Isocyanates - 406 entries found
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Redlich C.A., Stowe M.H., Wisnewski A.V., Eisen E.A., Karol M.H., Lemus R., Holm C.T., Chung J.S., Sparer J., Liu Y., Woskie S.R., Appiah-Pippim J., Gore R., Cullen M.R.
Subclinical immunologic and physiologic responses in hexamethylene diisocyanate-exposed auto body shop workers
Diisocyanates are potent sensitizing agents and a frequently identified cause of occupational asthma. A cross-sectional field epidemiologic study was conducted to characterize the effects of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) exposures on auto body shop workers. Data on the 75 subjects enrolled in the study were collected by questionnaire and physiological testing. No overt cases of clinically apparent diisocyanate asthma were identified based on spirometry, methacholine challenge, peak flows, and symptoms. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation was present in 30% of HDI-exposed workers and HDI-specific IgG in 34% of HDI-exposed workers, but they were not associated. HDI-specific IgE was detected in two workers. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation, increased methacholine responsiveness, and symptoms of chest tightness and shortness of breath were more common in the most heavily HDI-exposed workers, the painters. These findings demonstrate the presence of HDI-specific immune responses in a large proportion of healthy HDI-exposed workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.587-597. Illus. 31 ref.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)
Monomeric and polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) are used for the manufacturing of polyurethane elastomers, rigid and flexible foams, and binders and adhesives. In the presence of water, MDI is rapidly hydrolysed to methylenedianiline (MDA). MDI is not acutely toxic to laboratory animals. Animal data provides clear evidence of skin and respiratory sensitization to MDI. In a two-year chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity study, changes in the respiratory tract of rats were observed, but carcinogenicity data were inconclusive. The IARC classification for MDI is 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans), while MDA is classified 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans). The health effects of most concern are occupationally-induced asthma, hypersensitivity pneumoconiosis and inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 32p. 107 ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (CHF 11.20 in developing countries).
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad27.pdf [in English]
Self diagnosis - Do you work with isocyanates?
This checklist is designed to enable workers to determine the likelihood of their exposure to isocyanates. It consists of a series of questions aimed at establishing whether the chemicals used at the workplace contain isocyanates and whether isocyanates could be generated at the workplace.
Prevent, Box 20133, 104 60 Stockholm, Sweden, 2000. Internet document (pdf format). 4p.
http://www.prevent.se/doc_pdf/verktyg/pdf/isoeng_diagnos.pdf [in English]
De Zotti R., Muran A., Zambon F.
Two cases of paraoccupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI)
A report of two cases of paraoccupational asthma caused by tolylene diisocyanate (TDI). The first patient was a metal worker with previous occasional work in an adjacent polyurethane factory. A specific inhalation (SIC) test, performed with TDI, confirmed the diagnosis of TDI asthma. The second case was a woman working part time in the offices of a factory for varnishing wooden chairs. TDI was present in the products used. The inhalation test confirmed the diagnosis of TDI asthma, despite the fact that the patient's current job did not present risk of exposure to the substance. These two cases suggest the need for more studies evaluating the health risk for the general population living near polyurethane factories or other firms that use TDI.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.57, No.12, p.837-839. Illus. 9 ref.
Meredith S.K., Bugler J., Clark R.L.
Isocyanate exposure and occupational asthma: A case-referent study
Case study of 34 workers from two British manufacturing companies. In one plant occupational asthma was mainly attributed to tolylene diisocyanate exposure, while in the other one to 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate. No difference in peak exposures between cases and referents was found in either plant. However, time weighted average (TWA) exposures at the time of onset of asthma were higher for cases. The findings were that asthma can occur at low concentrations of isocyanates, but even then the higher the exposure, the greater the risk. Smoking and atopy seemed to increase the odds of this occupational asthma due to isocyanates.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.57, No.12, p.830-836. 25 ref.
Jang A.S., Choi I.S., Koh Y.I., Moon J.D., Lee K.J.
Increase in airway hyperresponsiveness among workers exposed to methylene diphenyldiisocyanate compared to workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate at a petrochemical plant in Korea
To investigate airway hyperresponsiveness induced by methylene diphenyldiisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI), questionnaires, allergic skin test results and nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) test results were studied in 64 exposed workers and 27 controls at a petrochemical complex in the Republic of Korea. Methacholine challenge tests were done, and the Bronchial Responsiveness Index (BRindex) calculated. Prevalence of AHR was higher in MDI-exposed workers than in TDI-exposed workers (20% vs. 4.7%). 23 workers of all subjects had respiratory symptoms. MDI-exposed workers had higher BRindex (0.73 vs. 0.62 for controls). Workers exposed to TDI or MDI with respiratory symptoms, in comparison with exposed workers without respiratory symptoms, had a significantly higher BRindex (0.82 vs. 0.60). There was a significant negative correlation between FEV1 and Brindex. Workers exposed to MDI are at a higher risk of asthma in comparison with TDI-exposed workers and control subjects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2000, Vol.37, No.6, p.663-667. Illus. 29 ref.
Franklin P.J., Goldenberg W.S., Ducatman A.M., Franklin E.
Too hot to handle: An unusual exposure of HDI in specialty painters
Between November 1993 and May 1994, seven painters and one boilermaker who were working at three different power plants were examined following complaints of asthma, dyspnoea or rash. At their respective work sites, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) was applied to the hot surfaces of boilers that were shut down but not allowed sufficient time to cool. Consequently, these workers were exposed to volatile HDI and its thermal decomposition products. All of these workers underwent a complete physical examination, spirometry and methacholine challenge testing. All 8 workers complained of dyspnoea, while 4 of the 8 also complained of rash. On examination, 3 workers were methacholine challenge positive and 2 had persistent rash. At follow-up 4 years later, 5 workers still had to use inhalation medication and one had progressive asthma and dermatitis. All 8 workers, by the time of the follow-up, had gone through economic and occupational changes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.431-437. 39 ref.
Do you work with isocyanates and polyurethane?
This booklet is aimed at persons who face the risk of exposure to isocyanates in occupational settings. Topics addressed: products and industries where isocyanates and polyurethanes are found; symptoms caused by exposure to isocyanates (nose and eye irritation, lung function impairment, asthma); medical supervision; limitation of exposure (substitution, ventilation, local exhaust); air monitoring; training; responsibilities of employers; legal aspects.
Prevent, Box 20133, 104 60 Stockholm, Sweden, 1999. Internet document (pdf format). 20p. Illus.
http://www.prevent.se/doc_pdf/verktyg/pdf/isoeng_broschyr.pdf [in English]
Låstbom L., Camner P., Ryrfeldt Å.
Acute lung function impairment by hexamethylene diisocyanate and toluene diisocyanate - A comparative study using isolated guinea pig lungs
Isolated, perfused and ventilated guinea pig lungs were exposed, through the airways, to two concentrations of toluene diisocyanate, TDI (21.7 and 25.2mg/m3) and hexamethylene diisocyanate, HDI (12 and 26.3mg/m3). At the low concentrations, both TDI and HDI caused a moderate decrease in conductance, Gaw (approx. 17%) and compliance, Cdyn (approx. 8%) after one hour of exposure. However, at the high concentrations, HDI caused a much sharper decrease in lung function (approx. 84% for Gaw and approx. 73% for Cdyn) than TDI (approx. 28% for Gaw and approx. 22% for Cdyn). Neither TDI nor HDI caused any effect on the perfusion flow. It is concluded that HDI is 2-3.5 times more potent than TDI to induce bronchoconstriction in the isolated perfused guinea pig lung.
Occupational Hygiene, 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.111-120. Illus. 20 ref.
Santolaya Martínez C.
Environmental monitoring of isocyanate exposure
Isocianatos: control ambiental de la exposición [in Spanish]
After a review of the various isocyanates encountered at work (MDI, TDI and HDI) and their effects on health (asthma, sensitization, irritation of the eyes and throat, bronchitis, bronchospasms and pulmonary oedema), this information note presents five methods for monitoring isocyanates at the place of work. The preferred method is a function of the isocyanate to be measured and the process in which it is used. The exposure limits set by the INSHT are 0.036mg/m3 (0.005ppm) for TDI, 0.052mg/m3 (0.005ppm) for MDI and 0.035mg/m3 (0.005ppm) for HDI.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 4p. 11 ref.
Crespo J., Galán J.
Exposure to MDI during the process of insulating buildings with sprayed polyurethane foam
Buildings are often insulated with sprayed-in-place polyurethane foam even though few data are available concerning exposure levels to isocyanates during the spraying process. New data are given on personal exposure to methylene-bis (4-phenylisocyanate) (MDI) during the insulation of dwellings and office buildings with sprayed polyurethane foam. Personal samples were taken for the sprayer and helper during outdoor and indoor applications. Levels of exposure were significant, especially for the sprayer, with values of up to 0.077mg/m3 and 0.400mg/m3 during outdoor and indoor applications, respectively.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1999, Vol.43, No.6, p.415-419. 12 ref.
Williams N.R., Jones K., Cocker J.
Biological monitoring to assess exposure from use of isocyanates in motor vehicle repair
A method for the measurement of a metabolite of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) was developed and used to assess the exposure of sprayers employed in motor vehicle repair shops. Urine samples were taken from sprayers wearing personal protective equipment and spraying in booths or with local exhaust ventilation, from bystanders, and from unexposed subjects. Samples were analysed for a metabolite of HDI, hexamethylene diamine (HDA), by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HDA was detected in four sprayers and one bystander out of 22 workers. No HDA was detected in the urine of unexposed subjects. Exposure to isocyanates still occurs despite the use of personal protective equipment and the use of a booth or extracted space. Health surveillance is likely to be required to provide feedback on the adequacy of controls even if such precautions are used and to identify cases of early asthma. Biological monitoring can provide a useful additional tool to assess exposure and the adequacy of controls in this group of exposed workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.56, No.9, p.598-601. 18 ref.
Key-Schwarz R.J., Tucker S.P.
An approach to area sampling and analysis for total isocyanates in workplace air
An approach to sampling and analysis for total isocyanates in workplace air was developed and evaluated. Isocyanates present in air are derivatized with a fluorescent reagent, tryptamine, in an impinger and subsequently analysed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has the advantages of being compatible with reversed-phase HPLC and not evaporating during sampling. DMSO also may dissolve aerosol particles more efficiently during sampling than relatively nonpolar solvents. Several formulations containing diisocyanate prepolymers have been tested with this method in the laboratory. This method is recommended for area sampling only due to possible hazards from contact with DMSO solutions containing isocyanate derivatives. The limits of detection are 0.1 µg/sample for 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, 0.2 µg/sample for 2,6-toluene diisocyanate, 0.3 µg/sample for methylene bisphenyl diisocyanate, and 0.2 µg/sample for 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1999, Vol.60, No.2, p.200-207. Illus. 48 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Isocyanates: Health hazards and precautionary measures
This round-up of health hazards posed by exposure to isocyanates and precautionary measures covers: Toxic effects; maximum exposure limits adopted in the United Kingdom (8h TWA: 0.02mg/m3, 15min TWA: 0.07mg/m3, both expressed in terms of free isocyanate groups); storage and handling; decontamination and spillages; respiratory protective equipment; medical supervision; first aid; personnel training and information.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 5th ed.,1999. 9p. 30 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.
Bernstein D.I., Jolly A.
Current diagnostic methods for diisocyanate induced occupational asthma
Accurate diagnosis of diisocyanate asthma requires a systematic approach that combines information obtained from the occupational history, immunologic tests and physiologic studies. Recommended methods for evaluation of diisocyanate asthma are similar to approaches for other causative agents. Serologic assays of specific IgE are specific but insensitive diagnostic markers of diisocyanate asthma. If possible, workers should be evaluated, while at work, in order to demonstrate work-related changes in lung function associated with diisocyanate exposures. Specific bronchoprovocation challenge testing with diisocyanates, is reserved for situations where the diagnosis cannot be confirmed at work. Such tests can be performed safely but should be conducted exclusively at specialized centres by experienced personnel. Published diagnostic guidelines for occupational asthma are directly applicable to the evaluation of diisocyanate asthma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.36, No.4, p.459-468. Illus. 34 ref.
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)
Isocianato bisfenílico de metileno (MDI) [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit (OSHA): 0.2mg/m3. Health hazards: delayed effects; irritation; skin and respiratory sensitization; allergic asthma; pulmonary oedema.
Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 1999, Vol.61, No.12, 4p. Insert.
Health and Safety Executive, Health and Safety Laboratory
Organic isocyanates in air
Revised version of CIS 95-279. Topics: air sampling; aromatic amines; diphenylmethane diisocyanate; isophorone diisocyanate; 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate; hexamethylene diisocyanate; data sheet; description of equipment; description of technique; determination in air; first aid; high-pressure liquid chromatography; isocyanates; personal sampling; sampling and analysis; toxic effects.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., Jan. 1999. 12p. 32 ref. Price: GBP 12.00.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for hexamethylene diisocyanate
Topics: hexamethylene diisocyanate; criteria document; exposure evaluation; functional respiratory disorders; glossary; health hazards; irritation; limitation of exposure; literature survey; neurological effects; toxic effects; toxicity evaluation; toxicology; USA.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 1998. xvii, 157p. Illus. approx. 185 ref.
Deschamps F., Prevost A., Lavaud F., Kochman S.
Mechanisms of occupational asthma induced by isocyanates
Isocyanates are some of the most important low molecular weight compounds associated with occupational asthma. These compounds are often volatile and are highly reactive on the mucous membranes, especially the conjunctivae and the respiratory tract. The physiological causes of isocynate-induced asthma are reviewed. The main mechanisms are immunological, pharmacological and/or irritative. Topics: asthma; biological effects; immunology; irritation; isocyanates; literature survey; mucous membranes; pathogenesis; pharmacological anamnesis; symptoms; volatile substances.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 1998, Vol.42, No.1, p.33-36. Illus. 36 ref.
2,4-Tolylene diisocyanate, 2,6-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate)
Diizocyjanian tolueno-2,4-diylu, diizocyjanian tolueno-2,6-diylu, 4,4'-metylenobis(fenyloizocyjanian) [in Polish]
Topics: 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate; 2,6-tolylene diisocyanate; description of technique; determination in air; diphenylmethane diisocyanate; sampling and analysis.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 1998, Vol.19, p.59-62. 2 ref.
Stability studies of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) on glass fiber filters
A study conducted under field conditions found that more diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) was collected from glass fibre filters treated with an appropriate solvent in the field than from those shipped to the laboratory dry (in their holders). If field desorptions were not performed, the airborne concentrations of MDI would be underestimated. While field desorption may not be necessary in all applications where isocyanates are used, it is necessary where dusty environments are encountered, such as in the forest products industry. Topics: air sampling; airborne dust; comparative study; diphenylmethane diisocyanate; fibrous filters; glass fibre; sample processing; solvent extraction.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1998, Vol.59, No.9, p.645-647. Illus. 8 ref.
Siribaddana S.H., Wijesundera A., Fernando R.
Toluene diisocyanate exposure in a glove manufacturing plant
Topics: tolylene diisocyanate; case study; enzyme disturbances; irritation; latex; neurological effects; pulmonary function; rubber industry; Sri Lanka.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1998, Vol.36, No.1 and 2, p.95-98. 7 ref.
4-Chlorphenylisocyanat [in German]
Repeated contact with 4-chlorophenyl isocyanate causes itchy erythema and dryness of the skin. The substance irritates the eyes. Animal experiments show high toxicity upon inhalation exposure and harmful to toxic effects upon acute oral and dermal administration. No genotoxic effect has been observed. A comparison of the toxic effects of 4-chlorophenyl isocyanate, phenyl isocyanate and 4-isopropylphenyl isocyanate in humans and animals is also presented. In humans, the only toxic effect described is an itchy erythema after repeated contact with chlorophenyl isocyanate.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 23p. 20 ref.
Phenylisocyanat [in German]
Workers exposed to isocyanates including phenyl isocyanate showed specific IgE for isocyanate-albumin conjugates. These workers also showed asthmatic symptoms. Animal experiments show the substance to be harmful upon oral administration. A low dermal toxicity and a high inhalation toxicity have been observed. Phenyl isocyanate induces severe skin and eye irritation and sensitization. No mutagenic or embryotoxic activity has been observed. A comparison of the toxic effects of 4-chlorophenyl isocyanate, phenyl isocyanate and 4-isopropylphenyl isocyanate in humans and animals is also presented. In humans, the only toxic effect described is an itchy erythema after repeated contact with chlorophenyl isocyanate.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 35p. 40 ref.
Diisocyanate de toluylène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-440. Tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) is usually a mixture of 80% tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate and 20% tolylene 2,6-diisocyanate. Acute toxicity: splashes may cause severe skin and eye lesions; irritation of ocular, respiratory tract and digestive mucous membranes; bronchial irritation (cough, asthmatic dyspnoea); neurological signs; delayed pulmonary oedema. Chronic toxicity: contact dermatitis; allergic asthma; respiratory disorders; delayed pulmonary oedema; bronchopneumonia; restrictive ventilatory impairment; sensitization. Exposure limits: France: TWA = 0.08mg/m3 (0.010ppm); ceiling value (5min) = 0.16mg/m3 (0.020ppm); USA (ACGIH, 1996): TWA for tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate = 0.005ppm. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.615-006-00-4; T, R23, R36/37/38, R42, S23, S26, S28, S38, S45, 209-544-4, 202-039-0. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 4p. Illus. 24 ref.
Jakobsson K., Kronholm-Diab K., Rylander L., Hagmar L.
Airway symptoms and lung function in pipelayers exposed to thermal degradation products from MDI-based polyurethane
The prevalence of episodes of irritative eye symptoms, congestion of the nose and soreness or dryness in the throat was much higher among a group of pipelayers exposed to polyurethane (PUR) containing methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) than among unexposed controls. Most of the pipelayers with symptoms reported that these had started and occurred in relation to PUR welding tasks. Pipelayers with recent high PUR exposure showed a significant reduction of forced expiratory volume in one second compared with controls. Exposure to thermal degradation products from MDI-based polyurethane has adverse effects on the mucous membranes and airways. Topics: diphenylmethane diisocyanate; polyurethane; epidemiologic study; irritation; one-second forced expiratory volume; pipelaying; pulmonary function; pyrolysis products; respiratory diseases; smoking; welding and cutting.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1997, Vol.54, No.12, p.873-879. 22 ref.
Thompson T., Belsito D.V.
Allergic contact dermatitis from a diisocyanate in wool processing
Topics: triethylenetetramine; methylenebis(4-cyclohexyl isocyanate); case study; eczema; isocyanates; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests; wool industry.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1997, Vol.37, No.5, p.239. 7 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Isocyanates: Health surveillance in motor vehicle repair
Topics: asthma; data sheet; health service records; irritants; isocyanates; medical supervision; paint spraying; respirators; spray booths; United Kingdom; vehicle repair and servicing.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1997. 2p. 9 ref.
Woellner R.C., Hall S., Greaves I., Schoenwetter W.F.
Epidemic of asthma in a wood products plant using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate
Topics: asthma; diphenylmethane diisocyanate; dyspnoea; respiratory function tests; respiratory impairment; sensitization; USA; woodworking industry.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1997, Vol.31, No.1, p.56-63. Illus. 16 ref.
Randolph B.W., Lalloo U.G., Gouws E., Colvin M.S.E.
An evaluation of the respiratory health status of automotive spray-painters exposed to paints containing hexamethylene di-isocyanates in the greater Durban area
Topics: dermatitis; eye irritation; hexamethylene diisocyanate; motor vehicle industry; paint spraying; pulmonary function; respiratory function tests; South Africa; spirometry.
South African Medical Journal, Mar. 1997, Vol.87, No.3, p.318-323. Illus. 24 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Isocyanates: Health hazards and precautionary measures
Topics: asthma; containment of spills; data sheet; determination in air; first aid; handling and storage; information of personnel; irritants; isocyanates; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; respirators; sensitization; threshold limit values; toxic substances; United Kingdom; uses.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Nov. 1997. 8p. 25 ref. Price: GBP 5.50.
Buick J.B., Todd G.R.G.
Concomitant alveolitis and asthma following exposure to triphenylmethane triisocyanate
Topics: asthma; case study; extrinsic allergic alveolitis; respiratory function tests; triphenylmethane triisocyanate.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1997, Vol.47, No.8, p.504-506. 6 ref.
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document, translation of a report finalized in April 1993: the main effect of hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) in humans is irritation and sensitization of the respiratory tract; immunological alterations have been observed in persons with HDI hypersensitivity; hexamethylenediamine has been observed in the urine of HDI exposed workers.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1997. xv, 94p. 171 ref. Price: DEM 80.00.
Dalene M., Skarping G., Lind P.
Workers exposed to thermal degradation products of TDI- and MDI-based polyurethane: Biomonitoring of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4-MDA in hydrolyzed urine and plasma
Blood and urine samples were collected from 15 factory workers exposed to thermal degradation products of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)-based polyurethane glue and to 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-based flexible foam. Urine and plasma were analyzed after acidic hydrolysis, and the concentrations of the isocyanates' corresponding amines, 2,4-, 2,6-toluenediamine (TDA), and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) were determined. Peaks of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA and 4,4'-MDA in urine varied during and between workdays. The individual variation in plasma concentration of these substances with time was small, but between individuals the variation was great. Results demonstrate the value of these biomarkers for assessing isocyanate exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1997, Vol.58, No.8, p.587-591. 19 ref.
Tinnerberg H., Dalene M., Skarping G.
Air and biological monitoring of toluene diisocyanate in a flexible foam plant
Comparative air measurements of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) were performed at a TDI flexible foam plant. Urine and plasma samples were also analyzed. Sampling of isocyanates on glass-fibre filters impregnated with 9-(N-methyl-amino-methyl)-anthracene and glycerol followed by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet determination proved to be a robust and reproducible method for the determination of concentrations well below the threshold limit value. Sampling during several hours was possible. Filter-tape measurements enabled the estimation of isocyanate exposure during a whole workday. Levels of 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diamine in urine reflected exposure during the past few hours, and plasma levels reflected exposure during the past several days.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1997, Vol.58, No.3, p.229-235. 20 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Safe use of isocyanates in printing and laminating
This guidance is primarily concerned with the inhalation hazards arising from exposure to isocyanates. Contents: use of isocyanates in printing and printed packaging; health effects (sensitization, irritation, dermatitis, asthma); occupational exposure limits; selection of isocyanate products; storage; respirators; mixing processes; application systems; inspection and maintenance of ventilation systems; decontamination and spillage; waste disposal; air monitoring; health surveillance; first aid; information of personnel.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. vi, 33p. Illus. 39 ref. Price: GBP 10.50.
Lind P., Dalene M., Skarping G., Hagmar L.
Toxicokinetics of 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine in hydrolysed urine and plasma after occupational exposure to 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate
To assess the toxicokinetics of 2,4- and 2,6- toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in chronically exposed subjects, blood and urine from 11 Swedish workers at two flexible foam polyurethane production plants were sampled. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diamine (TDA) were measured as pentafluoropropionic anhydride derivatives after acidic hydrolysis of plasma (P-TDA, ng/mL) and urine (U-TDA, µg/h). Concentrations of P-2,4-TDA and P-2,6-TDA, and urinary elimination rates of 2,4-TDA and 2,6-TDA before and after holiday periods are reported for each of the plants. The half-life in plasma of chronically exposed workers for 2,4- and 2,6-TDA was twice as long as for volunteers with short term exposure. An indication of a two-phase elimination pattern in urine was found. The first phase was related to the more recent exposure and the much slower second phase was probably related to release of TDA in urine from TDI adducts in the body.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.53, No.2, p.94-99. Illus. 16 ref.
Overview of diisocyanate occupational asthma
Topics: asthma; tolylene diisocyanate; diagnosis; epidemiological aspects; immunology; isocyanates; pathogenesis; transfer to other work.
Toxicology, 1996, Vol.111, p.181-189. Illus. 24 ref.
Lummus Z.L., Rafeul A., Bernstein J.A., Bernstein D.I.
Characterization of histamine releasing factors in diisocyanate-induced occupational asthma
Topics: asthma; tolylene diisocyanate; histamine release; immunobiological changes; immunology; isocyanates; sensitization.
Toxicology, 1996, Vol.111, p.191-206. Illus. 51 ref.
Lemière C., Cartier A., Dolovich J., Chan-Yeung M., Grammer L., Ghezzo H., L'Archevêque J., Malo J.L.
Outcome of specific bronchial responsiveness to occupational agents after removal from exposure
Topics: asthma; autoimmunization; immunology; inhalation tests; isocyanates; serological reactions; transfer to other work.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Aug. 1996, Vol.154, p.329-333. 22 ref.
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. It is a carcinogen and should be handled with extreme caution. May irritate the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause pulmonary oedema, memory and concentration problems and an asthma-like allergy.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. It is a mutagen and a possible carcinogen and should be handled with extreme caution. May irritate the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause pulmonary oedema and an asthma-like allergy. May cause dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting, memory and concentration problems.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. May burn the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. May cause permanent eye damage, lung oedema and an asthma-like allergy. It is a flammable and highly reactive chemical.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.
Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Rivas R.D.
Exposure to isocyanates and organic solvents, and pulmonary-function changes in workers in a polyurethane molding process
Short-term changes in pulmonary function were determined in a group of urethane mould operators exposed to isocyanates and solvents, and in a control group of nonexposed workers. Measured concentrations of airborne chemicals, including hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and HDI polyisocyanate, were below recommended exposure criteria; no daily or weekly reduction in pulmonary function was observed. In a long-term study (2.5 years), isocyanate/solvent exposed subjects showed significant reduction in forced vital capacity and expiratory volume in 1 second. No such changes were observed in the non-exposed subjects or in those exposed only to organic solvents. Long-term exposure to isocyanates, even in very low concentrations, may contribute to impaired pulmonary function.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.38, No.12, p.1205-1212. 36 ref.
Simpson C., Garabrant D., Torrey S., Robins T., Franzblau A.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reaction and occupational asthma associated with 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl) cyclohexane pre-polymer
Twenty three of 34 workers who had worked in the injection moulding operation making polyurethane foam parts at an automobile manufacturing plant developed respiratory symptoms and/or systemic symptoms over a 2-month period following the full production use of a new diisocyanate paint that contained 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl)cyclohexane pre-polymer (BIC). At 3 months, all subjects underwent an interview, physical examination, pre- and post-shift pulmonary function tests and either methacholine challenge test or bronchodilator challenge. The most frequently cited symptoms were dyspnoea, cough, chest tightness, chills, wheezing and myalgias, arthralgias and nausea. Thirteen subjects had either a positive methacholine challenge test or a positive response to bronchodilator challenge, making the overall prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness 38%. The overall prevalence of hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reactions among line operators in the injection moulding process was 27%. The results suggest that BIC may cause asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reactions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.48-55. 26 ref.
Banks D.E., Tarlo S.M., Masri F., Rando R.J., Weissman D.N.
Bronchoprovocation tests in the diagnosis of isocyanate-induced asthma
This study reviews work performed over the past 25 years to improve the approach to non-irritant exposures for the accurate diagnosis of isocyanate-induced asthma. Although the technology used in testing has become more sophisticated, the requirements of the physician have remained unchanged. Direct physician involvement in the testing procedure remains critical to the worker's safety and for the accurate diagnosis of isocyanate-induced asthma.
Chest, May 1996, Vol. 109, No. 5, p.1370-1379. Illus. 33 ref.
Rudzinski W.E., Norman S., Dahlquist B., Greebon K.W., Richardson A., Locke K., Thomas T.
Evaluation of 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine for the analysis of isocyanates in spray-painting operations
A new reagent, 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine (MAP), was evaluated for the derivatization of airborne 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and polyisocyanates generated during spray-painting operations. The reagent, which offers enhanced sensitivity and uniformity of response to both the monomeric and oligomeric forms of HDI, was compared with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MOP). The validity of the side-by-side sampling protocol was also evaluated. HDI monomer concentrations were below the limit of detection. For polyisocyanates, there was no significant difference in the results as determined by two impingers containing MAP and a third containing MOP when these were positioned in a side-by-side arrangement.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.10, p.914-917. 20 ref.
Streicher R.P., Arnold J.E., Ernst M.K., Cooper C.V.
Development of a novel derivatization reagent for the sampling and analysis of total isocyanate group in air and comparison of its performance with that of several established reagents
A novel derivatization reagent, 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine (MAP), was developed for the sampling and analysis of total isocyanate group in air. Derivatives were prepared by reacting five mono- and difunctional isocyanates with MAP and with three other established isocyanate derivatizing reagents. The reactivity and the intensity and variability of detector response were compared for all reagents. Reaction rates with phenyl isocyanate are discussed. The favourable performance of MAP warrants its further study as a reagent for the determination of total isocyanate group in air.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.10, p.905-913. 30 ref.
Alberts W.M., do Pico G.A.
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome
This review outlines the condition known as reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS), which has been recognized in recent years as a distinct subset of occupational nonimmunologic asthma. It may be induced by different irritants (e.g. frequently by tolylene diisocyanate). The diagnostic criteria are reported together with several published cases of patients with RADS. The epidemiology, controversial aspects, pathology and mechanisms of this syndrome are also discussed.
Chest, June 1996, Vol.109, No.6, p.1618-1626. 72 ref.
Cullen M.R., Redlich C.A., Beckett W.S., Weltmann B., Sparer J., Jackson G., Ruff T., Rubinstein E., Holden W.
Feasibility study of respiratory questionnaire and peak flow recordings in autobody shop workers exposed to isocyanate-containing spray paint: Observations and limitations
In a questionnaire survey of shop owners and workers at 23 autobody shops, data were collected on the characteristics of the shop and the spray paint systems in use, industrial hygiene practices, and workers' respiratory symptoms. Peak expiratory flow measurements were collected for 24 workers. The approach met with limited success. While a high rate of respiratory symptoms consistent with occupational asthma was identified (19.6%), validation of the questionnaire by use of peak expiratory flow recordings was limited by poor worker participation and inadequate data collection. Further studies are required to document rates of occupational asthma among these workers.
Occupational Medicine, June 1996, Vol.46, No.3, p.197-204. Illus. 29 ref.
Avashia B., Battigelli M.C., Morgan W.K.C., Reger R.B.
Effects of prolonged low exposure to methyl isocyanate
Data on pulmonary function, smoking history and occupational history were obtained for 431 workers at a large chemical plant. Routine and special sampling data were used to classify jobs according to methyl isocyanate exposure. No specific or consistent pulmonary impairment was evident. Long-term, low-level exposure to methyl isocyanate at the levels existing at this plant could not be shown to be producing detectable effects on lung function.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1996, Vol.38, No.6, p.625-630. 11 ref.
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