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Isocyanates - 406 entries found

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  • Isocyanates

1991

CIS 96-476 Naphthylene diisocyanate
Diisocianato de 1,5-naftileno [in Spanish]
Spanish version of future IPCS ICSC 0653. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; asthmatic reactions. Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization; asthma; may affect the lungs.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 93-555 Sesana G., Nano G., Baj A.
A new tool for sampling airborne isocyanates
A new sampling system is presented that uses solid sorbent media contained in a tube for the determination of airborne isocyanates (2,4-2,6 toluene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and 4,4' diaminodiphenylmethane diisocyanate). The method is compared with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method P&CAM 5505 (Revision No.1). Experimental tests yielded results that were highly concordant with the NIOSH method.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1991, Vol.52, No.5, p.183-186. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 93-235 Mapp C.E.
Adverse health effects of isocyanates
Isocianati - Effetti dannosi sulla salute [in Italian]
The paper describes the main adverse biological effects of isocyanates, particularly toluene diisocyanate (TDI). It is not intended to be simply a review of the literature but a stimulus for further investigations on the mechanism of action, chemical characterisation, environmental release, exposure, fate, health effects, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of isocyanates.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1991, Vol.82, No.4, p.328-335. 66 ref.

CIS 93-77 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: delayed effects; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; asthmatic reactions. Long term exposure effects: skin sensitisation; asthma; may affect the lungs; possible human carcinogen.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1820 Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritant; pulmonary oedema; asthma. Long term exposure effects: skin sensitisation; asthmatic reactions.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1800 Hexamethylene diisocyanate
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; asthmatic reations. Long term exposure effects: skin sensitisation; asthma.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1533 Finotto S., Fabbri L.M., Rado V., Mapp C.E., Maestrelli P.
Increase in numbers of CD8 positive lymphocytes and eosinophils in peripheral blood of subjects with late asthmatic reactions induced by toluene diisocyanate
Occupational asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate (TDI, tolylene diisocyanate) shares several features with allergic asthma, but the mechanism of action of TDI is poorly understood. Ten sensitised subjects, previously shown to develop a dual or late asthmatic reaction after inhaling TDI, were examined. In each subject, forced expiratory volume in one second was measured and venous blood was taken before, and at intervals after exposure to TDI. Filtered air was used as a control. Differential leucocyte counts were determined and phenotypic analysis was performed by immunofluorescence on mononuclear cells using monoclonal antibodies. Five subjects developed a dual asthmatic reaction and 5 had a late reaction. Percentage of CD8-positive lymphocytes increased 8h after exposure to TDI in the subjects with an isolated late reaction. The events triggered by exposure to TDI in sensitised subjects included changes in lung function and systemic effects which lasted longer than bronchoconstriction and concerned suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes and eosinophils; TDI-induced late asthmatic reactions may be associated with an immunological response to TDI or its products.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1991, Vol.48, No.2, p.116-121. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 92-1648 Boeniger M.F.
Air concentrations of TDI and total reactive isocyanate group in three flexible polyurethane manufacturing facilities
To study workers potentially exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI), surveys were conducted in two large facilities manufacturing molded flexible foam and one facility manufacturing and finishing flexible slab foam. The air sample results show that isocyanate concentrations differed from plant to plant and were probably dependent on the operations performed, engineering controls, and the physical layout of the plant. In the two molded foam facilities, many of the personal exposures were above 35µg/m3, the workshift air standard recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Pouring line workers were generally more exposed than finishing workers. However, thermal degradation of foam can release toxic substances, including TDI, into the air. This was found to occur in some of the finishing operations. Throughout the facilities, the concentration of the 2,6-isomer was found usually to be at least as great as the 2,4-isomer. Total reactive isocyanate group was determined using NIOSH method 5505.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 1991, Vol.6, No.10, p.853-858. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 91-1791 Methyl isocyanate
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; corrosive to eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; asthmatic reactions. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; asthma; respiratory diseases.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 91-1871 Moscato G., Dellabianca A., Vinci G., Candura S.M., Bossi M.C.
Toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma: Clinical findings and bronchial responsiveness studies in 113 exposed subjects with work-related respiratory symptoms
We report the clinical findings and the results of inhalation challenge with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and methacholine in 113 subjects with a history of exposure to TDI and work-related respiratory symptoms. Only some of the subjects (40.7%) had isocyanate asthma, diagnosed by a positive TDI inhalation challenge. Most reactors had a dual (30.4%) or a late (41.3%) response. The interval between the last occupational exposure and the specific challenge was significantly shorter in reactors, and among this group the number of immediate reactions to TDI decreased progressively with an increasing interval. The reactors had a significantly higher proportion of positive responses to methacholine and a significantly lower mean PD15 FEV1 (provocative dose of methacholine which provoked a 15% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second): reactors 557µg, SEM 92.3; non-reactors 1346µg, SEM 128, P < .01. Methacholine challenge could not identify subjects with isocyanate asthma.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.720-725. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 91-1278
Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter vaststelling van MAC-waarden (Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards)
Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for diisocyanates
Evaluation of the risks to human health of exposure to diisocyanates: TDI (toluene diisocyanate), MDI (diphenylmethane diisocyanate), HDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate), NDI (naphthylene diisocyanate) and IPDI (isophorone diisocyanate). Attention is given to: production, uses and occurrences; environmental and biological monitoring; occupational exposure limits in various countries; toxicokinetics; toxic effects (acute toxicity, long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity). Analysis of the data available led to the following recommended occupational exposure limits: TDI: 36µg/m3 (5ppb) TWA-8h, 145µg/m3 (20ppb) TWA-15min; MDI: 52 µg/m3 (5ppb) TWA-8h, 208µg/m3 (20ppb) TWA-15min; HDI: 35µg/m3 (5ppb) TWA-8h, 140µg/m3 (20ppb) TWA-15min; NDI: 44µg/m3 (5ppb) TWA-8h, 175µg/m3 (20ppb) TWA-15min; IPDI: 46µg/m3 (5ppb) TWA-8h, 185µg/m3 (20ppb) TWA-15min. Summary in Dutch.
Department of Social Affairs and Employment, Directorate-General of Labour (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, 1991. 70p. 123 ref.

1990

CIS 94-821 TDI
TDI [in German]
Chemical safety information sheet. Full name: tolylene diisocyanate. Risk phrases and preventive measures (European Union); fire and explosion hazards; fire fighting; storage; first aid and medical supervision; waste disposal and elimination of spills; labelling; occupational exposure limits (MAK): 0.07mg/m3 (1989).
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1990. 3p.

CIS 94-803 MDI
MDI [in German]
Chemical safety information sheet. Risk phrases and preventive measures (European Union); fire and explosion hazards; fire fighting; storage; first aid and medical supervision; waste disposal and elimination of spills; labelling; occupational exposure limits (MAK): 0.1mg/m3 (1989).
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1990. 3p.

CIS 94-1030 Isocyanates
Isocyanate [in German]
This leaflet deals with the health hazards related to exposure to aromatic and aliphatic isocyanates (diphenylmethane diisocyanate, tolylene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, naphthalene diisocyanate, diphenylmethane diisocyanate). Indications are given for labels, fire and explosion, storage, medical surveillance and first aid.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1990. 7p. Illus.

CIS 93-1633 Benvenuti F., Conte C., Forte U., Marchiori A., Monaco E., Sernia S.
Risks of exposure to isocyanates in the production and processing of polyurethane foam (Note II: Hygienic and environmental aspects connected with finishing operations)
Il rischio da esposizione ad isocianati nella produzione e lavorazione di poliuterani espansi (nota II: aspetti igienico-ambientali connessi con le operazioni di finitura) [in Italian]
The aim of this study was to verify the existence of the risk of exposure to free isocyanates during finishing operations involving polyurethane foam, to identify possible technical improvements in cutting operations, and to verify their effectiveness. Environmental sampling of isocyanate fumes was carried out by air suction and scrubbing. Samples of synthetic resin dusts were taken by air suction and filtering through micropore membrane filters. As regards the processing of rigid foams, free isocyanates are released into the atmosphere during cutting operations. Significant quantities of respirable dust are also produced. The result is a two-phase system composed of particles and isocyanate fumes. The toxicological characteristics of such a system are completely different from those of the two separate components. Hence the need to provide polyurethane finishing workshops with emission removal systems, and in particular to install aspirators and other air-cleaning equipment in the cutting zone.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 1990, Vol.2, No.2, p.22-33. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 93-1632 Benvenuti F., Conte C., Giambattistelli S., Lupini M.A., Sernia S.
Risks of exposure to isocyanates in the production and processing of polyurethane foam (Note I: Hygienic and environmental problems connected with production, technology and environmental improvement)
Il rischio da esposizione ad isocianati nella produzione e lavorazione di poliuretani espansi (nota I: problemi igienico-ambientali connessi con la tecnologia di produzione e bonifica ambientale) [in Italian]
This paper deals with problems posed by isocyanate pollution in polyurethane foam production plants with special reference to the technical and engineering aspects of the air-cleaning equipment. The results of environmental surveys demonstrate the need to install adequately sized aspirators, in function of the particular distribution of pollution sources connected with the production process.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 1990, Vol.2, No.2, p.10-19. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 92-1976 Lee H.S., Wang Y.T., Phoon W.H., Poh S.C.
Occupational asthma due to isocyanates in Singapore
Nine cases of occupational asthma due to isocyanates are described. The isocyanates involved include: toluene diisocyanate, diphenyl-methane diisocyanate and polyisocyanates. The importance of asking the occupational history in a patient with asthma is illustrated and the importance of early diagnosis and removal from further exposure is discussed.
Singapore Medical Journal, 1990, Vol.31, p.434-438. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 92-1306 Rosenberg N., Gervais P.
Respiratory infections due to organic isocyanates. 2. Prevalence, diagnosis, development and prevention of respiratory allergy
Affections respiratoires dues aux isocyanates organiques. 2. Prévalence, diagnostic, évolution et prévention de l'allergie respiratoire [in French]
The respiratory pathology of organic isocyanates is the subject of 2 information notes on respiratory allergy studies. The first note covers the chemistry of isocyanates and their physiopathological implications (abstracted under the reference CIS 92-1305). This second note deals with medical aspects associated with occupational activity: prevalence among exposed workers (asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma-alveolitis), diagnosis at work, confirmation by specialists, development, medical and technical prevention, compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.391-395. 46 ref.

CIS 92-1305 Rosenberg N., Gervais P.
Respiratory infections due to organic isocyanates. 1. The chemistry of isocyanates and their physiopathological implications
Affections respiratoires dues aux isocyanates organiques. 1. La chimie des isocyanates et ses implications physiopathologiques [in French]
This first part looks at the chemistry of isocyanates in order to understand most of the difficulties encountered in the study of the respiratory consequences of the inhalation of these molecules, in particular the current uncertainties in their physiopathology and in the perfecting of a reliable and harmless diagnostic test. The prevalence, diagnosis and development of respiratory allergy and its prevention are the subject of the second part (see CIS 92-1306).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1990, No.43, p.227-232. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 92-190 Andersson N., Ajwani M.K., Mahashabde S., Tiwari M.K., Kerr Muir M., Mehra V., Ashiru K., Mackenzie C.D.
Delayed eye and other consequences from exposure to methyl isocyanate: 93% follow up of exposed and unexposed cohorts in Bhopal
A follow-up study 3 years after exposure to methyl isocyanate in 93% of exposed survivors and "control" residents in 10 Bhopali communities showed an excess of eye irritation, eyelid infection, cataract, and a decrease in visual acuity among the exposed people. Breathlessness was twice as common in the heavily exposed clusters as among those with lower exposure a trend that could not be explained by different age or smoking patterns. Case referent analysis of outpatient attendances at Bhopal Eye Hospital, considering patients with severe refractive errors and astigmatism as "controls", showed a 40% increased risk of trachoma, 36% increased risk of other lid infections, and 45% increased risk of irritant symptoms among previously exposed people. "Bhopal eye syndrome" may thus include resolution of the initial interpalpebral superficial erosion, a subsequent increased risk of eye infections, hyperresponsive phenomena (irritation, watering, and phlyctens), and possibly cataracts. It remains to be confirmed whether this reflects a more generalised disease as a consequence of previous exposure to methyl isocyanate or whether it is only the eye that is affected.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1990, Vol.47, No.8, p.553-558. 16 ref.

CIS 91-1185 Sjögren B., Ulfvarson U.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 90. Welding gases and fumes
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation - 90. Svetsgaser och svetsrök [in Swedish]
Many welding operations are related to the development of chronic bronchitis among welders with long exposure. Among shipyard welders airway obstruction has also been observed. Exposure to hexavalent chromium, isocyanate and ozone, and welding in epoxypainted steel, may result in reversible bronchial obstruction. Exposure to cadmium oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and phosgene may cause pulmonary oedema. Exposure to asbestos, chromium (VI) and nickel occuring in welders' working areas implies risk of lung cancer development. Exposure to lead, manganese and possibly aluminium may affect the nervous system.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 33p. Illus. 195 ref.

CIS 91-1201 Wass U., Belin L.
An in vitro method for predicting sensitizing properties of inhaled chemicals
A method for monitoring chemical reactivity in aqueous solutions, at neutral pH and 37°C, was developed. The chemical was allowed to react with a lysine-containing peptide, and the reaction was monitored with high-performance liquid chromatography. Simple acids, bases, and solvents did not react with the peptide, whereas isocyanates, anhydrides, and chloramine-T, substances well known for their sensitising and asthma-inducing properties, did. Thus a positive test strongly suggested that the chemical had the potential to act as a hapten and cause sensitisation when inhaled. Prepolymers of diphenylmethane diisocyanate were considerably more reactive than prepolymers of toluene diisocyanate or hexamethylene diisocyanate. Isocyanates blocked with caprolactam, butanone oxime, malonic acid diethylester, or isononyl phenol showed no reactivity. This result suggested a significantly reduced risk of respiratory reactions when such blocked isocyanates are handled at room temperature.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1990, Vol.16, No.3, p.208-214. Illus. 63 ref.

CIS 91-1159 Alegre J., Morell F., Cobo E.
Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of workers exposed to cork dust, toluene diisocyanate and conidia
A cross-sectional study on suberosis was conducted to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the level of pulmonary function, and their relationships within job categories of exposure to cork dust, toluene diisocyanate (TDI) resin bonding and conidia, among cork workers. Exposure-response relationships, with confounders taken into account, showed specific associations between cork dust and chronic bronchitis, TDI and asthma, and conidia and symptoms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Workers exposed to these risk factors had reduced mean spirometric values. A significant correlation between a decrease in pulmonary function and length of exposure was found for the workers exposed to cork dust. These results strongly suggest that suberosis, as hitherto described, might in fact comprise 3 different diseases with different aetiologic risk factors, i.e., respiratory hypersensitivity from exposure to conidia, asthma from exposure to TDI, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from exposure to cork dust.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1990, Vol.16, No.3, p.175-181. 49 ref.

CIS 91-888 Delfosse M., Laureillard J.
Paint spray booths in automobile body shops: Determination of isocyanates and solvents. Conformity to booth specifications
Cabines de peinture dans la carrosserie automobile - Dosage des isocyanates et des solvants - Conformité des cabines [in French]
This study included measurements of atmospheric pollution and air flow in 45 paint spray booths of 38 automobile body shops in France. A comparative analysis of the results of these measurements showed that booths with below-standard ventilation characteristics were subject to high levels of contamination, particularly by isocyanates, whereas those which came up to specifications were relatively free of isocyanate contamination. In order to have a good idea of the contamination levels due to the release of isocyanates, the amount of prepolymers with free isocyanate functions must be determined.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1990, No.138, Note No.1766-138-90, p.65-72. Illus. 6 ref. Annex.

CIS 91-453 Tornling G., Alexandersson R., Hedenstierna G., Plato N.
Decreased lung function and exposure to diisocyanates (HDI and HDI-BT) in car repair painters: observations on re-examination 6 years after initial study
36 car painters and 115 control persons participated in a follow-up investigation 6 years after the initial study, including measurement of lung function and estimation of exposure to diisocyanates. The mean exposure for the car painters was 0.0015mg/m3 hexamethylenediisocyanate (HID) and 0.09mg/m3 hexamethylenediisocyanate-biurettrimer (HID-BT), but frequently there were peak exposures exceeding 2.0mg/m3 HDI-BT for at least 30sec. Compared with smoking controls, the smoking car painters had greater yearly reduction in FVC (95 versus 38mL), FEV1 (61 versus 28mL), and VC (77 versus 30mL). The nonsmoking car painters showed no differences in lung volumes compared with their nonsmoking controls. The impairment correlated well with the frequency of high peak exposures to HDI-BT, but not with the mean exposure to diisocyanates.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.17, No.3, p.299-310. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 91-249
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Isocyanates
Safety guide to the identification and safe use of isocyanates in the workplace. Contents: most commonly used isocyanates and their uses; health hazards (exposure routes, health effects); prevention and control measures (evaluation, monitoring, exposure standards, engineering controls, personal protective equipment, safe storage, health assessment, education and training); first aid measures; emergency procedures.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, July 1990. 16p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 90-2020 Narayan T.
Health impact of the Bhopal disaster: An epidemiological perspective
Literature review of the epidemiologic studies concerning the Bhopal disaster. Much of the statistical data and analysis from the various studies is reproduced, and a critique of the studies is also offered.
Economics and Political Weekly, 18 and 25 Aug. 1990, p.1835-1846 and 1905-1914. 89 ref.

CIS 90-1616 Bagon D.A.
The Health and Safety Executive interlaboratory quality control scheme for isocyanates
The AQUA (Analytical Quality Assurance) isocyanate scheme is linked to a specific analytical method, MDHS 25 (Organic isocyanates in air: laboratory method using 1-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine solution and high performance liquid chromatograph, see CIS 84-1618). Results from the first 4 years of the scheme's operation are reviewed and individual laboratory performance indices assessed against the mean interlaboratory performance indices. Most of the laboratories in the scheme show a marked improvement with time, which in some instances has followed help and advice form the HSE. There has also been an overall reduction of interlaboratory variability over this period.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1990, Vol.34, No.1, p.77-83. 9 ref. Illus.

1989

CIS 91-1121
National Board of Labour Protection (Finland)
Methyl isocyanate
Translation into English of the chemical safety information sheet described in CIS 87-841. Methyl isocyanate is a toxic liquid (LD50 = 71mg/kg; TLV = 0.05mg/m3). The liquid severely irritates and corrodes the skin and the eyes, and it can cause eczema. The vapour irritates the respiratory tract and the eyes and it causes pulmonary oedema at high concentrations. Reactive with water. Forms toxic nitric oxides at high temperatures. Mandatory European labelling: F, T, R12, R23, R24, R25, R36, R37, R38, R101, S9, S30, S43, S44, S101.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1989. 2p.

CIS 90-1158 Alomar Serrallach G.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social
Hazards and pathology of isocyanates
Riesgos y patología por isocianatos [in Spanish]
Contents of this manual and technical information note: industrial uses of isocyanates; major intoxication cases; survey of legislation in EEC countries; cases of intoxication in the Catalonia region of Spain; mechanism of toxic action (irritation, sensitisation, effects at intermediate exposure levels, carcinogenic effects); guidelines for prevention and therapy (acute and chronic exposure, disabilities due to exposure to isocyanates, suggestions for improvements in Spanish legislation).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, Mar. 1989. 166p. 223 ref.

CIS 90-761 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI)
Diisocyanate-2,4 de toluène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: delayed effects; irritation of respiratory tract, eyes and skin; skin and respiratory tract sensitisation; pulmonary oedema; allergic asthma.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1p. Illus.

CIS 90-758 Polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate (PMPPI)
Diisocyanate de polyphénylméthane (PMPPI) [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: delayed effects; sensitisation of skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; dermatitis; allergic asthma.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1p. Illus.

CIS 90-754 Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI)
Diisocyanate de diphénylméthane (MDI) [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: delayed effects; irritant; skin and respiratory sensitisation; allergic asthma; pulmonary oedema.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1p. Illus.

CIS 90-746 Hexamethylene diisocyanate biuret (HDI Biuret)
Biuret d'hexaméthylène diisocyanate (Biuret de HDI) [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: delayed effects; irritation of respiratory tract, eyes and skin; skin and respiratory tract sensitisation; pulmonary oedema; allergic asthma.
Canadian Centre for Occupational health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1p. Illus.

CIS 90-745 Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)
Hexaméthylène diisocyanate (HDI) [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: delayed effects; irritation of respiratory tract, eyes and skin; skin and respiratory tract sensitisation; pulmonary oedema; allergic asthma.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1p. Illus.

CIS 90-804 Thrasher J.D., Madison R., Broughton A., Gard Z.
Building-related illness and antibodies to albumin conjugates of formaldehyde, toluene diisocyanate, and trimellitic anhydride
A case of building-related health complaints was investigated with respect to the relationship among frequency of symptoms, antibodies to albumin conjugates of formaldehyde (HCHO), toluene diisocyanate (TDI), and trimellitic anhydride (TMA), and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). The indoor air concentrations of VOCs, HCHO, TDI and TMA did not exceed Fed-OSHA and ACGIH permissible standards. However, HCHO concentrations ranged between 0.05 and 0.08ppm. The reported symptoms were multiple, involving the eyes, nose, sinuses, throat, lungs, skeletomuscular system and central nervous system. Anti-HCHO, TDI, and TMA isotypes were found in 12 of 14 full-time employees and were nondetectable in one part-time employee. The data suggest that a synergistic immunological response to airborne chemicals may be occurring in these subjects. In conclusion, immunological monitoring of affected individuals where chemicals are suspected may prove to be useful in future investigations of building-related illness.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, No.2, p.187-195. Bibl.

CIS 90-534 Huynh C.K., Vu Duc T., Savolainen H.
Controlled dynamic generation of standard 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate aerosols
A procedure for the dynamic generation of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) aerosol atmospheres of 70µg m-3 to 1.75mg m-3 based on the precise control of the evaporation of pure liquid HDI and subsequent dilution with air, was developed. The apparatus consisted of a home-made glass nebuliser coupled with a separation stage to exclude non-respirable droplets (>10µm). The aerosol concentrations were achieved by passing air through the nebuliser at 1.5-4.5 L.min-1 to generate dynamically 0.01-0.25ppm of diisocyanate in an experimental chamber of 8.55m3. The distribution of the liquid aerosol was established with an optical counter and the diisocyanate concentration was determined from samples collected in impingers by a high-pressure liquid chromatographic method. The atmospheres generated were suitable for the evaluation both of sampling procedures full scale, and of analytical methods: at 140µg m-3 (0.02ppm) they remained stable for 15min provocation tests in clinical asthma, as verified by breath-zone sampling of exposed patients.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.4, p.573-581. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 90-570 Pisaniello D.L., Muriale L.
The use of isocyanate paints in auto refinishing - A survey of isocyanate exposures and related work practices in South Australia
A survey of 45 crash repair workshops where two-pack polyurethane spray paints are used has been carried out. Painters were interviewed using a combined health-work practice questionnaire. Monitoring for airborne isocyanate was undertaken in 14 spray shops. Health data from the questionnaire were compared with corresponding data for control groups of mechanics and industrial spray painters, not exposed to isocyanates. Compared with the other two groups, the isocyanate spray painters generally reported more respiratory and skin problems. Airborne isocyanate concentrations associated with various operations were monitored with both impinger and paper tape methods. A direct comparison of the two methods is presented.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.4, p.563-572. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 90-594 Current Intelligence Bulletin No.53 - Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and toluenediamine (TDA): Evidence of carcinogenicity
Experimental studies have demonstrated that TDI and TDA (a hydrolysis product of TDI) are carcinogens. The test results meet both OSHA and NIOSH criteria for classifying a substance as a potential occupational carcinogen. NIOSH therefore recommends that all isomers of TDI and TDA be considered as potential carcinogens and that exposures be limited to the lowest feasible concentrations.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226, USA, 1989. 20p. Bibl.

CIS 89-1602 Seldén A.I., Belin L., Wass U.
Isocyanate exposure and hypersensitivity pneumonitis - Report of a probable case and prevalence of specific immunoglobin G antibodies among exposed individuals
A car painter experienced three episodes of a hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like disease after exposure to two-component acrylic lacquers with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as the curing agent. High titres of HDI-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies were found in the patient's serum by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the ELISA, 5 to 10% of the sera from 455 isocyanate-exposed but asymptomatic workers were positive, depending on the criterion used for a positive test, whereas 0% of the sera from 157 unexposed referents was found to be positive. Among 10 subjects with isocyanate-induced asthma and isocyanate-specific IgE antibodies, 50% had specific IgG. It was concluded that the presence of isocyanate-specific IgG antibodies in serum is correlated with isocyanate exposure rather than with symptoms of isocyanate induced disease.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1989, Vol.15, No.3, p.234-237. 21 ref. Illus.

CIS 89-853 Borm P.J.A., Bast A., Zuiderveld O.P.
In vitro effect of toluene diisocyanate on beta adrenergic and muscarinic receptor function in lung tissue of the rat
To investigae the role of pharmacological mechanisms in toluene diisocyanate (TDI) induced occupational asthma, the effects of TDI on rat trachea ring and lung parenchymal strip were studied in vitro. The most prominent effect observed was a stimulation of metacholine (1µM) induced contraction of the tracheal ring by 1µM TDI (added in dimethyl sulfoxide). The results were less pronounced when TDI was added from a stock solution prepared in water, which is possibly due to (co)polymerisation. It is concluded that the pharmacological effect of TDI may result from an autonomic imbalance between cholinergic and B-adrenergic neural control.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1989, Vol.46, No.1, p.56-59. Illus. 17 ref.

1988

CIS 02-44 Isophorone diisocyanate
Diisocyanate d'isophorone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-828. Synonyms: IPDI; 3-isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexyl isocyanate; 5-isocyanato-1-(isocyanatomethyl)-1,3,3-trimethylcyclohexane. Acute toxicity: strong irritation of the skin and ocular and respiratory mucous membranes. Chronic toxicity: contact eczema; allergic asthma; hypersensitivity pneumopathia; chronic bronchopulmonary diseases. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.09mg/m3 or 0.01ppm; ceiling value (over 5 minutes) = 0.18mg/m3 or 0.02ppm. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.615-008-00-5; T, R23, R36/37/38, R42/43, S26, S28, S38, S45. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 02-43 Hexamethylene 1,6-diisocyanate
1,6-Diisocyanate d'hexaméthylène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 82-412. Synonyms: HDI, 1,6-diisocyanatohexane. Acute toxicity: strong irritation of the skin and ocular and respiratory mucous membranes. Chronic toxicity: contact eczema; allergic asthma with cross-sensitization to other isocyanates; hypersensitivity pneumopathia which may induce fibrosis. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.075mg/m3 or 0.01ppm; ceiling value (over 5 minutes) = 0.15mg/m3 or 0.02ppm. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.615-011-00-1; T, R23, R36/37/38, R42/43, S26, S28, S38, S45. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 01-1625 Diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate
4,4'-Diisocyanate de diphénylméthane [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-816. Acute toxicity: irritation of the mucous membranes of the eye, the upper respiratory tract and, sometimes, the digestive tract; bronchial irritation; neurological signs; pulmonary oedema. Effects may be delayed. Chronic toxicity: contact eczema, allergic asthma; hypersensitivity lung disease; blepharoconjunctivitis. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.1mg/m3 (0.01ppm); ceiling value = 0.2mg/m3 (0.02ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.615-005-01-9; Xn, R20, R36/37/38, R42, S25,S28, S38, S45. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, June 2001. 4p. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 92-64 Toluene diisocyanate
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Acute toxic effects: severe irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. Long-term toxic effects: skin and respiratory sensitisation; asthma.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 1988. 6p. Bibl.

CIS 91-534 Maltoni C.
International standards for occupational exposure to toxic agents
This editorial considers the negative consequences of the absence of widely accepted occupational and environmental standards for toxic agents. This absence creates serious difficulties in evaluating hazards in different industrial and societal environments. Advisory reports of the ILO and national (ACGIH) or multinational (EEC) recommendations can no longer meet all the requirements of internationally diverse industry. An independent international academic group, the Collegium Ramazzini, exploring the possibility of developing a set of standards for the most important agents is anxious to gather scientific opinions and information from all sources of such data. Persons to contact and addresses are presented.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1988, Vol.13, No.5, p.529-530.

CIS 90-1570 Ermakova G.A., Kryžanovskaja N.A.
Neurohumoral regulation of adaptation processes in workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI)
Nejrogumoral'naja reguljacija adaptacionnyh processov u rabočih, podvergajuščihsja vozdejstviju toluilendiizocianata [in Russian]
The nature of neurohumoral regulation was studied in 125 healthy workers, aged 20-40yrs, with different length of service and TDI exposure levels. Adrenal gland activity and some haematological parameters were determined. Neurohumoral regulation of adaptation processes in TDI-exposed persons seemed to display some cyclicity, somehow related to the length of service. Two early regulatory phases (service up to 3yrs) had common features unrelated to the exposure levels, while after 3yrs of employment some dissimilarities evolved which did depend on the TDI exposure levels.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1988, No.7, p.22-23. 5 ref.

CIS 90-230 Diehl B.
Exposure to harmful substances during floor laying - Solvent problems
Gefahrstoffbelastung bei Fussbodenlegearbeiten - Lösemittelproblem [in German]
Types and concentration of solvents were determined during the laying of polyvinyl chloride, carpet, wood parquet and linoleum floor coverings. The highest solvent exposure was found in the case of parquet floors. Concentrations of solvents such as toluene, xylene, and toluene diisocyanate in excess of maximum allowable workplace levels were measured. A substitution of solvent-containing products is necessary.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, 1988, Vol.10, No.8, p.30-35. Illus.

CIS 90-260 The dangers of burning polyurethane
Contents of this data sheet: history; case history (Woolworth's fire, 1979); regulation; covering fabric; industrial storage of polyurethane foam; after ignition; hazards; precautions.
United Trade Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R 0DA, United Kingdom, Aug. 1988. p.B:14:1-B:14:7. 3 ref.

CIS 89-1280 Musk A.W., Peters J.M., Wegman D.H.
Isocyanates and respiratory disease: Current status
This paper reviews the known respiratory effects of isocyanates. There is good evidence to indicate that isocyanates: cause chemical bronchitis/pneumonitis; are potent pulmonary sensitisers capable of causing "isocyanate asthma"; cause non-specific airways disease, including chronic bronchitis; can induce a general asthmatic state; and can cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Similar dose-response relationships are seen for both acute and chronic effects. There are plants operating in which exposures are well controlled and in which no respiratory effects can be detected. Suggestions are provided for preplacement assessment and periodic surveillance for workers exposed to these compounds.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.3, p.331-349. 114 ref.

CIS 88-751 Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI)
Diisocyanate de diphénylméthane (MDI) [in French]
Chemical safety infromation sheet. Synonym: diphenylmethane diisocyanate. One page summary based on Cheminfo record No.70 and Chemical Hazard Summary No.30 from CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 1p.

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