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Phenols and phenolic compounds - 225 entries found

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  • Phenols and phenolic compounds

1994

CIS 95-632 Appel K.E.
On the carcinogenicity of pentachlorophenol
Zur kanzerogenen Wirkung von Pentachlorphenol [in German]
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been widely used in industry, agriculture, and in homes as a pesticide and herbicide. It finds its widest use in wood impregnation. Data on the carcinogenicity of PCP are reviewed. The substance is carcinogenic in B6C3F1-mice. In addition, there is evidence that some metabolites of PCP are genotoxic. Epidemiologic studies have not provided proof or disproof of a carcinogenic effect in humans. The present exposure limit of 1µg/m3 air recommended by the German Bureau of Health is on the safe side on the basis of present knowledge.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Aug. 1994, Vol.37, No.8, p.334-341. 61 ref.

CIS 95-235 Littorin M., Hansson M., Rappe C., Kogevinas M.
Dioxins in blood from Swedish phenoxy herbicide workers
This brief communication presents the results of a follow-up study of 5 workers employed between 1964 and 1978 in a Swedish factory which produced chlorophenoxy herbicides and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Blood plasma analysis indicated that the workers had much higher levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD) than did five referents. A relationship was observed between employment time and values of TCDD. Values of other dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and of non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were also higher in the workers.
Lancet, 27 Aug. 1994, Vol.344, No.8922. p.611-612. 5 ref.

1993

CIS 96-1969 2-Chlorophenol
Data sheet. 2-Chlorophenol may enter the body by inhalation or through the skin. May damage the kidneys, liver and central nervous system. Burns the skin and eyes.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1993. 6p.

CIS 96-1968 3-Chlorophenol
Data sheet. 3-Chlorophenol may enter the body by inhalation or through the skin. It has corrosive effects on the eyes and the skin. May damage the kidneys, the liver and the central nervous system.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1993. 6p.

CIS 95-65 Phenol, 2,3,6-trichloro-,
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; no data are available on this isomer, but a mixture of trichlorophenols may cause toxic effects on the central nervous system. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; a related substance, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, is possibly carcinogenic in humans.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-64 Phenol, 2,3,5-trichloro-
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; no data are available on this isomer, but a mixture of trichlorophenols may cause irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract and acute toxic effects on the central nervous system. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; a related substance, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, is possibly carcinogenic in humans.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-63 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1852 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorophenol
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and upper respiratory tract. No data available on this isomer, but a mixture of tetrachlorophenols may cause toxic effects in the liver and central nervous system.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1497 Pentachlorophenol sodium
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); may affect the lungs, liver and kidneys.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-995
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Pentachlorophenol
Cases of acute toxicity have been reported following inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP). Symptoms of intoxication include: weight loss, dizziness, mental disorientation, accelerated pulse and breathing, increased body temperature and effects on the central nervous system. Long-term effects of occupational exposure include irritation of the skin, eyes and nasal mucous membranes, chloracne and symptoms such as exhaustion, neuralgia and hepatic dysfunction, chronic porphyria and toxic myocarditis.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1993. xv, 147p. 369 ref. Price: DEM 72.00.

CIS 94-317 Kauppinen T., Kogevinas M., Johnson E., Becher H., Bertazzi P.A., De Mesquita H.B.B., Coggon D., Green L., Littorin M., Lynge E., Mathews J., Neuberger M., Osman J., Pannett B., Pearce N., Winkelmann R., Saracci R.
Chemical exposure in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols and in spraying of phenoxy herbicides
Exposure patterns are reported for manufacturing and sprayer cohorts incorporated in the "IARC International Register of Workers exposed to Phenoxy Herbicides and Contaminants". Information was based on company questionnaires, company reports, plant visits, and serum 2,3,7,8-TCDD measurements. In addition to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols, workers in manufacturing plants may have been exposed to raw materials, process chemicals, other agents synthesized or formulated, and impurities of all these agents. Sprayers also had a complex exposure pattern, including phenoxy herbicides and some other pesticides, their carriers and additives, and residues of chemicals formed during manufacture. Biological monitoring and industrial hygiene data were rarely available, most since the late 1970s. Exposure of workers depended mainly on the jobs they performed. A quantitative exposure classification is not feasible in this study. Semiquantitative exposure estimates may be derived through a critical interpretation of biological monitoring and industrial hygiene data together with individual work histories.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.23, No.6, p.903-920. 15 ref.

CIS 94-209 Cheng W.N., Coenraads P.J., Hao Z.H., Lui G.F.
A health survey of workers in the pentachlorophenol section of a chemical manufacturing plant
During 1968 to 1985, 109 workers who had been engaged in the production of pentachlorophenol, using non-gamma isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) as the raw material, were surveyed. Endemic chloracne among them had been noted since 1974. The prevalence of chloracne was 73.4% (80/109) in total and 95.2% (20/21) in a trichlorobenzene (TCB) tank area where dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels were thousands of ppm. It seems that PCDDs and PCDFs have not previously been reported from thermal decomposition of BHC. Urinary porphyrins were significantly higher among exposed workers than among the controls but there was no significant difference between the workers with chloracne and those without. The conduction velocities of the median motor nerves were much slower among the workers in the TCB tank area where the highest PCDD contamination appeared. The mortality study cohort was relatively young. Based on the three deaths observed during the follow-up, no association could be drawn.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1993, Vol.24, No.1, p.81-92. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 94-30 2,4-Dichlorophenol
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; systemic poisoning.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 93-1648 Hansen L.E.
Commission of the European Communities
Occupational exposure limits. Criteria document for phenol
Review of the available literature on the toxicology of phenol. Few data are available on human exposure; most reports are case histories from accidents, mostly with dermal exposure and from medical use of phenol. The substance is readily absorbed (possible in lethal amounts) through the skin, both as vapour and from aqueous solutions. It is corrosive to the skin and eyes, and inhalation causes irritation of the respiratory tract. The primary effects of acute accidental exposure are on the liver and kidney. Long-term occupational exposure may lead to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1993. v, 59p. ca.170 ref. Price: ECU 7.50.

CIS 93-1274 Bas Bueno de Mesquita H., Doornbos G., van der Kuip D.A.M., Kogevinas M., Winkelmann R.
Occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols and cancer mortality in the Netherlands
A cohort of 2,310 workers from two plants who manufacture and prepare chlorophenoxy herbicides in the Netherlands was followed during the periods 1955-1985 and 1965-1986, respectively. In 1963, there was an industrial accident in one factory with concomitant release of dioxin into the environment. Mortality data on 963 exposed and 1,111 nonexposed men were evaluated by external and internal comparison. Compared with national rates, total mortality (94 deaths, SMR = 101; 95% confidence interval [CI], 82-124) and cancer mortality (31 deaths, SMR = 107; 95% CI, 73-152) for exposed workers were not significantly increased. A statistically insignificant increase was observed for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was no increase in either total mortality in cancer mortality among the 139 workers probably exposed to dioxins during the 2,4,5-trichlorophenol production accident. Compared with nonexposed workers, exposed workers did not exhibit a higher total mortality. Mortality due to all cancers and respiratory cancer was not significantly elevated. These findings suggest that the increases in cancer mortality among workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols may be attributable to chance.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.23, No.2, p.289-300. 20 ref.

1992

CIS 96-946 Maroni M.
Threshold limit values for chemicals in the workplace
Valori limite di esposizione ad agenti chimici negli ambienti di lavoro [in Italian]
Data sheets and toxicological profiles are presented for benzene, pentachlorophenol, arsenic, vanadium, tetraethyllead, tetramethyllead, xylene, toluene and cadmium. The information includes teratogenicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenic effects and threshold limit values (including those for the US and Italy) taken from the reviewed literature.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.4, No.3, p.39-73. 69 ref.

CIS 94-246 Stewart P.A., Herrick R.F., Feigley C.E., Utterback D.F., Hornung R., Mahar H., Hayes R., Douthit D.E., Blair A.
Study design for assessing exposures of embalmers for a case-control study - Part I. Monitoring results
To quantify exposure levels for a study of embalmers, a series of embalmings was performed using an experimental design to determine the effect of certain work parameters on the concentration of airborne contaminants. Personal exposures and area concentrations of formaldehyde, methanol, phenol, and particulates were measured during 25 embalmings while controlling the level of ventilation, the concentration of embalming solution, and the type of case (autopsy or intact body). In addition, bischloromethyl ether (BCME) and selected microorganisms were measured during a few embalmings. Personal formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.31 to 8.72ppm for full-period exposures (51-121min). Methanol levels ranged from 0.54 to 21.83 ppm. Particulate mass concentrations were low, and measurable phenol levels were observed in only 40% of procedures. Airborne microorganisms were also found to be at low levels and no BCME was detected. Ventilation played the most important role out of the three controlled variables.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1992, Vol.7, No.8, p.532-540. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 94-109 Phenol
Phénol [in French]
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema (delayed effects); central nervous system, liver and kidney disorders. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; kidney and liver damage.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-108 Pentachlorophenol
Pentachlorophénol [in French]
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of skin and eyes; corrosive to the respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; heart failure. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; disorders of the central nervous system, lungs, liver and kidneys.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 93-911 Kintz P., Tracqui A., Mangin P.
Accidental death caused by the absorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol through the skin
A fatality resulting from skin absorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol is presented. A 33 year-old male disposing of industrial waste was splattered over portions of his right thigh and right arm with a pure solution of the chemical. Less than 10% of his body surface was contaminated. Within 20 minutes he experienced a seizure and collapsed. The compound was quantified using gas chromatography and confirmation was obtained with mass spectrometry. Blood concentration was 24.3mg/L. Other drugs, including ethanol, were not detected.
Archives of Toxicology, Apr. 1992, Vol.66, No.4, p.298-299. 7 ref.

1991

CIS 98-1132 Phenol
Fenol [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0070 (CIS 91-1451). International Chemical Safety Card. Topics: blindness; cardiological effects; caustic substances; central nervous system; chemical burns; chemical hazards; coma; convulsions; data sheet; delayed effects; dermatitis; elimination of spills; environmental pollution; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; hepatic damage; IPCS; labelling; neurotoxic effects; phenol; pulmonary oedema; renal damage; respiratory insufficiency; skin absorption; Spain; storage; threshold limit values; translation; waste disposal.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 97-1469 2,3,6-Trichlorophenol
2,3,6-Triclorofenol [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 8-0590. International Chemical Safety Card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; no data are available on this isomer, but a mixture of trichlorophenols may cause toxic effects on the central nervous system. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; a related substance, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, is possibly carcinogenic in humans.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 97-1468 2,3,5-Trichlorophenol
2,3,5-Triclorofenol [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 8-0589. International Chemical Safety Card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; no data are available on this isomer, but a mixture of trichlorophenols may cause irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract and acute toxic effects on the central nervous system. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; a related substance, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, is possibly carcinogenic in humans.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 97-1467 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol
2,3,4-Triclorofenol [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 8-0588. International Chemical Safety Card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Data on the health effects of this substance are insufficient.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 96-468 3-Chlorophenol
3-Clorofenol [in Spanish]
Spanish version of future IPCS ICSC 0150. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 95-1607 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorophenol
2,3,5,6-Tetraclorofenol [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 8-0573. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and upper respiratory tract. No data are available on this isomer, but a mixture of tetrachlorophenols may cause toxic effects in the liver and the central nervous system.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 93-565 Thind K.S., Karmali S., House R.A.
Occupational exposure of electrical utility linemen to pentachlorophenol
Exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) by electrical utility linemen was monitored over a six-month period. Urine samples were collected from two groups, plus one control group. Group A was required to use new gloves after each four-week work period; Group B changed gloves as per normal operating procedure. The results showed that the linemen experienced a seasonal exposure pattern with exposures peaking in July and August. This seasonal effect was also observed with glove contamination data. The glove contamination levels were significantly associated with urine PCP concentrations when both these variables were expressed as geometric means for the individuals in Group A. Over the study period, the difference in long-term exposures of Group A and Group B linemen was not statistically significant. The long-term individual exposures, calculated as the geometric mean of each individual's sequential sample readings, were all below the biological monitoring guideline value of 1000µgPCP/g creatinine.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1991, Vol.52, No.12, p.547-552. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 93-51 Nonyl phenol
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-748 Hexachlorophene
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); blindness; respiratory arrest; cardiovascular disturbances. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; asthma; neurotoxic effects resulting in brain damage, blindness and death; may impair male fertility; may cause birth defects and retarded development of the new-born.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-571
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Nonylphenol
Conclusions of this critera document, translation of a German report published in Jan. 1988: no information is available on the adverse effects of nonylphenol in humans. It is known to cause severe local irritation to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes of experimental animals. Ecotoxicity data. Legislative requirements in Germany.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, D-W-6940 Weinheim, Germany, 1991. 53p. 70 ref.

CIS 92-395 4-Chloro-meta-cresol
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; larynx oedema; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); hepatic and renal damage. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; effects on the lungs; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); hepatic and renal damage.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-224 Saracci R., Kogevinas M., Bertazzi P., Bueno de Mesquita B.H., Coggon D., Green L.M., Kauppinen T., L'Abbé K.A., Littorin M., Lynge E., Mathews J.D., Neuberger M., Osman J., Pearce N., Winkelmann R.
Cancer mortality in workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols
This paper reports a historical cohort study of mortality in an international register of 18,910 chlorophenoxy herbicide production workers or sprayers from 10 countries. Exposure was reconstructed through questionnaires, factory or spraying records and job histories. A non-significant increase, based on 4 observed deaths, was noted for soft-tissue sarcoma. Increased risks were found for some uncommon neoplasms, but results are difficult to interpret because of the small numbers. The excess of soft-tissue sarcomas among sprayers is compatible with a causal role of chlorophenoxy herbicides but the excess does not seem to be specifically associated with those herbicides probably contaminated by the toxic dioxin TCDD.
Lancet, 26 Oct. 1991, Vol.338, No.8774, p.1027-1032. 35 ref.

1990

CIS 91-1451 Phenol
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema (delayed effects); central nervous system, liver and kidney disorders. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; kidney and liver damage.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 91-1450 Pentachlorophenol
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of skin and eyes; corrosive to the respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; heart failure. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; disorders of the central nervous system, lungs, liver and kidneys.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 91-1631
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol
No reliable human data exist relating to exposure to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and adverse health effects. Animal studies show that long-term exposure results in changes in liver and spleen cells and decreased body weight. Long-term high-level exposure results in death in some animals and long-term oral exposure causes animal cancer. Glossary.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Dec. 1990. xi, 119p. Illus. ca.350 ref.

CIS 91-1279 Seminar on nonylphenolethoxylates (NPE) and nonylphenol (NP)
Proceedings of a seminar on nonylphenolethoxylates (NPE) and nonylphenol (NP) held in Saltsjöbaden, Sweden, 6-8 February 1991. Papers cover: EPA's chemical testing program for NP; use pattern of NPEs and their application properties; health effects; toxicity of 4-nonylphenol to aquatic organisms and potential for bioaccumulation; aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation and photo-oxidation; behaviour of nonylphenol polyethoxylates and their metabolites in mechanical-biological sewage treatment; environmental occurrence and behaviour of alkylphenol polyethoxylates and their degradation products in rivers and groundwaters; behaviour in sludge treated soils and in landfills; environmental aspects of ethoxylates based on alkylphenol and primary alcohols; products to replace NP.
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SNV), Information Department, 171 85 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 265p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 91-907 O'Malley M.A., Carpenter A.V., Sweeney M.H., Fingerhut M.A., Marlow D.A., Halperin W.E., Mathias C.G.
Chloracne associated with employment in the production of pentachlorophenol
To evaluate the association between exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the occurrence of chloracne, the medical and personnel records for individuals employed in the manufacturing of PCP were studied. Forty-seven cases of chloracne were identified among 648 workers (7%) assigned to PCP production at a single plant between 1953 and 1978. No linear trend in the risk of chloracne was observed with the duration of employment. Workers with a documented episode of direct skin contact with PCP had a significantly increased risk of chloracne compared with workers who did not have such an episode. Results confirm that chloracne is associated with exposure to PCP contaminated with hexachlorinated, heptachlorinated, and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.17, No.4, p.411-421. 23 ref.

1989

CIS 91-1116
National Board of Labour Protection (Finland)
Phenol
Translation into English of the chemical safety information sheet described in CIS 89-95. Exposure limit: 19mg/m3. Toxicity: is rapidly absorbed through skin; it severely corrodes the skin, the eyes and the mucous membranes of the digestive system; the vapour corrodes the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract; lung damage; long-term exposure affects the central nervous system and causes renal damage; can cause eczema. Mandatory European labelling: T, R24, R25, R34, R38, S2, S28, S44, S23, S38, S46.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1989. 2p.

CIS 91-540 Paradowski M., Roczek E., Tkacz B., Dworniak D.
Increase in antipyrine clearance in workers exposed to phenol and toluene in the petrochemical industry
In 90 workers of the petrochemical industry occupationally exposed to a mixture of petroleum derivatives, including 60 persons exposed mainly to phenol and 30 to toluene, the metabolic activity of the liver was examined using the antipyrine test. In both groups of subjects, an increase of antipyrine clearance in saliva was observed. Occupational exposure to lipophylic derivatives of petroleum seems to induce the function of liver microsomal enzymes.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.2, No.3, p.229-237. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 91-226
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Chlorophenols other than pentachlorophenol
In the manufacture of chlorophenols, clinical symptoms associated with exposure include eye, nose and airway irritation, dermatitis, chloracne and porphyria. Abnormal liver function tests, changes in brain wave activity, and slowed visual reaction time have been reported in association with high-level exposure. In sawmill workers, sodium tetrachlorophenolate exposures have caused numerous cases of dermatitis and respiratory irritation. Epidemiological studies show conflicting results relating cancer incidence and mortality to occupational exposure.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 208p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Price: CHF 22.00.

1988

CIS 90-1244 Kostrodymov N.N., Lifljand L.M.
Hygienic significance of air pollution with tobacco dust
Gigieničeskoe značenie zagrjaznenija vozdušnoj sredy tabačnoj pyl'ju [in Russian]
This literature survey presents in concise form data on tobacco production at home and abroad, chemical composition of tobacco and health effects of tobacco dust on experimental animals and tobacco industry workers. Nicotine, pesticide residues and flavourants seem to be the main health hazards in the industry. Experimental data on animals are consistent with field observations on humans. Female tobacco workers often suffer late toxaemia of pregnancy, abnormal pregnancy interruptions and weakness in labour. Infants born to exposed mothers more frequently show signs of asphyxia and congenital anomalies at birth than those of control women. Tobacco workers suffer allergic disorders in the form of allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, hepatitis and asthma. Occupational exposure to tobacco dust also affects the cardiovascular system (strong palpitation, heartache, dyspnoea). Arterial hypertension, hypotension, S-A bradycardia, tachycardia and arrhythmia have also been observed. The data call for further probing of the biological effects of tobacco dust, hygienic evaluations of tobacco manufacturing undertakings' environmental conditions and working out of measures for controlling atmospheric pollution by these undertakings.
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1988, No.7, p.60-62. 39 ref.

CIS 90-546 Bruze M., Almgren G.
Occupational dermatoses in workers exposed to resins based on phenol and formaldehyde
During December 1985 and February 1986, an investigation was carried out on skin diseases among workers in a plant producing decorative equipment built of paper sheets impregnated with resol resins based on phenol and formaldehyde (P-F-R) . A questionnaire was sent to all 238 employees and its was completed by 218 (91.6%). Previous and current dermatoses were reported by 98 workers and 89 of these were examined and patch tested. The patch testing was conducted with a standard test series and products from the working environment and revealed contact alllergy to P-F-R in 9 persons and to formaldehyde in 1. Besides these 10 individuals with occupational allergic contact dermatitis, occupational dermatoses were diagnosed in an additional 20 workers; irritant contact dermatitis in 19 and chemical burn in 1. In total, the figure for occupational dermatoses was 30 (12.6%).
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1988, Vol.19, No.4, p.272-277. 21 ref.

CIS 90-53 Phenol
Fenol [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 5mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1988. 2p.

CIS 90-274 Schwab R.F.
Explosion and fire at a phenol plant
Description of events that occurred in a phenol production plant in 1982 in the USA; determination of the causes; preventive measures.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Oct. 1988, No.83, p.28-32. Illus.

CIS 89-1926 Mariotti F., Mastri E., Gori R., De Capua B., Franzinelli A.
Formaldehyde and phenol risk conditions in a laminated wood factory
Condizioni di rischio da formaldeide e fenoli in una fabbrica di compensati [in Italian]
Environmental exposure to formaldehyde and phenols was measured in a laminated wood factory using urea-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde-melamine-phenol glues. Two groups of workers identified having different levels of risk: Group A exposed to a low level of environmental pollution employed on bark removal and sheeting of trunks, sorting, cutting and drying of wood sheets; Group B exposed to higher pollution levels, employed on gluing, pressing, filling, squaring, storage and transport of laminates. The results showed that the workers in Group A were exposed to a mean formaldehyde concentration of 0.027mg/m3 and a mean phenol concentration of 0.042mg/m3. The workers in Group B were exposed to mean concentrations of 0.189mg/m3 of formaldehyde and 0.081mg/m3 of phenol. In the Group B workers there was a significantly higher prevalence of irritative disorders of the conjunctiva, throat and skin. The greater prevalence of objective findings concerning chronic conjunctivitis and alterations in vocal chord motility are consistent with this result. A synergic mechanism of formaldehyde and phenol in producing the irritative effect cannot be excluded.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1988, Vol.79, No.6, p.468-473. 11 ref.

CIS 89-1479 Phenol
Fenol [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; skin absorption; renal damage; neurotoxic effects; respiratory disorders.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Avda Caracas, No.75, 75 Bogotá, Colombia, 1988. 2p.

CIS 89-597 Schmidt P.
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsmedizin der DDR
Biological monitoring methods in occupational medicine
Biologische Kontrollmethoden in der Arbeitsmedizin [in German]
Manual for occupational health care personnel and inspectors. Chapters cover: the value of laboratory diagnosis to the occupational physician; biological exposure tests as a component of medical surveillance of workers exposed to harmful substances; toxicological bases of exposure assessment; exposure to substances in the general environment as a part of total exposure; principles of genetics applicable to the evaluation of exposure tests; recognition and evaluation of carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and embryotoxic substances; variations in the pollution of workplace air; sampling; the analytical laboratory; assessment of the reliability and validity of biological exposure tests; properties, analysis and monitoring of 21 substances or groups of substances.
VEB Volk und Gesundheit, Berlin, German Democratic Republic, 1988. 464p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 88-1815 Phenol
Phénol [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of the data sheet already summarised in CIS 88-758. Exposure limit (France, 1983): TWA = 19mg/m3. EEC number and labelling codes: No.604-001-00-2; T, R24/25, R34, S2, S28, S44.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1988. 4p. 17 ref.

CIS 88-1813 Pentachlorophenol and sodium salt
Pentachlorophénol et sel de sodium [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of the data sheet already summarised in CIS 88-756. Exposure limit (France, 1986): TWA = 0.5mg/m3. EEC numbers and labelling codes: No.604-002-00-8 (pentachlorophenol); No.604-003-00-3 (sodium pentachlorophenolate); T, R23/24/25, S28, S36/39, S44.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1988. 5p. 36 ref.

CIS 88-1645 Sandoval O.H., Cubillos S.O.
Protective measures during the utilisation of pentachlorophenol and sodium pentachlorophenolate
Medidas de prevención en el uso del pentaclorofenol y pentaclorofenato de sodio [in Spanish]
Contents of this information note on two substances used in Chile in the removal of stains from wood: properties; commercial products sold in Chile containing these substances; toxicological information; symptoms of poisoning; treatment; medical supervision; prevention of exposure.
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Bandera 84, Santiago, Chile, 1988. 12p. 5 ref.

CIS 88-758 Phenol
Phénol [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limits (France, 1983): TWA = 19mg/m3. Acute toxicity: is absorbed through skin; skin burns; irritation of respiratory tract; delayed pulmonary oedema; hepatic and renal damage; neurotoxic effects. Chronic toxicity: digestive, nervous and skin disorders. EEC identification number and labelling codes: No.604-001-00-2; T, R24/25, R34, S2, S28, S44.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1988. 4p. Bibl.

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