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Isocyanates - 406 entries found

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  • Isocyanates

1988

CIS 88-751 Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI)
Diisocyanate de diphénylméthane (MDI) [in French]
Chemical safety infromation sheet. Synonym: diphenylmethane diisocyanate. One page summary based on Cheminfo record No.70 and Chemical Hazard Summary No.30 from CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 1p.

1987

CIS 89-1529 Baur X.
Critical remarks on the diagnosis of isocyanate-induced asthma
Kritische Anmerkungen zur Diagnostik des Isocyanat-Asthmas [in German]
Serum samples from 160 patients with established isocyanate-induced asthma and from 25 controls were used in a study of the selectivity of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). False-positive values were attributed to the different selectivities of various reagents studied. At RAST-values above 0.35U/mL no false-positive results were obtained.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1987, Vol.22, No.12, p.291-293. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 89-1547 Alexandersson R., Plato N., Hedman B.K., Hedenstierna G.
Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylene diisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylene diisocyanate
The mean exposure to biuret-modified hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI-BT) was 115µg/m3 in the air (range 10-385µg/m3), which exceeds the time-weighted Swedish threshold level of 90µg/m3. Exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) was about 1.0µg/m3 with brief peaks. This study investigated the effects of HDI and HDI-BT on lung function and included car platers, exposed to the same solvents and grinding dust as painters, but not to isocyanates, and car mechanics, not exposed to the agents. Car painters and platers were compared to mechanics on Monday before work. Acute effects of painting were tested by comparing the lung function values on Monday morning with those on Friday afternoon. Spirometry in painters and platers did not differ from that in mechanics. Closing volume in relation to vital capacity was increased in painters, suggestive of a "small airways disease" on Monday before work and tended to increase during a work week. Platers did not differ from mechanics.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1987, Vol.42, No.6, p.367-373. 42 ref.

CIS 89-551 Kryžanovskaja N.A., Ermakova G.A., Šaronova Z.V., Volkova I.D., Ljuro S.D., Filatova V.S.
Reactivity in workers exposed to the chemical allergen tolylene diisocyanate
Reaktivnost' organizma u rabotajuščih v kontakte s himičeskim allergenom toluilendiizocianatom [in Russian]
Human body reactivity was studied in 125 healthy workers 20-40 years old, who had been exposed regularly or occasionally to tolylene diisocyanate (TDI). Exposure to TDI was associated with immune, haematological and biochemical shifts, the development of specific sensitisation during the first year of work and the subsequent development of general adaptive syndrome.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1987, No.5, p.27-30. 4 ref.

CIS 89-92 Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) and Polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate (PMPPI)
Diisocyanate de diphénylméthane (MDI) et diisocyanate de polyphénylméthane (PMPPI) [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit for MDI (ACGIH, 1987): TLV-TWA = 0.005mg/m3. Toxicity: irritation of skin and mucous membranes; chemical bronchitis and pneumonitis; pulmonary oedema; allergic asthma; dermatitis; sensitisation.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1987. 18p. 36 ref.

CIS 89-84 Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI); polyisocyanates made from HDI
Diisocyanate-1,6 d'hexaméthylène et les polyisocyanates à base de HDI [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (1987): TLV-TWA = 0.035mg/m3. Toxicity: irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; sensitisation of skin and respiratory mucous membranes.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1987. 15p. 27 ref.

CIS 88-1821 Toluene diisocyanate
Diisocyanate de toluène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (ACGIH, 1986-87): TLV-TWA = 0.4mg/m3. Toxicity: irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; allergic asthma; sensitisation of skin and respiratory system; exposure symptoms may be delayed.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1987. 28p. 31 ref.

CIS 88-1957 Fruhmann G., Baur X., Vogelmeier C., Römmelt H., Pfaller A.
Inhalation provocation tests with isocyanates in comparison with methacholine and with skin tests
Inhalative Provokation mit Isocyanaten im Vergleich mit Metacholin und mit dem Hauttest [in German]
Twenty-nine labourers with suspected isocyanates sensitivity were exposed to isocyanates vapours for up to 2h. After 25 room exposures to toluylene diisocyanates (TDI), a significant rise of the airway resistance measured by whole body plethysmography was found. A comparable elevation was found 6 times after 8 exposures to diphenylmethane diisocyanates (MDI). Eight persons exposed at their place of work already suffered an appreciable bronchial obstruction after at most 1h in TDI or MDI concentrations below the present MAC of 0.01ppm (of these, two persons even at 0.002ppm). 6 persons tested with both TDI and with MDI, 2 reacted only to MDI. Provocation with methacholine gave a "false negative" result for the exposure in 2 of 14 tests, and a "false positive" result in 1 of 6. The intracutaneous skin test produced a response in 6 of 27 exposed persons. Taking the inhalative isocyanates provocation test as a control, the skin test was "false negative" in 3 cases and "false positive" in 1 case. Single exposure for 1-2h to 0.02ppm TDI did not lead to any bronchial obstruction in 15 healthy subjects not exposed occupationally to isocyanates. Among 15 asthmatics, it produced a significant rise in airway resistance in only one third.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Apr. 1987, Vol.22, No.4, p.94-96. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 88-1674 Singh M.P., Ghosh S.
Bhopal gas tragedy: Model simulation of the dispersion scenario
The physicochemical properties of methyl isocyanate (MIC) and its biological activity, as well as the probable cause of the accident, are discussed. The role of meteorology and topography with regard to the dispersion process is also documented. To obtain an estimate of the possible concentration levels of MIC in the atmosphere, an analytic dispersion model has been formulated. The model output gives an estimate of the ground level concentration and the approximate time of arrival of the plume front in the various affected localities. Dry deposition and the aqueous phase conversion of MIC with the humid atmosphere were also featured in the model. The model results seem to be fairly well correlated with the scantily available mortality distribution records. The effects of the gas on animals, plants and humans are described.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Dec. 1987, Vol.17, No.1, p.1-22. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 88-1309 Toluene diisocyanates
This evaluation of the toxicity data includes: summary and conclusions; identity, properties, analytical methods; sources of human and environmental exposure; environmental exposure; environmental transport, distribution and transformation; environmental levels and human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms in the environment; effects on animals and in-vitro test systems; effects on man; evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment; previous evaluations by international bodies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1987. 72p. Bibl. Price: CHF 9.00.

CIS 88-925 Rando R.J., Abdel-Kader H., Hughes J., Hammad Y.Y.
Toluene diisocyanate exposures in the flexible polyurethane foam industry
A 3-year survey of toluene diisocyanate exposure in 2 flexible polyurethane foam manufacturing facilities was conducted. The geometric mean time-weighted average exposures were 2.36ppb, 1.10ppb, and 1.50ppb for the foam line workers, finishing workers and maintenance personnel, respectively. The OSHA ceiling standard of 20ppb was exceeded by 1.3% of the short-term (12min) exposure measurements taken. Exposures were predominantly to the 2,6 isomer of TDI.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1987, Vol.48, No.6, p.580-585. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 88-913 Rando R.J., Duvoisin P.F., Abdel-Kader H., Hammad Y.Y.
A sequential tape monitor for toluene diisocyanate
An electronic microcircuit controller was designed to convert a commercial continuous tape monitor for toluene diisocyanate (TDI) into a sequential sampler in order to eliminate deficiencies in response and resolution of fluctuating TDI concentrations. The modified monitor will collect up to fourteen 12-min samples per work shift. The sensitivity of the monitor was approximately doubled, but individual instrument calibrations are necessary. The modified monitor has a reliability rate of about 90%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1987, Vol.48, No.6, p.574-579. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 88-955 Organic isocyanates in air
Guidance note on a laboratory method using 1-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine solution and high performance liquid chromatography. Scope: suitable for sampling over periods of 10min-8h. Although recommended for the determination of personal exposure, the method may be used for fixed location monitoring by suitable modification. Analytical range: 7-140µg NCO/m3 for samples of 10L of air. For an 8h (30L) sample, the detection limit is 2µg NCO/m3. Aromatic amines will produce interference with the method. Additional information on organic isocyanates: properties, uses, toxicity, first aid. This guidance note is a revision of the previous MDHS with the same number published in 1983 (CIS 84-1618).
Health and Safety Executive Information and Advisory Services, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 2QY, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Mar. 1987. 5p. 12 ref. Price: GBP 1.00.

CIS 88-769 Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (2,4-TDI)
Diisocyanate-2,4 de toluène (2,4-TDI) [in French]
One-page chemical safety information sheet based on CHEMINFO record No.83 and Chemical Hazard Summary No.21 from CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 1p.

CIS 88-763 Polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate (PMPPI)
Diisocyanate de polyphénylméthane [in French]
One-page chemical safety information sheet based on CHEMINFO record No.80 and Chemical Hazard Summary No.30 from CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 1p.

CIS 88-743 Hexamethylene diisocyanate biuret (HDI Biuret)
Biuret à base d'hexaméthylène diisocyanate (Biuret à base de HDI) [in French]
One-page chemical safety information sheet based on CHEMINFO record No.94 and Chemical Hazard Summary No.28 from CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 1p.

CIS 88-742 Hexamethylene diisocyanate
Hexaméthylène diisocyanate (HDI) [in French]
One page chemical safety information sheet based on CHEMINFO record No.84 and Chemical Hazard Summary No.28 from CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 1p.

CIS 87-1453 Shristava P.
Bhopal - Anatomy of a crisis
An analysis of the Union Carbide disaster in Bhopal (India), 3 Dec. 1984, in which a large quantity of methyl isocyanate gas (MIC) leaked from a storage tank, killing thousands of people. Contents: causes and characteristics of industrial crises (in general); causes of the Bhopal disaster, including a HOT (Human, Organisational, Technological) analysis; consequences of the accident in India, the USA, and elsewhere; three models of the crisis (as seen by the Government of India, by the Union Carbide company, and by the surviving victims); suggestions for the prevention of industrial crises and for coping with them when they occur.
Ballinger Publishing Co., 54 Church Street, Harvard Square, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA, 1987. 184p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: US$19.95.

CIS 87-1360 Berardinelli S.P., Moyer E.S.
Methyl isocyanate liquid and vapor permeation through selected respirator diaphragms and chemical protective clothing
Twenty-two chemical protective clothing materials were tested against liquid methyl isocyanate (MIC); only a non-woven Nomex on Teflon can be considered as a candidate material. Viton, polyvinyl chloride and butyl clothing can be considered candidate materials against approximately 800ppm MIC vapour. Four self-contained breathing apparatus diaphragms were tested and all experienced rapid breakthrough when exposed to liquid MIC. Next, 3 SCBA diaphragms were exposed to approximately 800ppm MIC vapour. The SCBA should be worn inside a total encapsulating suit.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1987, Vol.48, No.4, p.324-329. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 87-1359 Moyer E.S., Berardinelli S.P.
Penetration of methyl isocyanate through organic vapor and acid gas respirator cartridges
This study evaluated the 2 types of respirator cartridges in order to recommend equipment for emergency protection. Penetration tests were conducted at 3 or 4 methyl isocyanate (MIC) challenge concentrations and at 3 different humidity conditions. In general, breakthrough times (1% of challenge concentration) were very short (< 20min). Also, high relative humidity decreased the breakthrough time of MIC. No air purifying respirator was recommended because of the high toxicity and lack of warning properties of MIC.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1987, Vol.48, No.4, p.315-323. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 87-828 Isophorone diisocyanate
Diisocyanate d'isophorone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxic effects: extremely irritating to the skin and mucous membranes; eczema; based on analogy with other diisocyanates, it is suspected to be the cause of allergic asthma and other bronchopulmonary diseases. Exposure limits (France, 1986): 8h TWA = 0.09mg/m3; 5min TWA = 0.18mg/m3.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 4p. 14 ref.

CIS 87-824 1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate
1,6-Diisocyanate d'hexaméthylène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxic effects: strong irritant for the skin and mucous membranes; eczema; allergic asthma; bronchopulmonary diseases. Exposure limits (France, 1986): 8h TWA = 0.075mg/m3; 5min TWA = 0.15mg/m3.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 4p. 23 ref.

CIS 87-816 4,4'-Diphenylmethane diisocyanate
4,4'-Diisocyanate de diphénylméthane [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxic effects may be delayed. Acute toxicity: irritation of mucous membranes (eyes, respiratory tract, oesophagus); neurological disorders; delayed pulmonary oedema. Chronic toxicity: sensitisation, allergic asthma, eczema, bronchopulmonary diseases. Exposure limits (France, 1986): 8h TWA = 0.1mg/m3; 5min TWA = 0.2mg/m3.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 4p. 24 ref.

CIS 87-949 Séguin P., Allard A., Cartier A., Malo J.L.
Prevalence of occupational asthma in spray painters exposed to several types of isocyanates, including polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate
The prevalence of occupational asthma was assessed in 4 paint shops of a large assembly plant where 51 employees were exposed to several types of isocyanates, including polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate (PPI). Three employees were first referred by their physician for asthma symptoms. A questionnaire was administered to the other 48 employees. Seven of these were suspected of having work-related asthma. Airway hyperexcitability to inhaled histamine was demonstrated in these 10 subjects (3 referred and 7 screened). The diagnosis of occupational asthma was confirmed in 6 subjects (3 referred and 3 screened) through specific inhalation challenges in the laboratory to a paint system component containing PPI. Thus, the prevalence of occupational asthma was 11.8% in these paint shops using several types of isocyanates, including PPI.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1987, Vol.29, No.4, p.340-344. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 87-440 Toluene diisocyanate
Diisocyanate de toluène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxic effects: chemical burns to skin and eyes on contact; irritation of the mucous membranes; neurological disorders; contact dermatitis; allergic asthma; respiratory disorders; delayed pulmonary ¿dema; bronchopneumonia; restrictive ventilatory impairment; sensitisation. Exposure limit, France (1986), TWA limit = 0.08mg/m3, ceiling limit = 0.16mg/m3.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 4p. Bibl.

1986

CIS 89-1333
Health and Safety Commission; Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Safety in the use of isocyanate pre-polymers in the printing and printed packaging industries
This guidance was adopted under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 with the aim to secure safe working conditions when materials containing organic isocyanate pre-polymers are used in the printing and printed packaging industries. It makes recommendations designed to ensure that the airborne emission of isocyanates into the workroom atmosphere is minimised and for the provision of protective equipment, when necessary, together with recommendations on the training and information that people who may be exposed to isocyanates should receive. Sections dealing with air monitoring and health assessment are also included. Other materials, such as fire safety and control of highly flammable liquids are referred to, but only to the extent that these are directly relevant to the use of isocyanate pre-polymers. In the appendices: isocyanates used in flexible packaging; decontaminants; technical and legal references.
HMSO Publication Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1986. 13p. 28 ref. Price: GBP 2.75.

CIS 89-558 Jarym-Agaeva N.T., Putilina O.N.
Photometric method of aniline and phenyl isocyanate determination in workplace air
Fotometričeskij metod opredelenija anilina i fenilizocianata v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Aniline and phenyl isocyanate are determined by rection with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde to give diphenylmethanediamine and diphenylmethane diisocyanate. Air samples are passed through absorber solutions containing the reagent. In 40% acetic acid, both aniline and phenyl isocyanate react; in 1% ammonia, only aniline reacts. The absorbance of the solutions at 430-450nm is measured and compared with the absorbance of standard solutions. Phenyl isocyanate concentration is calculated from the difference in absorbance between the acetic-acid and ammonia reaction media.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1986, No.10, p.56-57. 2 ref.

CIS 89-546 Pokrovskaja E.A., Antonjuženko V.A., Volkova I.O., Aširova S.A., Zoloto L.V., Alieva T.I.
Effects on workers of a complex of chemicals released during the preparation of polyurethane foam insulation in the manufacture of refrigerators
Vlijanie na organizm rabotajuščih kompleksa himičeskih veščestv, vydeljajuščihsja pri polučenii penopoliuretanovoj izoljacii v proizvodstve holodil'nikov [in Russian]
Hygienic studies of the working environment in shops for polyurethane foam insulation production revealed contamination with a mixture of chemicals that fall in hazard classes II-IV (dimethylethanolamine, propylene oxide, methylene chloride, 4,4-diphenylmethanediisocyanate). Medical examinations of the exposed workers demonstrated the potential risk of developing an occupational pathology. Changes in the upper respiratory tract were the major initial symptoms; later, nervous system disorders developed. These deviations in the workers' health were seen against a background of changes in their immune status.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1986, No.12, p.20-23. 6 ref.

CIS 89-545 Plastinina R.A., Pavlova G.V., Olejnik N.A., Oščepkov V.I., Šinkareva I.A.
Some parameters of respiratory function, blood, and immunity in workers handling isocyanates
Nekotorye pokazateli funkcii dyhanija, krovi i immuniteta u rabotajuščih s izocianatami [in Russian]
Medical examinations of workers engaged in plastics manufacture and exposed to isocyanates included respiratory function, blood and other laboratory tests and examination of immune status. After 3 years of isocyanate exposure the primary decompensation of functions was replaced by stable compensation. On prolonged exposure, tolerance of the allergenic action of isocyanates, with preservation of high immunological reactivity, was detected. Allergic respiratory disorders are reversible. General toxic, irritant and fibrogenic actions of isocyanates are in proportion to length of exposure.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1986, No.12, p.16-20. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 87-558 Mazur G., Baur X., Pfaller A., Römmelt H.
Determination of toluene diisocyanate in air by HPLC and band-tape monitors
An improved high-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for determining the atmospheric concentration of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). 1-(2-pyridyl)-piperazine in toluene was used as reagent absorber solution. Reversed-phase chromatography was used with a simple efficient buffer system (0.1% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile, 85:15%) in an isocratic elution mode. The TDI levels obtained with 2 identical continuous monitors were checked by using the values from HPLC as reference. Under identical experimental conditions the 2 monitors gave readings varying by >100%. At low humidity the monitor values were considerably lower than the HPLC values. At an absolute humidity of 11.7gH2O/m3 (58% relative humidity) the values of one of the monitors agreed with those from HPLC. The values obtained with these devices in the continuous monitoring of TDI concentration in places of work, or epidemiological studies, should be assessed with caution. HPLC offers a useful reference method for monitoring the accuracy of such devices.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.58, No.4, p.269-276. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 87-279 Grenouillet P., Lavenant D., Picot A., Bertin O.
Bhopal: fault-tree analysis
Bhopal: l'arbre des causes [in French]
Fault-tree analysis of the circumstances and known facts connected with the Bhopal disaster.
Préventique, Aug.-Sep.-Oct. 1986, No.10, p.17-24. Illus.

CIS 87-96 Isocyanates
Chemical identity; potential exposure; exposure limits; properties; health effects; industrial hygiene practices and control; personal protective equipment; fire, explosions, dangerous combinations; storage, spillage, disposal, transport.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, Aug. 1986. 2p.

CIS 86-1610 Wu W.S., Huang L.K., Gaind V.S.
High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of airborne isophorone diisocyanate and the authentication of analytical standards
Determination of airborne isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) has been achieved by drawing air through solutions of 1-(o-methoxyphenyl) piperazine, p-nitrobenzyl-N-n-propylamine and dibenzylamine. With each of the three solutions, IPDI yielded a stable derivative suitable for reverse-phase HPLC-UV detection. In situ derivatisation of IPDI during sampling conferred stability to the samples collected. The structures of the derivatives were authenticated by IR, NMR and elemental analysis. All derivatives were purified. Their use is proposed for calibration purposes in preference to that of extremely unstable IPDI.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1986, Vol.47, No.8, p.482-487. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 86-1671 Anderson D., Blowers S.D., Nemery B.
Investigation by the Ames test of urine samples from rats exposed to methyl isocyanate
Evidence from this animal experiment shows that metabolites of methyl isocyanate (MIC), even when exposure to MIC is high enough to produce respiratory distress, either do not reach the urine, or if they do, they are not mutagenic.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.43, No.8, p.566-567. 11 ref.

CIS 86-1546 Alexandersson R., Gustafsson P., Hedenstierna G., Rosen G.
Exposure to naphthalene-diisocyanate in a rubber plant: Symptoms and lung function
Twenty-three subjects exposed to naphthalene diisocyanate (NDI, (mean air concentration 0.002-0.007mg/m3)) were examined with regard to symptoms and pulmonary function. Irritation of the eyes, cough, and exertion dyspnoea were more common in exposed subjects than in unexposed controls. Closing volume, as a percentage of vital capacity (CV%), was 6% higher than the reference value (P=0.01) on Monday morning after 2 days with no exposure to NDI. The other lung function variables were normal. Two days of industrial exposure caused no further change in any lung function variable. The difference between measured and expected CV% increased with age in the exposed subjects. Five employees who had complained of severe symptoms during NDI exposure and who, therefore, had been transferred to other tasks with no exposure to NDI, displayed marked increases in CV% and a reduction in the forced vital capacity by an average of 0.6L. Smokers and non-smokers displayed similar lung function changes.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1986, Vol.41, No.2, p.85-89. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 86-1351 Dharmarajan V., Lingg R.D., Hackathorn D.R.
Evaluation of air-purifying respirators for protection against toluene diisocyanate vapors
Two brands of air-purifying organic vapour cartridges and a disposable respirator were tested against calibrated atmospheres containing toluene diisocyanate (TDI) at concentrations of 0.2 and 1.5ppm. A breathing pump was used to test the valveless disposable mask. There was no significant breakthrough (<0.5%) of TDI in any of the respirators tested for 40h at 0.2 ppm and 20h at 1.5 ppm. It is important to note that, at present, because the odour threshold for TDI is higher than the ceiling exposure limit (poor warning property), NIOSH and most of the respirator manufacturers do not recommend the use of air-purifying respirators in isocyanate-containing environments.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1986, Vol.47, No.7, p.393-398. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 86-1271 Brochhagen F.K., Schal H.P.
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate: The concentration of its saturated vapor
At a 50°C the concentration of the saturated vapour of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) is 1.7±0.2mg/m3. At 25°C, a concentration of 0.09mg/m3 (0.009ppm) can be expected. This is less than 50% of the exposure limit set for MDI in many countries. Application of the equation of the state of an ideal gas gave a vapour pressure of about 5-9x10-6mbar in the 20-25°C range.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1986, Vol.47. No.4, p.225-228. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 86-711 Hakes D.C., Johnson G.D., Marhevka J.S.
An improved high pressure liquid chromatographic method for the determination of isocyanates using "nitro reagent"
The chromatographic problems associated with the excess derivatising reagent, N-4-nitrobenzyl-N-n-propyamine in the commonly used HPLC method has been eliminated. An aqueous extraction removed the excess reagent without affecting the concentration of the urea derivatives. The combination of the extraction with the use of a fast LC column allowed separation and quantitation of 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediisocyanate and hexamethylenediisocyanate within 4min under isocratic conditions. Detection limits ranged from 2 to 5ng injected.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1986, Vol.47, No.3, p.181-184. Illus. 12 ref.

1985

CIS 94-670 Abraham M.
The lessons of Bhopal
This book addresses issues raised by the Bhopal disaster and provides a resource manual for community action to prevent similar accidents or limit their consequences. Contents: the Bhopal tragedy and its aftermath; response of governments, industry, international agencies and community action groups; policy issues; conclusions; prevention of future Bhopals. Appendices include: profile of methyl isocyanate; unregulated air toxins identified by the chemical industry; statements and guidelines on controlling chemical hazards issued by various organizations following the disaster (OECD, World Bank and IFC, UNEP, ILO); FAO code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides.
International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU), Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, P.O. Box 1045, Penang, Malaysia, Sep. 1985. iv, 151p. 150 ref.

CIS 94-669 Bhopal: industrial genocide?
This book contains a compilation of documents from Indian publications on the Bhopal chemical plant disaster. Topics covered: alleged government indifference and union appeals for improved safety measures at the plant; investigations into causes of the pressure build-up leading to the release of methyl isocyanate; plant design deficiencies and other factors underlying the multiple failures that led to the accident; profile of the plant owners, Union Carbide, and suggestions of dubious practices; culpability of the government and Union Carbide; multinationals in developing countries; biological and environmental effects of methyl isocyanate; pesticide hazards; legal issues arising out of the disaster; lessons for the future.
ARENA Press, Rm A4, Blk G, 2/F, Hung Hom Bay Centre, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Mar. 1985. 222p. Illus.

CIS 88-1640 Approved code of practice for safe use of isocyanates
This directive covers: interpretation and definitions; related legislation; properties; hazards and hazard classification (toxic effects); plant design; plant operation, training and safety; application of polyurethane paints and lacquers; medical requirements; threshold limit values; spillage and decontamination; safe working methods; special work permit.
Department of Labour, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand, 1985. 40p.

CIS 88-959 Aromatic isocyanates in air
Guidance note on a field method using acid hydrolysis, diazotisation and coupling with N-2-aminoethyl-1-naphthylamine. Additional information on aromatic isocyanates: properties, uses, toxicity, first aid. Scope: suitable for sampling over periods of 10min-8h. Suitable for the measurement of airborne aromatic isocyanates in a concentration range of approximately 2-200µg NCO/m3 for samples of 10L of air. For an 8h (30L) sample, the detection limit is approximately 5µg NCO/m3. Under laboratory conditions the precision of the method is about 10%. The most likely interferent with the method is an aromatic primary amine. Additional information on aromatic isocyanates: properties, uses, toxicity, first aid.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 2QY, United Kingdom, Oct. 1985. 6p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: GBP 1.00.

CIS 87-134 Toluene 2,4-diisocyanate
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazard data; use information; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemcial Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 87-109 Methyl isocyanate
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazard data; use information; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 87-97 Isophorone diisocyanate
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazard data; use information; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1616 Isocyanic acid, 3,4-dichlorophenyl ester
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1562 Toluene 2,6-diisocyanate
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1555 Ameille J., Brochard P., De Palmas J., Proteau J.
Toxicity of isocyanates in man - Analysis of the dose-effect relationship
Toxicité des isocyanates chez l'homme - Analyse de la relation dose-effet [in French]
Survey of the pathogenic effects of isocyanates on the respiratory system (irritation, asthma, chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies, hypersensitive pneumopathies). Study of dose-effect relationships based on the literature. The effectiveness of preventive efforts lies in the reduction of exposure levels and in research into less toxic substitutes.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, de médecine du travail et de sécurité sociale, 1985, Vol.46, No.6, p.385-391. 46 ref.

CIS 86-736 Nemery B., Dinsdale D., Sparrow S., Ray D.E.
Effects of methyl isocyanate on the respiratory tract of rats
Rats were exposed to methyl isocyanate at concentrations ranging 0.02/1mg/-L for a period of 1h, and at a concentration of 10mg/L for 15min. At all but the highest concentration, the effect of exposure was slow breathing, prostration, signs of eye and nose irritation, and - eventually - respiratory acidosis and moderate hypoxaemia. At the highest concentration level, 6 out of 8 rats died either during or shortly after the exposure, probably because of reflex inhibition of breathing. Animals surviving the exposure had signs of airway narrowing and development of haemorrhagic pulmonary oedema. The epithelial lesions were repaired rapidly, but residual peribronchial fibrosis and signs of renewed injury or inflammation were apparent.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1985, Vol.42, No.12, p.799-805. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 86-735 Salmon A.G., Kerr Muir M., Andersson N.
Acute toxicity of methyl isocyanate: a preliminary study of the dose response for eye and other effects
Acute toxic effects of methyl isocyanate in the rat were determined for 2h exposures to concentrations in the range 11ppm (very slight effect) to 65ppm (death due to pulmonary oedema). Non-respiratory effects included a narcotic or sedative effect producing unconsciousness at concentrations as low as 11ppm, with only minimal changes in the eyes or in the breathing rate. Effects in the eye (mostly epithelial erosions) were most pronounced at intermediate exposure levels. Following sublethal exposures, respiratory problems disappeared completely, but there was some evidence of residual neurological or pulmonary changes. When these observations are connected with those made in exposed people after the Bhopal incident, a clear relationship can be seen between animal and human data. Urinary thiocyanate concentrations in the exposed rats were lower than those in controls, indicating that conversion to cyanide did not take place.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1985, Vol.42, No.12, p.795-798. 8 ref.

CIS 86-417 Serge W.F.
The toxicity of methylisocyanate for rats
The results of previous experiments on rats are used to derive a concentration-time mortality-response relationship. Contrary to gases such as chlorine or ammonia whose lethality depends on concentration, it seems that in the case of methylisocyanate, the duration of exposure is dominant in determining the mortality response. A prolonged exposure to MIC may have therefore been the cause of the high number of victims in Bhopal in India. One should consider in this connection that MIC does not have a well recognisable odour at concentrations up to 24mg/m3.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Dec. 1985, Vol.12, No.3, p.309-311. Illus. 3 ref.

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