthma: Five case reports
Asma dei parrucchieri: descrizione di 5 casi [in Italian]
This paper reports five cases of bronchial asthma in hairdressers exposed to bleaching dusts containing potassium and ammonium persulfate. All subjects complained of asthmatic symptoms and were examined for nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. They also underwent skin prick tests for common allergens, maximal expiratory volume monitoring during two weeks at work, specific bronchial challenge (SBC) test with bleaching dust, and assessment of airway inflammation by induced sputum tests. None of the subjects were atopic and all subjects were negative for skin prick tests. All were hyperreactive to methacholine and positive to SBC. Pharmacological treatments in combination with reduced occupational exposure reduced symptoms.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.90, No.6, p.776-785. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 00-472 Hirsch A.R., Zavala G.
Long term effects on the olfactory system of exposure to hydrogen sulphide
Chronic effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on cranial nerve I (nervi olfactorii) have been only minimally described. In this study, chemosensations (smell and taste) were evaluated in eight men who complained of continuing dysfunction 2-3 years after the start of occupational exposure to H2S. Various bilateral (both nostrils) and unilateral (one nostril at a time) odour threshold tests with standard odorants as well as the Chicago smell test, a three-odour detection and identification test and the University of Pennsylvania smell identification test, and a series of 40 scratch and sniff odour identification tests were administered. Six of the eight patients showed deficits of various degrees. Two had normal scores on objective tests, but thought that they continued to have problems. H2S apparently can cause continuing, sometimes unrecognized olfactory deficits. Further exploration into the extent of such problems among workers exposed to H2S is warranted.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.56, No.4, p.284-287. 15 ref.

CIS 00-477 Knoblauch A., Steiner B.
Major accidents related to manure: A case series from Switzerland
Data on 61 serious accidents related to manure exposure in Switzerland between 1951 and 1995 were analysed. 44 were due to inhalation of manure gas, 11 involved falls into manure containers and six were methane explosions. There were 105 victims in all, with 49 fatalities, including 12 in which persons attempting to rescue primary victims died. 37 persons survived gas poisoning. There were 15 successful rescues and four cases in which primary victims saved themselves. The main danger is that of gradual or sudden manure gas intoxication, which is often fatal. However, almost a third of the accidents were due to falls into manure containers or manure gas explosions. Accidents in which victims of gas poisoning regained consciousness and saved themselves are also reported. Analysis of the accident circumstances confirms the importance of strict observation of existing safety guidelines with respect to both structural design and working practices. Specific measures at the scene can substantially increase the chances for survival of both primary victims and would-be rescuers.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.177-186. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 00-53
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for hydrogen sulfide
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of respiratory tract, skin and eyes; frostbite; respiratory impairment (dyspnoea, pulmonary oedema, respiratory failure); cardiovascular effects; gastrointestinal effects (nausea, vomiting); haematological effects; metabolic effects; neurotoxic effects (headaches, insomnia, neurobehavioural changes, tremors, convulsions, loss of appetite, fatigue, poor memory, dizziness, irritability); reproductive effects (spontaneous abortions).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, July 1999. xix, 179p. Illus. approx. 450 ref.

CIS 99-1241 Milby T.H., Baselt R.C.
Hydrogen sulfide poisoning: Clarification of some controversial issues
Data on the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide are reviewed. It is concluded that: certain neurotoxic effects of exposure are probably due to a direct toxic effect on the brain, while others are almost certainly a result of hypoxia secondary to H2S-induced respiratory insufficiency; pulmonary oedema is a common consequence of poisoning and there is suggestive evidence of hyperactive airway responses in some individuals following brief H2S-induced unconsciousness (knockdown); criteria for acceptable community levels are very different than those governing occupational standards; urinary thiosulfate determinations can be useful for monitoring occupational exposure; and determination of sulfide ion concentrations in blood or major organs can be useful in corroborating a diagnosis of fatal H2S toxicity, but there are many pit-falls in collecting, storing, and analyzing tissue and fluid samples. Topics: acute poisoning; hydrogen sulfide; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure tests; hypoxia; limitation of exposure; lung diseases; neurotoxic effects; pulmonary function; pulmonary oedema; thiosulfates; urine monitoring.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.192-195. 34 ref.


CIS 02-1062 Falcy M., Hesbert A., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P.
Lead and its inorganic compounds
Plomb et ses composés minéraux [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. CD-ROM version of the document already analysed as CIS 99-1783. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; haemolytic anaemia; cytologic hepatic damage; neurological effects (intracraneal hypertension and convulsive coma) which may leave sequelae. Chronic toxicity: haematological effects (anaemia); effects on the digestive tract (deposits of lead); neurological effects (convulsive coma, sensitive-motor neuropathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis); renal damage; high blood pressure; bone damage; effects on reproduction; carcinogenic effects (lung and stomach cancer). Exposure limits (France): 150µg/m3 (mean value over 40 hours expressed as lead). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.231-100-4 (lead), No.082-001-00-6 (lead monoxide); T, R61, R62, R20/22, R33, S53, S45, 215-267-0 (lead monoxide). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 8p. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 01-674 Potassium metabisulfite
Métabisulfite de potassium [in French]
Metabisulfito de potasio [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: inhalation may cause asthmatic reactions. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated contact may induce skin sensitization; repeated or prolonged inhalation exposure may cause asthma. No TLV has been established.
Internet site:, 1993-1998. Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain. 2p.

CIS 00-51
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the respiratory tract; respiratory impairment; chemical burns to skin and eyes; dental erosion; laryngeal cancer.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Dec. 1998. xix, 189p. Illus. approx. 340 ref.

CIS 00-49
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for sulfur dioxide
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the skin and eyes; pneumotoxic effects, including oedema and bronchoconstriction (the respiratory tract is the primary target system for sulfur dioxide toxicity); haematological effects, including methaemoglobinaemia; neurological effects; cytogenic effects; chromosome aberrations.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Dec. 1998. xix, 185p. Illus. approx. 560 ref.

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