Glycol ethers - 139 entries found
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Verbilov A.A., Pis'ko G.T., Gamanjuk E.G.
Gas-chromatographic determination of butyl cellosolve in workplace air
Gazohromatografičeskoe opredelenie butilcellozol'va v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Optimal conditions were established for butyl cellosolve determination: 300mm by 3mm column packed with 10% PMS-100 methylsilicone oil on 0.20-0.25mm Chromaton N super; column temperature 140°C; injector temperature 200°C; carrier gas (helium) flow rate 60cm3/min. Samples are taken by pumping air at 0.5L/min for 15min through a Zajcev absorber containing 15mL distilled water. A 2µL aliquot of the water is injected into the gas chromatograph. Time of analysis: 5min; butyl cellosolve retention time: 3min. Detection limit: 0.004µg. The presence of methoxyethanol, ethyl cellosolve, ethyl glycol acetate, ethylene oxide, butyl alcohol and isopropoxyethanol did not interfere with the butyl cellosolve determination.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1987, No.4, p.56. 3 ref.
Summary on the replies received concerning the call for information on ethylene glycol ethers
Résumé des réponses reçues à la demande d'informations sur les glycoléthers [in French]
On the basis of information provided by the US Department of Labour - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) - the Occupational Safety and Health Branch of the ILO addressed a call for information on the following four ethylene glycol ethers: 2-methoxyethanol; 2-methoxyethanol acetate; 2-ethoxyethanol; 2-ethoxyethanol acetate. The national centres of the International Safety and Health Hazard Alert System were requested to provide relevant information from their countries, in particular on: potential health effects, in experimental animals and man; production and control systems; substitution availability; types of protective equipment; workers' exposure and monitoring; training programmes for workers; medical surveillance of exposed workers; control measures; information and data on possible environmental effects. Replies were received from 34 countries.
International Labour Office, International Occupational Safety and Health Hazard Alert System, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Dec. 1987. 24p.
Clapp D.E., Smallwood A.W., Moseley C., DeBord K.E.
Workplace assessment of exposure to 2-ethoxyethanol
The levels measured in this survey ranged from nondetectable to 23.8ppm (for an 8-hour time-weighted average), and a biomonitoring effort was undertaken to determine if metabolites of the chemical could be detected in the urine of exposed workers or if the parent compound could be detected in their blood. No evidence of 2-ethoxyethanol was detected in any of the blood samples; however, exposed workers had measurable levels of 2-ethoxyacetic acid in urine (up to 163mg/g creatinine), while unexposed control subjects showed nondetectable urine levels of this compound. Urinary monitoring is a promising method for assessing exposure to 2-ethoxyethanol, particularly when skin absorption is suspected.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Sep. 1987, Vol.2, No.5, p.183-187. 8 ref.
Gawęda E., Surgiewicz J., Hibner Z.
Chromatographic methods for the determination of trichlorobenzene and butoxyethyl alcohol concentrations in air
Air samples are taken by absorption on activated carbon. Carbon disulfide, which is commonly used for desorption but is strongly toxic, is replaced with p-xylene in the trichlorobenzene determination and with chloroform in the butoxyethyl determination. A column containing 7% OV-17 silicone resin on Chromosorb W-AW-DMCS is used for trichlorobenzene and a column containing 20% Carbowax on the same support is used for butoxyethyl alcohol. The methods can determine all trichlorobenzene isomers at concentrations of 2.5-200mg/m3 and butoxyethyl alcohol at concentrations of 25-1000mg/m3.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol. 37, No. 132, p. 29-42. 12 ref.
Veulemans H., Groeseneken D., Masschelein R., Van Vlem E.
Survey of ethylene glycol ether exposures in Belgian industries and workshops
Starting in 1983, 2,654 air samples from 336 industrial plants in northern Belgium were analysed for the presence of ethylene glycol ethers. One or more ethylene glycol ethers were detected in 262 air samples from 78 plants or small establishments from a wide variety of industries. The ethers were mainly present where printing pastes, inks, paints and varnishes were used. About one-third of the air samples covered other industries. Car repair shops represented a major part of this group. Most frequently identified were ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and its acetate. Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, its acetate and ethylene glycol monobutylether were also present in a large number of air samples. The ethers were not distributed equally among the various groups of operations. Most exposure levels were far below the respective TLVs. About 25% of ethylene glycol concentrations, however, were higher than the current TLV. The majority of air samples revealed complex mixtures of ethylene glycol ethers with other solvents, the glycol ethers often being minor components. The possible implication of these other solvents in glycol ether toxicity and metabolism is discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1987, Vol.48, No.8, p.671-676. 20 ref.
Chemical safety information sheet. Synomym: butyl cellosolve. One page summary based on the Chemical Hazard Summary No.3 published by the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (see 85-720).
National Institute for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment, Department of Labor, CIS Section, Phra Pinklao-Nakorn Chaisri Highway, Talingshan, Bangkok, Thailand, 1987. 1p.
2-Méthoxyéthanol [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Flammable liquid. Synonyms: methyl cellosolve, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Is absorbed readily through the skin. Chronic toxicity: neuropsychic disorders; anaemia; testicular atrophy has been observed in exposed workers. Exposure limit: ACGIH (USA, 1986) 8h TWA = 16mg/m3.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 4p. 26 ref.
2-Butoxyéthanol [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Moderately flammable liquid. Synonyms: butyl cellosolve, ethylene glycol, monobutyl ether. Readily absorbed through the skin, irritates skin and mucous membranes. Exposure limit (France, 1982): 8h TWA = 120mg/m3.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 4p. 19 ref.
2-Ethoxyéthanol [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonyms are cellosolve, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether. Toxic effects: irritation of the skin and upper respiratory tract at concentrations >200ppm. Is absorbed readily through the skin. Suspected human teratogen. Exposure limit: ACGIH (USA, 1986), TLV = 19mg/m3.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 4p. 17 ref.
Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Laijoki T.
Glycidyl ethers in epoxy resin products
Epoksituotteiden sisältämät glysidyylieetterit [in Finnish]
The most important sensitiser is the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (molecular weight 340). Most glycidyl ethers used as reactive diluents are also sensitisers. Thirty-one liquid and solid epoxy resin products were studied: resins, paints and adhesives. Glycidyl ethers were analysed by gas chromatography. The liquid resins contained 42-82% diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, the solid resins 1-16%. Epoxy resins for coatings contained 0.2-30% diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A. Correspondingly, this ether constituted 18-76% of epoxy resin adhesives. More than half of the epoxy products studied contained varying amounts of reactive diluents (0.1-20%); over 10% reactive diluent was found in 2 modified epoxy resins. Epoxy resin products may contain sensitising glycidyl ethers, even when these are not mentioned in the information given for the product.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia, 1986, Vol.4, No.1, p.41-46. Illus. 4 ref.
Johanson G., Rick U.
Occurrence of glycol ethers in chemical products in Sweden
Förekomst av glykoletrar i kemiska produkter i Sverige [in Swedish]
The occurrence of glycol ethers in Sweden was investigated by compiling data from the Products Register at the National Chemicals Inspectorate. Glycol ethers are present in more than 3,000 chemical products. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and its acetate are the most common forms, followed by ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and diethylene glycol monobutyl ether. The propylene glycol ether 1-methoxy-2-propanol (PGME), which has been proposed as a substitute for the ethylene glycol ethers, is present in less than 3% of the products containing glycol ethers. More products containing PGME may be on the market than are registered in the Products Register. This also applies to other glycol ethers. A great many people are probably being exposed to glycol ethers but at comparatively low doses. A small number of persons handling large quantities of products containing a high percentage of glycol ether risk exposure to higher doses.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 18p. Illus. 13 ref.
Johanson G., Kronborg H., Näslund P.H., Byfält Nordqvist M.
Toxicokinetics of inhaled 2-butoxyethanol (ethylene glycol monobutyl ether) in man
Seven male volunteers were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol at 20ppm (0.85mmol/m3) during light physical exercise (50W) on a bicycle ergometer. The exposure took place in an exposure chamber and lasted 2h. Expired air was collected at regular time intervals for estimation of the respiratory uptake of the solvent. Arterialised capillary blood and urine were sampled during and after the exposure period and analysed for 2-butoxyethanol and its metabolite butoxyacetic acid. A new sensitive method for analysing 2-butoxyethanol in biological specimens is described. The apparent values of elimination half-time, mean residence time, total blood clearance and steady-state volume of distribution were 40min, 42min, 1.2L/min and 54L, respectively. The amount of 2-butoxyethanol excreted in urine was less than 0.03% of the total uptake, while that of butoxyacetic acid ranged from 17 to 55%.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1986, Vol.12, No.6, p.594-602. Illus. 25 ref.
Groeseneken D., Van Vlem E., Veulemans H., Masschelein R.
Gas chromatographic determination of methoxyacetic and ethoxyacetic acid in urine
Methoxyacetic acid (MAA) and ethoxyacetic acid (EAA), the major metabolites of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (methoxyethanol) and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (cellosolve), respectively (and of their acetates), were determined by gas chromatography after extraction from urine and methylation using 2-furoic acid (2-FA) as an internal standard. Mean recovery rates from urine of both MAA and EAA (expressed as the response in area percentage relative to the internal standard) were linearly related to exposure levels in the range of 1-100mg/L of urine. The determination method is judged to be rapid, selective and sensitive and can be used to estimate exposure levels to the ethers concerned.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1986, Vol.43, No.1, p.62-65. Illus. 10 ref.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 62. Ethylene glycol monoethers and their acetates
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 62. Etylenglykolmonoalkyletrar och deras acetater [in Swedish]
Properties, absorption, biotransformation, elimination, toxicologic mechanisms, toxicity, effects on individual organs and the embryo, the relation of exposure and effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate (EGBEA) are discussed. Alkoxy acetic acids seem to be the most important toxic metabolites. Reports from industry, mainly on EGME intoxications, are unsuitable as a background for the discussion of occupational exposure limits because these glycol ethers penetrate the skin readily and an accurate description of worker exposure is difficult. Animal experiments show that EGME, EGEE, EGMEA and EGEEA have reproductive and embryotoxic effects at relatively low levels of exposure. EGBE and EGBEA so far have not been proven teratogenic and reproductive toxicity has been shown only at doses toxic to mothers. Animal experiments must therefore be used as a background for the discussion of occupational exposure limits. Effects on CNS, blood and kidney should be kept in mind.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 94p. 150 ref.
Etyleeniglykolimonobutyylieetteri [in Finnish]
Butyl cellosolve is a toxic liquid (LD50 = 1480mg/kg; TLV (8h): 120mg/m3, TLV (15min): 350mg/m3). It is harmful if ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Irritates the skin, the eyes and the mucous membranes. Causes headache, vertigo and nausea. Long term exposure can cause hepatic and renal damage. Mandatory European labelling: XN, R20, R21, R22, R37, S24, S25.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Mar. 1985. 2p. Original on microfiche.
This Workplace Environmental Exposure Level Guide (WEEL) presents the available toxicological data and recommends appropriate exposure limits for industrial chemicals for which no standards have been developed. Estimated oral lethal dose for humans is 1mL/kg. Man appears to be more susceptible to diethylene glycol than laboratory animals and swallowing of a moderate quantity may cause severe delayed renal failure. Recommended exposure limits: 8h TWA limit = 125mg/m3 for total vapour and aerosol and 10mg/m3 for aerosol only.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 475 Wolf Ledges Parkway, Akron, OH 44311, USA, 1985. 6p. 37 ref.
Illing H.P.A., Tinkler J.J.B.
Health and Safety Executive
This toxicity review is concerned only with the methyl, ethyl and butyl ethers of ethylene glycol and the methyl ether of propylene glycol (1-methoxy-2-propanol). It covers: identity; disposition and metabolism (in animals and man); toxicity to animals (acute toxicity: inhalation; oral, dermal and parenteral administration; skin and eye irritation; subacute toxicity: haematological effects; testicular effects; behavioural and neurological effects; effects on the kidneys, liver and lung; mutagenicity; carcinogenicity; reproductive toxicity); toxicity to man (acute toxicity; effects of repeated exposure). Extensive tables present information on the synonyms of the various compounds concerned, on their physical properties and on a large number of animal tests performed. The toxicity of some additional glycol ethers is reviewed in an appendix. An update on toxicity studies of glycol ethers to Apr. 1985 is given in an addendum.
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, 1985. 115p. 158 ref. Price: £7.50.
The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man: An up-dating of ECETOC Technical Report No.4
This report is an update of ECETOC Technical Report No.4 (see CIS 84-1084). Contents: haematological and testicular effects; teratological, embryotoxic and foetotoxic effects; neurologic and behavioural effects; genetic toxicity; carcinogenicity; skin absorption; metabolism; human exposure (exposure limits, environmental control, testing of effects on man); discussion; general conclusions. This update covers more of the glycol ethers than does Report No.4. It also includes their acetates.
European Chemical Industry, Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, Box 63, 6050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 19 Apr. 1985. 68p. Bibl.
Butoxy-2 éthanol [in French]
Contents of this data sheet: hazard summary; uses and occurrences; toxicology; fire and explosion hazards; exposure control; storage and handling; first aid; exposure limits (ACGIH-1984 8h-TWA = 25ppm); physicochemical properties.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1984. 14p. 19 ref.
Glycol ethers - Validation procedures for tube/pump and dosimeter monitoring methods
Charcoal or silica gel tubes are recommended for sampling 9 glycol ethers depending on the humidity and other interfering compounds. Passive dosimeters can be used for some of the glycol ethers, but their sensitivity may be inadequate for short-term sampling. The 3 methods were validated at levels down to 0.1 times the exposure limit for each compound.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1984, Vol.45, No.6, p.416-424. Illus. 1 ref.
Determination of 2-ethoxyethyl alcohol in air by gas chromatography
Oznaczanie alkoholu 2-etoksyetylowego w powietrzu metodą chromatografii gazowej [in Polish]
2-Ethoxyethyl alcohol vapours in air samples may be absorbed in distilled water or on activated carbon and then extracted or desorbed with chloroform. The extracts are analysed by gas chromatography on a 2.5m column of 15% Carbowax 20M on Chromosorb WAW-DMCS and detected by flame ionisation. Ethanol, n-butanol, toluene, o-xylene, 2-vinyl chloride do not interfere. This method detects 2-ethoxyethyl alcohol at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 2 times the Polish TLV.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1983, Vol.33, No.118, p.143-150. Illus. 6 ref.
Cullen M.R., Rado T., Waldron J.A., Sparer J., Welch L.S.
Bone marrow injury in lithographers exposed to glycol ethers and organic solvents used in multicolor offset and ultraviolet curing printing processes
Following a fatal case of aplastic anaemia in a printer, dermal and respiratory exposures to dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and a range of aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons used for offset and ultraviolet-cured multicolour printing were evaluated in a search for possible workplace substances with marrow toxicity. Evaluation of 7 co-workers revealed normal peripheral blood pictures, but bone marrow specimens demonstrated clear patterns of injury in 3, and the others had non-specific signs of a marrow effect. These changes could not be explained by known risk factors. Possible bone marrow toxicity resulting from exposure to glycol ethers and ultraviolet curing processes is suggested. Peripheral blood counts were an insensitive tool in the study of haematologic toxins acting at the bone marrow level.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1983, Vol.38, No.6, p.347-354. Illus. 12 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Glycol ether and glycol acetate vapours in air - Laboratory method using Tenax adsorbent tubes, thermal desorption and gas chromatography
Contents of this guidance note: Properties, uses, toxicity and first aid in case of massive exposure to glycol ethers and their acetates. Determination method: sampling through a glass or metal tube packed with Tenax porous polymer adsorbent, desorption of the adsorbed vapour by heat and transfer under inert carrier gas into a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionisation detector for analysis. Scope: suitable for personal and area sampling over periods of 8h or less; aerosols of these substances may also be determined. Analytical limits: 0.5-250mg/m3 for 2l air samples. Recommended maximal air sampling volumes vary from compound to compound. Precision: <10%. Interference is provided by high humidity and coeluting compounds. The interference can be eliminated by changing the polarity of the column stationary phase.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, Apr. 1983. 7p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: £1.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Glycol ether and glycol ether acetate vapours in air - Laboratory methods using charcoal adsorbent tubes, solvent desorption and gas chromatography
Contents of this guidance note: properties, uses, toxicity and first aid in case of massive exposure to these vapours. Determination method: sampling through a glass or metal tube packed with activated charcoal; desorption of the adsorbed vapours by a solvent (suggested solvent: 5% methanol in dichloromethane); analysis of the solution with a gas chromatograph. Scope: suitable for measurements in the range 10min-8h, both for personal and area sampling. The method can also be used for the determination of these substances as aerosols. Analytical range: 1-1000mg/m3 for 10l air samples. Precision: <10%. High humidity and the presence of compounds coeluting with glycol ethers and their acetates provide interference. Synonyms of the glycol ethers and their acetates and the description of an apparatus producing standard atmospheres of glycol ethers and their acetates by diffusion are given in the appendix.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, Mar. 1983. 7p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: £1.00.
Glycol ethers: 2-methoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol
Animal experiments provide evidence of dose-related embryotoxicity and other reproductive effects after exposure, by different routes of administration, to 2-methoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol. Increased incidences of embryonic death, teratogenesis and growth retardation were found in female animals, and testicular atrophy and sterility in male animals exposed at levels below the OSHA Permissible Exposure Levels. These substances, and formulations containing them, should be regarded as having the potential to cause adverse reproductive effects in male and female workers, and this information should be provided to workers, consumers, and professional and trade associations.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 2 May 1983. 22p. 37 ref.
Toxicity to man of ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers
Toxicité pour l'homme des éthers monoalkylés de l'éthylèneglycol [in French]
This note, based on Technical Report No.4 of the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre (Brussels, July 1982), reviews the existing data on the toxicity of glycol ethers, mainly monomethyl and monoethyl ethylene glycol. Animal experiments show that these 2 products have adverse haematological and testicular effects, and are teratogenic and foetotoxic. These properties are more pronounced in the case of the methyl ether. Monoisopropyl ether and monobutyl ethylene glycol have predominantly haemolytic effects, the testicular effects being weak or absent. Haematological and neurological effects similar to those occurring in animals have been observed in humans heavily exposed to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Conclusion: further study is necessary as a basis for revising the limits of occupational exposure presently in force.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1983, No.111, Note No.1422-111-83, p.215-230. Illus. 58 ref.
Some glycol ethers
Vissa glykoletrar [in Swedish]
Criteria document based on a review of the literature on monoethers of ethylene glycol (Cellosolves). Epidemiological and pharmacological data on humans are lacking. In experimental animals, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether affects brain cells at an exposure level of 50ppm and is teratogenic at 31.25mg/kg/day. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether gives behavioural effects in the offspring of rats exposed to 100ppm and is teratogenic at 160ppm.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 17p. 27 ref.
The toxicology of ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers and its relevance to man
Contents: haematological and testicular effects; renal toxicity; teratological, embryotoxic and foetotoxic effects; neurological and behavioural effects; metabolism; mutagenicity and cytotoxicity; human exposure; general conclusions (spectrum of activity and structure-activity relationship in animals, mode of action, extrapolation to humans, data gaps, ethylene glycol methyl and ethyl ethers - the most widely used compounds). Recommendations are made on further research into ethylene glycol ethers. Appendices: production, properties, uses of glycol ethers; exposure limits; toxic effects; current studies; workplace monitoring; biological effects.
European Chemical Industry, Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, Boîte 63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 30 July 1982. 50p. 59 ref.
Cook R.R., Bodner K.M., Kolesar R.C., Uhlmann C.S., Vanpeenen P.F.D., Dickson G.S., Flanagan K.
A cross-sectional study of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether process employees
Blood samples were studied in 53 exposed workers and 44 controls, and semen samples in a subgroup of 6 exposed and 9 controls. No gross abnormalities or clinical differences were noted in haematological or fertility indices (with the possible exception of testicular size). White blood cells and haemoglobin may be decreased at higher exposure levels.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1982, Vol.37, No.6, p.346-351. 17 ref.
Hazard alert - 2-Methoxy ethanol (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether); 2-ethoxy ethanol (ethylene glycol monoethyl ether) - Suspect reproductive hazards
Recent evidence suggests that these compounds may pose severe reproductive hazards to occupationally exposed workers (sterility or reduced fertility in men, menstrual disorders in women; birth deformities due to exposure of men or women). Details are given of health effects (blood and central nervous system); reproductive and teratogenic effects (review of studies); workers at risk; Australian Council of Trade Unions recommendations (information by employers on the use of these substances; use of substitutes; if no substitutes are available, reduction of exposure to the lowest technically feasible level using total engineering containment; supply of full protective clothing as an interim measure).
ACTU/VTHC Occupational Health and Safety Unit, Trades Hall, Box 93, Carlton South, 3053, Vic., Australia; Health and Safety Bulletin, Oct. 1982, No.20, 6p. 9 ref.
Krotov Ju.A., Lykova A.S., Skačkov M.A., Sačkov A.V., Mitrofanova A.I., Kotova Ė.L., Davydova M.P., Saročinskaja L.S.
Harmful and toxic properties of diethyleneglycol ethers (carbitols) as air pollutants
Sanitarno-gigieničeskaja harakteristika ėfirov diėtilenglikolja (karbitolov) primenitel'no k ohrane atmosfernogo vozduha [in Russian]
Diethylene glycol ethyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether are promising solvents for polymer and nitrocellulose paints. Their odour thresholds were 4.5 and 4.0mg/m3, respectively. Animal experiments were carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of acute, subacute and chronic exposures to diethylene glycol ethers in concentrations from 1 to 25mg/m3. The compounds affected the nervous, liver and kidney functions and the oxidation and reduction of carbohydrates. A threshold limit value of 1.0mg/m3 for diethylene glycol ethers was recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Feb. 1981, No.2, p.14-17. 3 ref.
2-amino-1-butanoli [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: LD50 = 500mg/kg; irritates the skin, the eyes and the mucous membranes; inhalation of the vapour in high concentrations has a narcotic effect; long-term exposure can cause neural, renal and hepatic damage. Mandatory European labelling: XI, R36, S24.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, July 1980. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Fire hazards of industrial organic solvents
Dossier incendie: les solvants organiques industriels. [in French]
This second article of a series (see CIS 79-625) is devoted to the group of glycol ethers, considered mainly from the fire hazard viewpoint. Table of physical properties (boiling point, flash point, fire hazard group, explosive limits, evaporation rate, relative density, vapour density, TLV) of: butyl Carbitol, butyl Cellosolve, 1,3-butanediol Carbitol, butyl Carbitol acetate, methoxybutyl acetate, Carbitol, Carbitol acetate, Cellosolve, Cellosolve acetate, diethyl Carbitol, diethyl Cellosolve, diethyleneglycol, dipropylene glycol, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol diacetate, ethylene glycol monoacetate, hexylene glycol, methyl Cellosolve, methyl Cellosolve acetate, propylene glycol, triethylene glycol. Definitions of the concepts used.
Prévention, Sep. 1979, Vol.14, No.7, p.17-19. 4 ref.
Ohi G., Wegman D.H.
Transcutaneous ethylene glycol monomethyl ether poisoning in the work setting.
Two cases of textile printing workers are reported who developed clinical manifestations of encephalopathy as a result of cutaneous exposure to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether when acetone was unavailable due to a shortage during the energy crisis. Both had evidence of bone marrow injury and one had pancytopenia. Air concentrations were below the TLV of 25ppm.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, 1978, Vol.20, No.10, p.675-676. 9 ref.
Thiess A.M., Hofmann H.T., Elschnig G.
Medical and toxicological assessment of diethylene glycol butyl ether and other components of wallpaper paint
Arbeitsmedizinisch-toxikologische Beurteilung von Butyldiglykol und anderen Inhaltsstoffen von Tapetenfarben [in German]
Detailed study of the effects of diethylene glycol butyl ether (DGBE) after 2 cases of poisoning due to dispersion paints had been attributed to this substance in an earlier study: case histories; composition of dispersion paints; acute and subacute toxicity of DGBE in animals; toxicity of other components of the paints. The severe hepatic and renal lesions observed cannot have been caused by DGBE.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Jan. 1977, Vol.27, No.1, p.1-6. 13 ref.
Lykova A.S., Skačkov M.A., Mitrofanova A.I., Davydova M.P., Saparmamedov Ė.S.
Data for establishing threshold limit values for atmospheric concentrations of monoisopropyl and monobutyl ethylene glycol ethers
Materialy k gigieničeskomu normirovaniju monoizopropilovogo i monobutilovogo ėfirov ėtilenglikolja v atmosfernom vozduhe [in Russian]
Results of electroencephalographic studies in humans to detect the olfactory thresholds, and toxicological studies in animals. Olfactory thresholds: 3.2mg/m3 for the monoisopropyl ether (2-isopropoxyethanol), and 2.3/m3 for the monobutyl ether (butylcellosolve). Both substances present a serious toxicity risk on short-term exposure to high concentrations. Their cumulative properties also make them hazardous in the event of repeated exposure to low concentrations. The toxicity threshold for physiological and biochemical changes is 3mg/m3 for both ethers. A TLV of 1mg/m3 is proposed in each case.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Nov. 1976, No.11, p.7-11. 2 ref.
Gadaskina I.D., Rudi F.A.
Mechanism of the toxic action of vinyl glycol ethers
K mehanizmu toksičeskogo dejstvija vinilovyh ėfirov glikolej [in Russian]
Results of research in white rats on the metabolism of ethylene glycol monovinyl ether and its role in the toxic action of the substance. Determination of urinary metabolites (ethylene glycol) following administraton of the ether alone and in aqueous ethanol solution showed that chronic poisoning by the ether is due above all to its hydrolysis products (ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol). Ethylene glycol acts on the kidneys.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1976, No.2, p.31-33. 5 ref.
Determination of ether alcohols in air by colorimetry
Kolorimetrické stanovení éteralkoholů v ovzduší [in Czech]
The method for determination of ether alcohols (ethylene glycol monoethyl and monobutyl ethers) described in this article is based on the esterification of the primary alcohol group by 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride. The ester formed is blue in an alkaline acetone solution, and can thus be determined by colorimetry. Air samples are collected in an absorber containing pyridine, the amount collected varying between 2 and 5l. The calibration curve is linear between 0 and 0.5mg ethylene glycol monoethyl ether in solution. The sensitivity of the method in the conditions described is situated at 35mg/m3 air for ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (2-ethoxyethanol). The method can be used for primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols.
Pracovní lékařství, Feb. 1975, Vol.27, No.1-2, p.17-19. Illus. 4 ref.
Experimental data to determine a TLV for glycol vinyl ethers
Ėksperimental'nye materialy k gigieničeskomu normirovaniju vinilovyh ėfirov glikolej [in Russian]
Disuse of the method using mercury as a catalyst in synthesising acetaldehyde may result in the formation of glycol vinyl ethers. The author investigated the toxic, dermatological and allergenic effects of the latter substances on animals. On the basis of the results (LD50, LC50, cutaneous absorption, changes in blood picture after repeated inhalations, irritation and inflammation of mucosae, etc.) he obtained with ethylene glycol monovinyl ether and 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, the author recommends the adoption of a TLV of 30mg/m3.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Nov. 1974, No.11, p.94-97. 12 ref.
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