Isocyanates - 406 entries found
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Avashia B., Battigelli M.C., Morgan W.K.C., Reger R.B.
Effects of prolonged low exposure to methyl isocyanate
Data on pulmonary function, smoking history and occupational history were obtained for 431 workers at a large chemical plant. Routine and special sampling data were used to classify jobs according to methyl isocyanate exposure. No specific or consistent pulmonary impairment was evident. Long-term, low-level exposure to methyl isocyanate at the levels existing at this plant could not be shown to be producing detectable effects on lung function.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1996, Vol.38, No.6, p.625-630. 11 ref.
Isocianatos [in Spanish]
Isocyanates are chemical substances used in many industrial processes. They form the basis for different products: foams, varnishes, paints, resins, flexible and rigid artificial fibres, etc. The products obtained are generically known as polyurethanes. This video shows some of the better-known processes and comments on the risks arising from exposure to isocyanates and the preventive measures for their control.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, ediciones y Publicaciones, C/ Torrelaguna, 73-28027 Madrid, Spain. PAL videotape (9min). Price: ESP 3000 + VAT. ###
NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing asthma and death from diisocyanate exposure
This data sheet describes the health effects of diisocyanates (irritation, sensitization and asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, cancer) and current exposure limits. Seven case reports of disease and death following occupational exposure to diisocyanates are presented. Recommendations to reduce worker exposure include product substitution, closed systems and ventilation, worker isolation, protective clothing and equipment, respiratory protection, worker and employer education, and exposure monitoring.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Mar. 1996. 13p. 33 ref.
Maître A., Leplay A., Perdrix A., Ohl G., Boinay P., Romazini S., Aubrun J.C.
Comparison between solid sampler and impinger for evaluation of occupational exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate polyisocyanates during spray painting
Two air sampling methods were used to monitor the level and variability of a painter's exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) polyisocyanates while spraying Tolonate-based paints in a paint booth. Personal air samples were collected by midget impingers containing 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MPP) absorber solution and by MPP-impregnated filters. Potential exposure to HDI polyisocyanates measured by impinger devices ranged from 0.25 to 3mg/m3. Impregnated filters significantly underestimated atmospheric concentrations of HDI polyisocyanates in the painter's breathing zone. Use of an appropriate half-face mask with 90% efficiency is recommended to reduce residual exposure to below the recommended STEL (1mg/m3).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.2, p.153-160. 36 ref.
Evaluation of personal continuous paper-tape monitors for toluenediisocyanate
The performance of nine personal continuous monitors (PCMs) was evaluated in dynamically generated toluenediisocyanate (TDI) atmospheres at two concentrations and at five relative humidities. The TDI concentrations were also measured using an OSHA reference method. Results are tabulated for each PCM. Compared with the reference method, the PCMs generally underestimated the higher TDI concentration at higher humidities; the lower TDI concentration was underestimated by a wider margin by the PCMs. There were significant inter-PCM differences when measuring simultaneously the same atmosphere with constant TDI concentration.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.68-71. Illus. 8 ref.
Dahlqvist M., Tornling G., Plato N., Ulfvarson U.
Effects within the week on forced vital capacity are correlated with long term changes in pulmonary function: Reanalysis of studies on car painters exposed to isocyanate
Study to examine if car painters who work with polyurethane paints that contain hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) and hexamethylenediisocyanate biuret trimer (HDI-BT) develop acute as well as chronic impairment of lung function. Data were reanalyzed from two earlier studies on a group of car painters. Data on changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) within the week were available for 20 car painters who were also examined six years later. Ten men showed a decline in FVC within the week. A significant correlation was found between the change in FVC within the week and the long term (six year) change in FVC, standardized for the effects of aging and smoking and adjusted for the number of peak exposures. The results suggest that the decrease in FVC within the week might serve as a guide to identify car painters at risk of a further decrement in lung function above the effects of aging, smoking and exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.52, No.3, p.192-195. 17 ref.
Mastrangelo G., Paruzzolo P., Mapp C.
Asthma due to isocyanates: A mail survey in a 1% sample of furniture workers in the Veneto Region, Italy
A cross-sectional survey was performed by means of a questionnaire mailed to a sample of 1430 workers in the wooden furniture industry in northern Italy, which uses large quantities of isocyanate paints. The aim was to ascertain the prevalence of isocyanate-induced asthma in the work place. Completed questionnaires represented about 1% of the total number (70,000) of these workers in the region under consideration (Veneto). A significantly higher asthma prevalence with increasing duration of exposure to isocyanates was observed in the workers (ranging from 2.2% in workers with 11-20 years of exposure to 27.3% in those with over 20 years of exposure). Other factors such as smoking habits and the lower prevalence of asthma observed in larger enterprises are also discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1995, Vol.86, No.6, p.503-510. 14 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidelines for health surveillance
These guidelines are intended for appointed medical practitioners when planning and implementing a programme of health surveillance within enterprises. Such programmes should be instituted when a workplace assessment of health risks, conducted according to the National Model Regulations for the Control of Workplace Hazardous Substances (NOHSC 1005: (1994), see CIS 95-274), has determined that workplace exposure represents a significant risk to health. Contents of the 18 booklets: 1 - Introduction (basic aspects of health surveillance, extracts from the Model Regulations and the National Code of Practice (NOHSC: 2007 (1994), see CIS 95-274 as well), list of substances subject to control, criteria for determining whether a substance should be scheduled as requiring health surveillance). 2 - sample respiratory questionnaires to be administered to workers. 3-18: Specific substances (for each substance: information on health surveillance at time of employment, during exposure to a process where the substance is present and at termination of employment; data sheet with information on substance in question). The substances are: acrylonitrile, inorganic arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, inorganic cadmium, creosote, isocyanates, inorganic mercury, MOCA, organophosphate pesticides, pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, crystalline silica, thallium, vinyl chloride.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1995-1996. 18 booklets in a ring binder. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/481CF3F5-8C4B-4BCC-AF65-3FDBA031D43B/0/HealthSurveillance.pdf [in English]
Fusion adhesives. Health protection during work with fusion adhesives
Schmelzklebstoffe. Gesundheitsschutz beim Arbeiten mit Schmelzklebern [in German]
Fusion adhesives, applied in the molten state, bond materials while they harden. They are widely used in the paper and cardboard converting industry, for example in the manufacturing of boxes. Some of these adhesives, such as the polyurethane fusion adhesives, contain isocyanates. These are toxic, may lead to allergies and some (such as the diphenylmethane diisocyanate) are carcinogenic. Exposure to diphenylmethane diisocyanate has been limited in Germany to 0.05mg/m3. In order to keep the exposure to harmful substances during heating and application of fusion adhesives low, the use of exhaust hoods for drawing off all fumes at the point of origin, of covers and of lower temperatures for melting the adhesives are recommended.
Tag für Tag, 1995, No.5, p.18-21. Illus.
Hazards of stopping cracks in concrete structures by injection
Gefahren bei der Injektion von Rissen in Betonbauwerken [in German]
Cracks in concrete buildings are stopped by injection of sealants containing epoxy resins or polyurethanes as the main component. The hazards posed by this type of work are caused by the high-pressure pumps needed for application of the sealant and by the toxic substances contained in the sealant. The epoxy resins and hardeners are flammable and can cause skin and respiratory diseases. The polyurethanes contain toxic isocyanates and amines. Both groups of substances can cause skin diseases. Outlined protective measures include: the supply of overalls, safety gloves, safety spectacles and respirators, the avoidance of smoking and other ignition sources, periodic inspections of the equipment and efficient ventilation.
BAU, June 1995, No.2, p.72-75. Illus.
Rudzinski W.E., Dahlquist B., Svejda S.A., Richardson A., Thomas T.
Sampling and analysis of isocyanates in spray-painting operations
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.284-289. 26 ref. ###
Performance of painting booths equipped with down-draft ventilation
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.258-265. Illus. 14 ref. ###
Health protection during pulverization with spray guns - Two-component polyurethane varnishes
Gesundheitsschutz beim Spritzen: Zweikomponenten-Polyurethanlacke [in German]
Protection de la santé lors de la pulvérisation au pistolet - Vernis polyuréthane à deux composants [in French]
Practical guide to protective measures during the use of spray guns using two-component polyurethane varnishes. Isocyanate-based hardeners are used for the treatment of this kind of varnish. These hardeners are highly reactive chemicals that can cause serious health damage in the case of exposure. Main points covered: polyurethane varnishes; health hazards; protective measures; observations (in particular, legislation in effect in Switzerland, respecting warning labels, first-aid measures in case of accidental exposure).
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1st ed., Nov. 1995. 7p. Illus.
Levine S.P., Hillig K.J.D., Dharmarajan V., Spence M.W., Baker M.D.
Critical review of methods of sampling, analysis and monitoring for TDI and MDI
A review of widely-used methods for the sampling, analysis and monitoring of toluene diisocyanate and methylene bisphenyl diisocyanate (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) is presented. Basic definitions and principles and procedures of quality control and metrology are discussed followed by a critical review of specific air sampling and analysis methods and air monitoring instruments. Recommendations for future work are included.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1995, Vol.56, No.6, p.581-589. Illus. 49 ref.
Durand K.T.H., Egilman D.S.
The DuPont Imron® studies: An example of possible misrepresentation of data in the industrial hygiene literature
Opinion article (not peer reviewed) commenting on a 1985 article by Vasta J.F. in the same journal ("Respirator cartridge evaluation for isocyanate containing Imron® and Cantari® enamels", see CIS 85-785). It is claimed that the original article contained intentionally misleading information suggesting that air-purifying respirators provided adequate protection against isocyanate-based paints (data suggesting the opposite are claimed having been suppressed). The manufacturer employing the researcher in question stood to gain significantly from results supporting this hypothesis. The Editor's comments preceding the article discuss the ethical issues involved. The rebuttal by Krivanek N.D. (p.826-829) defends the integrity of the original research article and its author and questions the motives of the authors of the present article.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1995, Vol.56, No.8, p.817-825. 33 ref. Editor's comments, p.815-816; rebuttal on p.826-829.
Analytical problems encountered with NIOSH method 5521 for total isocyanates
A recent analysis for total isocyanates in air using NIOSH Method 5521 (adaptation of the British HSE Method MDHS 25, see CIS 88-955) presented two problems in the identification of an oligomeric isocyanate species: 1) a false negative response in the high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogramme was seen in a majority of field samples, and 2) an anomalous peak served to give a false positive in some of the field blanks and in some of the field samples. By supplementing the ratio criterion of Method 5521 using the complete ultraviolet absorption spectrum from a photodiode array (PDA) UV detector, the two peaks were successfully identified. However, this need for additional data to identify an oligomeric isocyanate species raises the question whether the ratio criterion (ratio of the electrochemical detector response to the ultraviolet detector response) of Method 5521 allows the qualitative identification of isocyanate oligomers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1995, Vol.56, No.5, p.474-479. Illus. 15 ref.
Streicher R.P., Arnold J.E., Cooper C.V., Fischbach T.J.
Investigation of the ability of MDHS Method 25 to determine urethane-bound isocyanate groups
Method 25 for the Determination of Hazardous Substances (MDHS 25, see CIS 88-955) was developed by the Health and Safety Executive of the United Kingdom for the identification and quantification of all isocyanates in an air sample. This investigation sought to determine if this Method was capable of the identification and quantification of intermediates possessing free isocyanate groups created during polyurethane formation. Model compounds derived from 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and ethylene glycol were prepared. These urethanes contained two ("dimer") and three ("trimer") TDI units and terminal MOPP-derivatized isocyanate groups. Neither the ultraviolet nor the electrochemical response of the Method is proportional to the number of isocyanate groups present in the model compounds. Therefore MDHS 25 is neither capable of correctly identifying TDI-urethane intermediates possessing MOPP-derivatized isocyanate groups nor is it capable of accurately identifying these isocyanate groups. The proposed way to overcome this problem is to use a derivatizing reagent yielding derivatized isocyanates whose detector responses come more exclusively from the derivatized isocyanate moiety and therefore are more proportional to the number of derivatized isocyanate groups.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1995, Vol.56, No.5, p.437-442. Illus. 13 ref.
Sulotto F., Romano C., Chiesa A., Piolatto G., Coggiola M., Botta G., Serra A., Scarselli R., Palmi S., Scansetti G.
Short and long-term respiratory effects of exposure to low concentrations of diphenylmethane diisocyanate in the production of expanded polyurethane
Effetti respiratori, a breve e lungo termine, della esposizione a basse concentrazioni di MDI, difenilmetan diisocianato, nella produzione di manufatti in poliuretano espanso [in Italian]
Spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75) readings were assessed in a group of 27 foam skimmers with a low environmental exposure level to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (DMD) at the beginning and at the end of their work shifts. A control group consisted of workers not exposed to DMD of similar age. The observed decrease in the parameters at the end of the shift overlapped in the two groups, but a greater weekly decrease in FEF25-75 was observed in the skimmer group. In 11 of the 27 skimmers, for whom previous spirometric data were available, a higher decrease was observed for FVC. Smoking in either group did not have a clear influence on the results.
Prevenzione oggi, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.6, No.4, p.163-175. 17 ref.
Baur X., Marek W., Ammon J., Czuppon A.B., Marczynski B., Raulf-Heimsoth M., Roemmelt H., Fruhmann G.
Respiratory and other hazards of isocyanates
Isocyanates have various applications including those in the production of plastics, polyurethane foams and insecticides. Recent results of experimental, immunological and clinical studies of the respiratory diseases caused by isocyanates are summarized. Special consideration is given to findings among 1,780 workers exposed to isocyanates. The case histories and clinical data of 625 of these workers who were exposed during the production of polyurethanes revealed that 247 had respiratory symptoms. The majority of these were diagnosed as suffering from bronchial asthma. Chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and allergic alveolitis followed. The risk of developing chronic airway disorders such as bronchial asthma was found to depend on the concentration of isocyanates. Immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization and irritative effects were identified as the main pathophysiological mechanisms.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.66, No.3, p.141-152. Illus. 131 ref.
Rando R.J., Poovey H.G.
Dichotomous sampling of vapor and aerosol of methylene-bis-(phenylisocyanate) [MDI] with an annular diffusional denuder
A dichotomous sampler was developed for separation of airborne methylene-bis-(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) into vapour and aerosol fractions. The sampler consisted of an impactor inlet, two "denuder" sections in which a ring-shaped space was formed between two concentric glass tubes, and a final glass fibre filter. The denuders and filter were coated with N-4-nitrobenzyl-N-1-propylamine to trap MDI, which was then determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The sampler was evaluated in the laboratory with test atmospheres of MDI over a range of 24 to 355µg/m3 at an average temperature of 26°C. The total amounts of MDI collected by the dichotomous sampler were not significantly different from a reference sampler over the entire range of MDI concentrations. While this work was done with condensation aerosol, appropriate modification of the sampler inlet should allow use of the device for sampling atmospheres containing larger aerosols.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1994, Vol.55, No.8, p.716-721. Illus. 30 ref.
Ameille J., Villoingt L.
Prognostic value of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in car painters exposed to isocyanates
Valeur pronostique de l'hyperréactivité bronchique chez des peintres automobiles exposés aux isocyanates [in French]
Thirty five painters exposed to HDI and HDI prepolymers underwent two respiratory examinations consisting of a standardized questionnaire and measurement of pulmonary function including a methacholine challenge over a 2-year period. Non specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (NSBH) was present initially in 11 workers and was associated with a higher tobacco consumption, a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lower baseline values of lung function tests. Compared with car painters without NSBH, those with NSBH had a greater, though not significant, reduction in FEV (76mL/year versus 37mL/year). No case of asthma was diagnosed neither in car painters with NSBH, nor in those without. So, despite the weak number of patients in our study, it appears that the presence of NSBH in car painters exposed to isocyanates is not a good predictor of asthma. On the other hand, performing a test of bronchial hyperreactivity might be used as means of identifying subjects at risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.317-321. 34 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, Occupational Medicine and Hygiene Laboratory
Organic isocyanates in air
This revised guidance note (see CIS 88-955 for previous edition) describes a laboratory method for the determination of organic isocyanates in air. Principle: a measured volume of air is drawn through a glass impinger containing 1-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine absorbing solution; organic isocyanates react to form non-volatile urea derivatives; the resultant solution is concentrated and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and electrochemical detection. Scope: the method is suitable for sampling over periods of 10min to 8h for both personal and fixed location monitoring. Analytical range: 7 to 140µg NCO/m3 for a 10L sample volume; for an 8h (30L) air sample the detection limit is 2µg NCO/m3. Aromatic amines will produce interference. Guidance is also given on properties, uses and toxicity of organic isocyanates and first aid following significant exposure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1994. 8p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 2.50.
Persson P., Dalene M., Skarping G., Adamsson M., Hagmar L.
Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate: Measurement of toluenediamine in hydrolysed urine and plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) was studied during 48 hours and biological samples were taken in a factory producing flexible polyurethane (PUR) foam. Five PUR workers, two white-collar workers and two volunteers were studied. The concentrations of TDI in air were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urine and plasma samples were collected, and TDI-related amines, 2,4-toluenediamine (2,4-DTA) and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,6-TDA) were determined by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The environmental concentration of TDI was within the range of 1-10% of the Swedish TLV (40mg/m3). The relationship between 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI varied in atmospheric samples from 3:2 to 1:19. The PUR workers showed TDA plasma concentrations in the range of 1-8ng/mL, significantly higher than the concentration of 0.2-1ng TDA/mL plasma seen in the white-collar workers only rarely exposed to TDI. The concentration of 2,4-TDA and 2,6-TDA in PUR workers' plasma was stable. No relationship could be established between urinary excretion and TDA plasma concentration. It seems to be possible therefore to monitor TDI exposure by measuring TDA plasma concentration.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.50, No.12, p.1111-1118. Illus. 22 ref.
International Chemical Safety Card. Short-term exposure effects: irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; tear drawing; severe deep burns on the eyes; bronchitis. Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization; asthma; affects acetylcholinesterase.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.
Hagmar L., Strömberg U., Welinder H., Mikoczy Z.
Incidence of cancer and exposure to toluene diisocyanate and methylene diphenyldiisocyanate - A cohort based case-referent study in the polyurethane foam manufacturing industry
The aim of this study was to assess the association between occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate or methylene diphenyldiisocyanate and the risk of cancer. The study group comprised 7,023 subjects employed during the period 1958 to 1987 in nine Swedish polyurethane foam manufacturing plants. The tentative associations, derived from a previous cohort study, between isocyanate exposure and excess risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rectal cancer were not confirmed. Instead, non-significant associations with prostate cancer, and possibly colon cancer, were observed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.50, No.11, p.1003-1007. Illus. 15 ref.
Use of isocyanates in flexible foam production facilities and their effects on health
Utilización de isocianatos en empresas de espumación flexible y su repercusión sobre la salud [in Spanish]
Training guide to the protection of workers against exposure to isocyanates in flexible foam production facilities. Contents: characteristics of toluene diisocyanates (TDIs) (identification, physical and chemical properties); manufacturing of flexible foams using TDIs; criteria of measurement; analysis of the effects of TDIs on the respiratory system; hypothesis and aims of a study on the effects of TDIs; material and methods of the study (population and controls chosen, design, data collection, variables studied); statistical analysis and results of the study; discussion and conclusions; recommendations for prevention of exposure. In annex: medical questionnaire used in the study.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, C/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 106p. Illus. 37 ref.
Hardening plastics [Sweden]
Härdplaster [in Swedish]
This directive, which came into force 1 January 1994, applies to all work with hardening plastics. General requirements cover work with all hardening plastics, especially spraying, work with hot objects and control of hazardous substances in the air. Employers must provide workers with medical examinations before work is initiated, and again if a worker shows respiratory problems. Cleaning and general housekeeping are covered. Special chapters deal with epoxies, polyurethanes, esters, acrylates and amino- and phenoplastics. Comments and rules of application are included.
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 23 Aug. 1993. 78p.
Hagmar L., Welinder H, Mikoczy Z.
Cancer incidence and mortality in the Swedish polyurethane foam manufacturing industry
Cancer incidence and mortality patterns were investigated in workers from nine Swedish plants using toluene diisocyanate and methylene diphenyldiisocyanate in the manufacture of polyurethane foam. A statistically significant deficit for all cause mortality was evident; the relative risk for mortality being lowest for the first 10 years since first exposure. There was an almost statistically significant deficit for all malignant neoplasms. A slight risk excess was observed for rectal cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, increasing after the first 10 years. Further follow-up studies are required to evaluate relative risks of these two diseases.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.537-543. 30 ref.
Sorahan T., Pope D.
Mortality and cancer morbidity of production workers in the United Kingdom flexible polyurethane foam industry
In a survey of mortality and cancer incidence among workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI), data on workers from 11 factories in the flexible polyurethane foam industry were analyzed. Results indicated that cancer rates in this population were lower than those for the general population. All increased cancer rates among women occurred at sites of cancer known to be related to cigarette smoking, and these excesses were probably due to a combination of smoking, chance and factors unrelated to the industry under study.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.528-536. 10 ref.
Forst L.S., Abraham J.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis presenting as sarcoidosis
A case report is presented to illustrate a misdiagnosis of sarcoidosis in a spraypainter whose history was suggestive of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by exposure to toluene diisocyanate in the workplace. The two diseases have similar clinical, laboratory and pathological features and are thus difficult to distinguish. Since early recognition of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can lead to complete reversal of the disease in many cases, it is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.497-500. Illus. 15 ref.
Maestrelli P., De Marzo N., Saetta M., Boscaro M., Fabbri L.M., Mapp C.E.
Effects of inhaled beclomethasone on airway responsiveness in occupational asthma - Placebo-controlled study of subjects sensitized to toluene diisocyanate
The study investigated the effect of five months of treatment with inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) on the airway responsiveness to methacholine and to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in 15 sensitized asthmatic subjects who had been removed from occupational exposure to TDI. Beclomethasone reduced the airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine but did not affect the response to TDI. In fact, in the subjects on BDP, the provocative dose of methacholine producing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20 FEV1) increased from 0.145 to 0.485mg (p<0.05) after two months of treatment. A further increase was observed at four and five months. In contrast, in the subjects on placebo, PD20 FEV1 did not change significantly. At the end of the study, the severity of asthmatic reactions induced by bronchial challenge with TDI was significantly reduced in both groups, but no differences were observed between placebo and BDP.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Aug. 1993, Vol.148, No.2, p.407-412. Illus. 27 ref.
Potthast J., Marek W., Marczynski B., Baur X.
Isocyanates on the workplace - Diseases of the respiratory tract and the lung
Isocyanate am Arbeitsplatz - Erkrankungen der Atemwege und der Lunge [in German]
The results of experimental studies of the effects of isocyanates such as diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) over a two-year period are summarized. In vivo short-term exposure to 10ppb TDI led to bronchial hypersensitivity. In vivo and in vitro exposure to the isocyanates produced breaks in DNA. A reduction of the present maximum workplace concentration for TDI is recommended.
Kompass, July 1993, Vol.103, No.7, p.338-345. Illus. 33 ref.
Myer H.E., O'Block S.T., Dharmarajan V.
A survey of airborne HDI, HDI-based polyisocyanate and solvent concentrations in the manufacture and application of polyurethane coatings
This study summarizes the results of industrial hygiene surveys in paint manufacturing and application operations using polyurethane coatings containing hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and HDI-based polyisocyanates, with some attention paid to other organic solvents. 466 samples were collected from 47 operations (mostly in application). The application surveys covered painting of transportation vehicles, large military and civilian equipment, and other industrial and construction painting jobs. The major results of these measurements show that there is some potential for isocyanate overexposure of unprotected workers and that it is greater in spray than in nonspray operations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1993, Vol.54, No.11, p.663-670. Illus. 23 ref.
Grammer L.C., Shaughnessy M.A., Davis R.A.
Exposure to TMXDIR (meta) aliphatic isocyanate and TMIR (meta) unsaturated aliphatic isocyanate - Clinical and immunologic evaluation of 96 workers
Ninety-six workers employed at facilities that manufacture or use TMXDI (meta) aliphatic isocyanate and TMI (meta) unsaturated aliphatic isocyanate underwent immunological tests and responded to a questionnaire designed to identify symptoms compatible with work-related syndromes such as asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. There were no workers with immunologically induced disease due to TMI isocyanate or TMXDI isocyanate nor were there any workers whose questionnaires suggested a new onset of asthma. Approximately 40% of workers experienced some irritant symptoms, mostly upper respiratory or ocular. One worker had low-level IgE antibody against TMXDI-HSA (human serum albumin) but had no work-related respiratory symptoms. Very low-level IgG against TMI-HSA or TMXDI-HSA was present in 7% of workers, all of whom were in the high exposure category.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1993, Vol.35, No.3, p.287-290. 15 ref.
Kanerva L., Estlander T., Jolanki R., Henriks-Eckerman M.L.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by diethylenetriamine in carbonless copy paper
Carbonless copy paper, or 'no carbon required' (NCR) paper, has often been implicated as the cause of skin, respiratory, or general symptoms, but allergy has been verified in only a few cases. A 43-year-old machinist whose work involved the manufacture of NCR paper developed occupational dermatitis on the hands. On patch testing, both the NCR paper and 1 of the chemicals used to produce the microcapsules of the NCR paper, namely diethylenetriamine (DETA), provoked an allergic reaction. Analysis of the paper showed that it contained enough DETA to induce allergic contact dermatitis. People who handle NCR paper and develop symptoms of contact dermatitis should be patch tested with DETA.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1993, Vol.29, No.3, p.147-151. 31 ref.
Japan Industrial Hygiene Association
Criteria for tentative safe exposure levels on the 1993 exposure limit list [Japan]
Kyoyō nōdo zanteichi (1993) no teian riyū [in Japanese]
Review of relevant primary literature on isoprothiolane, chlorobenzene, mercury and its compounds (except alkyl mercury compounds), 1,1-dichloroethane, methylene(bis)-o-chloroaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, methylene diisocyanate, silane, trinitrotoluene and monochloroethane. Exposure limits established in other countries are discussed.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, July 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.346-367. 176 ref.
Isocyanate de méthyle [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 81-1933. Toxicity: extremely irritating to skin and ocular and respiratory mucous membranes; skin burns which can evolve into severe necrotic lesions; pulmonary oedema; lipothymic syndrome with convulsions, with rapid recovery (inhalation over a flask). Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.05mg/m3 (0.02ppm). EEC number: No.615-001-00-7. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. 9 ref.
French Society of Occupational Medicine and Health - Meetings of 8 Oct. and 12 Nov. 1991
Société de médecine et d'hygiène du travail: Séances du 8 octobre et du 12 novembre 1991 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of 8 Oct. and 12 Nov. 1991 of the French Society of Occupational Medicine and Health: measurement of bronchial reactivity among personnel of a plant manufacturing orthopedic prostheses; cardio-vascular risk factors among truck drivers and drivers of public transport vehicles; study of bronchial hyperreactivity associated with hairdressers' dermatoses; exposure to isocyanates: comparative study of respiratory symptoms in enterprises; conjunctivitis, rhinitis and asthma due to occupational exposure to the medicinal plant Harpagophytum; HIV infection: epidemiological update, classification and trends; aptitude to work of HIV-positive physicians.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.4, p.281-295.
Baur X., Czuppon A.B., Raulf M.
Case report: Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by an isocyanate (isocyanate alveolitis)
Fallbericht: Exogen-allergische Alveolitis durch Isocyanat (Isocyanat-Alveolitis) [in German]
A 54 year-old worker regularly observed episodes of fever, headache, irritation of the throat, and difficulty in breathing a few hours after exposure to an isocyanate (MDI) hardening agent. Exposure tests with MDI showed that an extrinsic allergic alveolitis developed together with restrictive ventilation, hypoxaemia, fever up to 39.2°C (axillary), and leucocytosis. In the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), besides agranulocytosis and eosinophilia, a strong reduction in the CD4/CD8-quotient was observed. After an interval of two years, the presence of antibodies could no longer be shown.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, May 1992, Vol.42, No.5, p.187-189. Illus. 5 ref.
Hryhorczuk D.O., Aks S.E., Turk J.W.
Unusual occupational toxins
Twelve of the most unusual industrial toxins are reviewed and their clinical manifestations and treatments explored: acetonitrile (laboratory reagent, solvent; primary toxicity due to its delayed metabolism to cyanide); acrylonitrile (commonly used; interesting toxicology); boron hydrides (rocket fuels; toxic); dimethylaminopropionitrile (DMAPN, used as a catalyst in the chemical industry); dimethylformamide (widely used solvent; hepatotoxic); hydrazines (rocket and jet fuels, corrosion inhibitors etc; serious toxic effects); methyl isocyanate (intermediate in insecticide manufacturing; extremely toxic); 2-nitropropane (solvent, many other uses; hepatotoxic); phosphine (pesticide; toxic); stalinon and other organotin compounds (mostly of historical interest); tellurium (metal used as an alloy component, other uses; toxic); vanadium (trace metal used in alloys, other uses; toxic).
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1992. Vol.7, No.3, p.567-586. 145 ref.
Huynh C.K., Vu-Duc T., Savolainen H.
Design and evaluation of a solid sampler for the monitoring of airborne 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its prepolymers in two-component spray painting
An active, solvent-free solid sampler was developed for the collection of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) aerosol and prepolymers. The applicability of the sampling and analytical procedure was validated with a test chamber, constructed for the dynamic generation of HDI aerosol and prepolymers in commercial two-component spray paints used in car refinishing. Results showed that this solvent-free technique can conveniently and advantageously replace the liquid impinger technique for the sampling of HDI and its prepolymers in the work atmosphere. Manipulations after sampling are reduced with the described setup procedure and make the determinations of HDI and prepolymers more accurate, simple, and rapid. The impregnation technique of the glass fibre filter is better controlled than that of trapping in a solution of reagent. The absorption capacity is effective up to the range of 10 times the threshold limit value (TLV) of HDI.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.157-162. Illus. 22 ref.
Japan Industrial Hygiene Association
Criteria for tentative safe exposure levels on the 1992 exposure limit list [Japan]
Kyoyō nōdo zanteichi (1992) no teian riyū [in Japanese]
Review of relevant primary literature on arsine, silver and its compounds, chloromethyl methyl ether, cobalt and its compounds and toluene diisocyanate. Exposure limits established in other countries are discussed.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, July 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.385-396. 114 ref.
Kennedy A.L., Brown W.E.
Isocyanates and lung disease - Experimental approaches to molecular mechanisms
Isocyanates are reactive compounds that have commercial applications in the synthesis of a variety of products, including paints, coatings, elastomers, and foams. The correlation between isocyanates and a number of respiratory diseases has been established, primarily at the clinical level. This article aims at bridging the gap of understanding between clinical symptoms and molecular reactivity, with emphasis on experimental approaches that serve to complement clinical and epidemiological data.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.7, No.2, p.301-329. Illus. 95 ref.
Foussereau J., Cavelier C.
Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis due to constituents of plastics
Les dermites de contact par irritation et par allergie aux constituants de matières plastiques [in French]
This information note deals with skin irritation and allergies due to the constituents of plastics (monomers, oligomers, starting materials hardeners, additives); fully polymerised plastics are not allergenic. Constituents are classified by type and frequency of skin damage: irritants (cyanoacrylates and allylic polyesters); frequently allergenic products (epoxies, acrylates and methacrylates); rarely allergenic products (some aminoplasts and phenoplasts, polyurethanes, unsaturated polyesters, vinyl plastics, cellulosic polyethers, other resins and additives). The impact of these products on the skin is more a function of their chemical properties than of the amounts occurring in a given formulation. The observed broad distribution of dermatoses reflects the diversity of plastics manufactured and the number of subjects involved in their production.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.50, p.263-291. Illus. ca.340 ref.
Janko M., McCarthy K., Fajer M., van Raalte J.
Occupational exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate-based polyisocyanates in the state of Oregon, 1980-1990
Monitoring of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene (HDI) monomers and HDI polyisocyanates from spray painting and related activities was conducted by taking 562 air samples from 60 workplaces in Oregon, USA, from 1980-1990. A high number of the samples (42%) exceeded the Oregon permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 1mg/m3 for HDI polyisocyanates. Spray finishing operations were divided into three categories: continuous industrial spraying, auto body repair shops, and intermittent spray operations of large objects. In all the surveys, the ventilation facilities and personal protective equipment were evaluated. The exposure levels were related to the HDI polymer content of the paint, types of spray guns used, ventilation facilities, and personal work practices. The impact of the Oregon PEL on the use of personal protective equipment is discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1992, Vol.53, No.5, p.331-338. Illus. 21 ref.
Lesage J., Goyer N., Desjardins F., Vincent J.Y., Perrault G.
Workers' exposure to isocyanates
A model of exposure to isocyanates, based on knowledge of industrial processes and starting materials and the results of industrial hygiene surveys, is proposed. This model of exposure predicts the concentration and physical form of airborne isocyanate monomers and oligomers. A new sampling and analytical system was developed that is capable of determining the physical and chemical characteristics of occupational exposure to a variety of aliphatic and aromatic isocyanates as required by the exposure model. The practicality of the system was evaluated during field trials. Airborne concentrations of isocyanates were measured in two foam plants, nine paint shops, and two foundries to verify the usefulness of the model. Exposure in foam plants was predominantly to gaseous monomer isocyanates. Exposure to oligomer isocyanates was higher than expected in paint shops. Both monomer and oligomer isocyanates were undetectable in foundries.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.146-153. Illus. 37 ref.
Vandenplas O., Malo J.L., Cartier A., Perreault G., Cloutier Y.
Closed-circuit methodology for inhalation challenge tests with isocyanates
A closed-circuit apparatus for generating isocyanates in a gaseous form was developed to help in the diagnosis of isocyanate-induced occupational asthma. Twenty subjects suspected of having isocyanate-induced asthma were tested using both the older, small challenge room method and the newer method in a randomised sequential way. Isocyanate concentrations were more stable with the closed-circuit apparatus than with the challenge room method. The percentage of the total exposure time during which concentrations were above 20ppb was reduced from 11.3 to 4.5%. The two methods yielded the same number of positive and negative responses, except for one subject who did not have a positive reaction when tested with the challenge room method. The pattern and magnitude of asthmatic reactions were similar for both methods. However, the duration of exposure was shorter with the challenge room method than with the closed-circuit method.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Mar. 1992, Vol.145, No.3, p.582-587. Illus. 30 ref.
Estlander T., Keskinen H., Jolanki R., Kanerva L.
Occupational dermatitis from exposure to polyurethane chemicals
In addition to asthma, contact dermatitis may also develop from occupational contact with polyurethane (PU) chemicals. 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis from exposure to PU chemicals were diagnosed in 1974-1990. The present paper summarises the results and gives detailed descriptions of 3 such patients. The results suggest that when allergy to PU chemicals is suspected, patch tests should include, in addition to diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA), at least 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) 1.5-2% pet. They also suggest that test substances can be used for over a year, and that allergy to MDA may point to MDI exposure contained in PU chemicals.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1992, Vol.27, No.3, p.161-165. 17 ref.
Saetta M., Di Stefano A., Maestrelli P., De Marzo N., Milani G.F., Pivirotto F., Mapp C.E., Fabbri L.M.
Airway mucosal inflammation in occupational asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate
The light and electron microscopic structure of lobar bronchial biopsies was examined in nine subjects with occupational asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and in four non-asthmatic controls who had never been exposed to TDI. Inflammatory cell numbers were separately assessed in the intact epithelium, in the more superficial layer of the submucosa, and in the total submucosa. Asthmatic subjects had an increased number of inflammatory cells in the airway mucosa compared with control subjects. The results showed that in patients with occupational asthma induced by TDI, bronchial mucosa shows pathologic features, such as inflammatory cell infiltrate and thickening of subepithelial collagen, similar to those described in non-occupational asthma.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Jan. 1992, Vol.145, No.1, p.160-168. Illus. 26 ref.
Saetta M., Maestrelli P., Di Stefano A., De Marzo N., Milani G.F., Pivirotto F., Mapp C.E., Fabbri L.M.
Effect of cessation of exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) on bronchial mucosa of subjects with TDI-induced asthma
The effect of cessation of exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) was studied in six patients with TDI-induced asthma. At diagnosis, asthmatic subjects had thickened reticular basement membrane and increased numbers of mononuclear cells and eosinophils in the lamina propria when compared with control subjects. Electron microscopy showed degranulation of eosinophils and mast cells in asthmatics. Six months after cessation of exposure, the thickness of the reticular basement membrane was significantly reduced compared with that at diagnosis, and it decreased to values similar to those of control biopsies. Inflammatory cell numbers in bronchial mucosa of asthmatic subjects did not change significantly six months after removal from exposure, and degranulation of eosinophils and mast cells was still present. At the end of the study, airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and/or sensitivity to TDI persisted in most of the asthmatic patients despite the cessation of exposure and the disappearance of asthmatic symptoms.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Jan. 1992, Vol.145, No.1, p.169-174. Illus. 18 ref.
Diisocianato de 1,5-naftileno [in Spanish]
Spanish version of future IPCS ICSC 0653. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; asthmatic reactions. Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization; asthma; may affect the lungs.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.
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