Ethers - 423 entries found
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Tou J.C., Westover L.B., Sonnabend L.F.
Analysis of a non-crosslinked, water soluble anion exchange resin for the possible presence of parts per billion level of bis(chloromethyl) ether.
A homogeneous aqueous solution of a non-crosslinked anion exchange resin was investigated using a recently developed hollow fibre probe and mass spectrometric technique. The method is described in detail. Bis(chloromethyl) ether (bis-CME) was not found at the detection limit of 10 parts per billion (ppb). The kinetic data indicate that bis-CME hydrolyzes rapidly and cannot exist for long in the resin solution. Since commercial anion exchange resins contain 50% water within the bead matrix, it seems highly unlikely that bis-CME could be present.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1975, Vol.36, No.5, p.374-378. Illus. 6 ref.
Bis(chloromethyl)ether and cancer
Bis(chlorométhyl)éther et cancer. [in French]
This MD thesis takes stock of current knowledge concerning the toxicity of bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME), an alkylating agent known since 1968 to be carcinogenic in animals. Its role in the development of bronchial cancer in man was established only in 1972-1973. The author dwells at length on the observations made on this subject by various authors and, after examining the hypotheses concerning its pathogenicity, concludes that BCME probably acts, like the other alkylating agents, by altering the molecules (proteins and nucleic acids) and enzyme processes indispensable to normal cell activity. Suggested preventive measures, if no substitute product can be used.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Broussais - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1975. 39p. Illus. 24 ref.
Drew R.T., Laskin S., Kuschner M., Nelson N., Capiello V.
Inhalation carcinogenicity of alpha halo ethers.
A series of 3 articles reporting the results of experimental studies in rats and hamsters on: I. acute inhalation of chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME) and bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME); II. lifetime inhalation studies with a CMME concentration of 1ppm; and III. lifetime and limited exposures to 0.1ppm of BCME. The results of these studies identify BCME as an extremely potent respiratory carcinogen and commercial grade CMME as a definite carcinogen although of a lower order of activity than BCME, its toxicity possibly being due to contamination with BCME and formation of the latter after hydrolysis.
Archives of Environmental Health, Feb. 1975, Vol.30, No.2, p.61-77. Illus. 45 ref.
Figueroa W.G., Raszkowski R., Weiss W.
Lung cancer in workers exposed to chloromethyl methyl ether
Cancer pulmonaire chez les travailleurs exposés à l'oxyde de méthyle et de chlorométhyle. [in French]
Translation of: Lung cancer in chloromethyl methyl ether workers. New England Journal of Medicine, Boston, USA, 24 May 1973, Vol.288, No.21, p.1096-1097. Illus. 6 ref. Routine chest X-ray examinations of approximately 2,000 employees of a chemical works revealed an excessively high number of workers suspected of having lung cancer in one area of the plant. Careful investigation of the work histories of men whose lung cancers developed while they were working in the area under suspicion indicated that the only common aetiologic factor was exposure to chloromethyl methyl ether (chloromethoxymethane). In 14 men in whom lung cancer developed, histologic confirmation of cancer type was obtained in 13, and 12 had oatcell carcinomas. Chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME) and bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME) have both been found to be highly carcinogenic in mice and rats. It is suggested that exposure to CMME constitutes an occupational hazard.
Traduction INRS 60 A-74, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1974. 7p. 6 ref.
Grigorowa R., Müller G.M., Rothe R., Gohlke R.
Combined action of epichlorohydrin and high ambient temperature in acute and subacute animal experiments - Toxicological and morphological aspects
Zur kombinierten Einwirkung von Epichlorhydrin und erhöhter Umgebungstemperatur in akuten and subakuten Tierexperimenten - Toxikologische und morphologische Aspekte [in German]
The simultaneous influence of several chemical and physical factors in the workplace is to be considered when threshold limit values of chemical substances are established. Epichlorohydrin is used for the production of epoxy resins, and was found to be toxic to the kidneys, central nervous system, blood, liver and lung. The experiments described were conducted to find out the influence of heat (35°C, 50% relative humidity) on the action of epichlorohydrin. In both single and repeated exposures combination effects were observed even with the lowest concentration (0.06mg/l). It is concluded that even the threshold concentration of epichlorohydrin in combination with heat is not without danger.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 1974, Vol.33, No.4, p.297-314. 13 ref.
Tou J.C., Kallos G.J.
Study of aqueous HCl and formaldehyde mixtures for formation of bis(chloromethyl)ether.
The spontaneous reactions of aqueous HCl and formaldehyde at concentrations up to 2,000ppm were carried out at ambient temperature for 18h to investigate the possible formation of the powerful carcinogen bis(chloromethyl)ether (bis-CME). Description of methods. Bis-CME was not observed either in the aqueous phase or the gas phase above the reaction mixture, with detection limits of 9 parts per thousand million (9ppb) and 1ppb, respectively. There is strong inferential evidence that bis-CME cannot be present in the aqueous solution at even a much lower level than 9ppb.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1974, Vol.35, No.7, p.419-422. Illus. 8 ref.
Synthetic detergents - Technical preventive measures
Les détergents synthétiques - Prévention technique. [in French]
The article is confined to a study of hazards encountered in 2 categories of operations involved in manufacturing detergents: sulfonation and sulfation, and condensation with ethylene oxide. These hazards are analysed in detail with the corresponding preventive measures. Those of sulfonation and sulfation derive from the reactive nature of sulfuric acid and oleum with organic matter (accidental contact), metals, minerals, and water (explosion), from inhalation of sulfuric chlorohydrin (chlorosulfonic acid) and from the caustic action of soda and potash. The hazards of condensation with ethylene oxide consist mainly in its explosivity and that of its decomposition products, which in addition are toxic. Mention is made of the hazards common to the 2 operations: slipping; work in vats, tanks, or apparatus.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 Boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 1974. 14p. 6 ref. Gratis.
Torkelson T.R., Leong B.K.J., Kociba R.J., Richter W.A., Gehring P.J.
1,4-Dioxane - II. Results of a 2-year inhalation study in rats.
Rats were exposed to an average concentration of 0.4mg/l of 1,4-dioxane vapours 7h/day, 5days/week for 2 years. Neither histopathological changes nor tumours resulted. There was no adverse effects on demeanour, growth, mortality, haematological findings, biochemical determinations or body weight. At the time of this study, the TLV for dioxane was set at 0.36mg/l (100ppm).
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Nov. 1974, Vol.30, No.2, p.287-298. Illus. 12 ref.
Kociba R.J., McCollister S.B., Park C., Torkelson T.R.
1,4-Dioxane - I. Results of a 2-year ingestion study in rats.
Rats have been maintained on drinking water containing 0.00 (controls), 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0% 1,4-dioxane for 2 years in order to characterise the indices to toxicity. Rats receiving 1% dioxane showed pronounced toxic effects including the occurrence of hepatic and nasal tumours. There was an induction of liver and kidney damage, but no tumour formation in rats receiving 0.1% dioxane. No evidence of untoward toxic effects was observed in rats receiving 0.01% dioxane. These data indicate a clearcut dose-response relationship for the toxicity of dioxane.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Nov. 1974, Vol.30, No.2, p.275-286. Illus. 10 ref.
Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation (Ministero dei trasporti e dell'aviazione civile), Roma.
Ministerial decree dated 14 January 1974 - Conditions for the transport of ethylene oxide
Decreto ministeriale 14 gennaio 1974 - Modalità di trasporto dell'ossido di etilene [in Italian]
Rail transport of liquid ethylene oxide which has not been inerted by nitrogen is prohibited. The partial pressure of the nitrogen in the containers used for transport should not fall below 5kg/cm2 or exceed 7kg/cm2 for an ambient temperature between 0 and 30°C. Empty containers which previously held ethylene oxide should be filled with nitrogen at the same pressure during transport. Testing pressure for these containers is fixed at 14kg/cm2; for welded containers up to 150l capacity testing pressure should be 19kg/cm2.
Gazzetta ufficiale, 30 Jan. 1974, Vol.115, No.28, p.699.
Bis(chloromethyl)ether: an insidious substance- New facts
Nogmaals: een verraderlijke stof: bis(chloormethyl)ether [in Dutch]
Short review of recent literature on the carcinogenic properties of bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME). Low concentrations of BCME have proved to be carcinogenic for both rats and humans on chronic exposure. Unlike bronchial carcinoma induced by cigarette smoking, BCME-induced lung cancer is often characterised by oat cells. BCME can form at room temperature and humidity by the reaction of formaldehyde with hydrochloric acid vapours; 100ppm of each substance give rise to less than 0.5ppb BCME. To avoid this reaction it is important to separate vessels, pipelines, etc. containing these 2 reactants.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 30 Aug. 1974, Vol.52, No.17, p.586-588. 25 ref.
Data on the evaluation of the gonadotropic and mutagenic effects of the herbicide mixture butyl ether/2,4,5-T
(Materialy k ocenke gonadotropnogo i mutagennogo dejstvija gerbicida butylovogo ėfira 2,4,5-T [in Russian]
Description and results of animal experiments designed to determine the systemic toxicity and the gonadotropic and mutagenic effects of the herbicide mixture butyl ether and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The author establisehd a close correlation between the cytogenic effect and the dose; he situated the threshold dose in the region of 0.01mg/kg and the threshold of systemic toxicity in chronic exposure conditions at around 0.1mg/kg; the last-mentioned dose is also the threshold for the gonadotropic effect.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.24-27. 12 ref.
Konovalov E.N., Širjaeva E.A.
Explosibility of metaldehyde and its preparations
Vzryvoopasnost' metal'degida i ego preparatov [in Russian]
Tests to determine the explosibility of metaldehyde and preparations containing it are described. The following results are given: ignition temperatures of metaldehyde (11°C) and of metaldehyde powder at a humidity of 50% (25°C); lower explosibility limits of the airborne dust (dry metaldehyde, 28.5g/m3; metaldehyde at a humidity of 50%, 33.2g/m3, granules containing 5% metaldehyde, 44.5g/m3).
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Jan. 1974, No.1, p.53-54.
Leong B.K.J., Ts'o T.O.T., Chenoweth M.B.
Testicular atrophy from inhalation of ethylene oxide cyclic tetramer.
Rats were exposed to 0.5 and 1.0ppm ethylene oxide cyclic tetramer (EOCT or 1,4,7,10-tetraoxacyclododecane) vapours for 7 h/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. Both concentrations produced long-lasting testicular atrophy. Atrophy of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles was also noted following exposure, but these organs returned to normal appearance and size within 2-3 weeks. Exposure to 1.0ppm of EOCT caused severe anorexia, loss of body weight, asthenia and body tremors; these effects were reversible.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Feb. 1974, Vol.27, No.2, p.342-354. Illus. 11 ref.
Figueroa W.G., Raszkowski R., Weiss W.
Lung cancer in chloromethyl methyl ether workers.
Routine chest X-ray examinations of approximately 2,000 employees of a chemical works revealed an excessively high number of workers suspected of having lung cancer in one area of the plant. Careful investigation of the work histories of men whose lung cancers developed while they were working in the area under suspicion indicated that the only common aetiologic factor was exposure to chloromethyl methyl ether (chloromethoxymethane). In 14 men in whom lung cancer developed, histologic confirmation of cancer type was obtained in 13, and 12 had oatcell carcinomas. Chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME) and bis chloromethyl ether (BCME) have both been found to be highly carcinogenic in mice and rats. It is suggested that exposure to CMME constitutes an occupational hazard. This conclusion is challenged by Beavers E.M.
New England Journal of Medicine, 24 May 1973, Vol.288, No.21, p.1096-1097, and 25 Apr. 1974, Vol.290, No.17, p.971-972. 11 ref.
Lung cancer due to exposure to bis(chloromethyl)ether.
On the basis of 5 cases of lung cancer observed among the personnel of a dyestuff factory, the author examines their relation to bis(chloromethyl)ether, the most dangerous carcinogen among the substances employed. From the exposure, literature reports and the high occurrence (a rate of 5 cases as compared to a normally expected rate of 0.024), it is concluded that the risk of lung cancer resulting from exposure to bis(chloromethyl)ether is very high.
Industrial Health, Sep. 1973, Vol.11, No.3, p.145-148. Illus. 7 ref.
Determination of epichlorohydrin in the presence of other substances released during the transformation and utilisation of epoxy resins
Oznaczanie epichlorohydryny w obecności innych substancji występujących w powietrzu przy przetwarzaniu i stosowaniu żywic epoksydowych [in Polish]
The substances released with epichlorohydrin in the air of industrial premises during the transformation and utilisation of epoxy resins are triethylenetetramine, ethylenediamine, dibutyl phthalate, butanol, acetone, cyclohexanone, toluene, xylene, styrene and phenol. To determine to what extent the presence of these substances hinders the detection of epichlorohydrin, the author prepared several standard solutions and tried to obtain a distinct determination of these by a colorimetric method. He describes the procedure, indicates the composition of the solutions tested and presents the results obtained in tabular form. He finally discusses the possibilities of this determination and specifies the limits.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1973, Vol.23, No.76, p.55-62. 8 ref.
Bis(chloromethyl)ether: an insidious substance
Een verraderlijke stof: bis(chloormethyl)ether (B(CM)E) [in Dutch]
B(CM)E, which is used in textile finishing, polymer production and ion-exchange resins, may cause death within a few minutes when its vapours are inhaled. Low concentrations cause irritation of the mucous membranes. Description of the case of 5 young men who were exposed to a concentration of B(CM)E vapours which did not exert any noticeable irritation but caused keratitis punctata with secondary iritis appearing 4 h after the last contact with B(CM)E. 3 of the 5 men needed ophthalmological treatment lasting from 10 to 78 days. One year later, these 3 men still suffered from sensitivity of the eyes to normally non-irritating compounds.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 31 Aug. 1973, Vol.51, No.17, p.596-597. 19 ref.
Kallos G.J., Solomon R.A.
Investigations of the formation of bis-chloromethyl ether in simulated hydrogen chloride - formaldehyde atmospheric environments.
Since it has been reported that bis-chloromethyl ether can form spontaneously when hydrogen chloride and formaldehyde are present simultaneously in humid atmospheres, investigations were carried out to determine the levels of bis-chloromethyl ether resulting from this reaction. The experimental procedure is described, and the results presented and discussed. It was found that the reaction of hydrogen chloride and formaldehyde at high concentrations (up to 3,000 ppm) does not result in the spontaneous formation of bis-chloromethyl ether in significant amounts.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1973, Vol.34, No.11, p.469-473. Illus. 5 ref.
Thiess A.M., Hey W., Zeller H.
Toxicology of bis (chloromethyl) ether - Suspicion of carcinogenic effects on man
Zur Toxikologie von Dichlordimethyläther - Verdacht auf kanzerogene Wirkung auch beim Menschen [in German]
Description of a fatal accident, followed by a study of the chemical and physical properties of bis(chloromethyl) ether and its uses, and observations concerning health damage to animals and man. After 6 years of heavy exposure to this substance 8 cases of lung cancer were recorded, 6 among 18 research workers and 2 among 50 production workers. The period of latency before the appearance of lung cancer was 8-16 years. Reference is made to communications from the USA concerning lung carcinoma.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Apr. 1973, Vol.23, No.4, p.97-102. Illus. 12 ref.
Marchand M., Furon D., Cabal C., Saison S.
Drug dependence in industry
Les toxicomanies en milieu industriel. [in French]
Article dealing with the phenomenon of dependency on ethyl ether, trichloroethylene, toluene and motor car petrol in industry. Taking each one of these substances, the authors review briefly the past and present situation as regards dependence in industry, mentioning the aetiological circumstances and indicating the acute effects of ingestion (principally euphoria and sometimes hallucination) and the characteristics of the addiction. The workers' health, impaired by the dependence, is also damaged by specific complications due to poisoning of the system (neurovegetative and psychic disorders). These addictive phenomena should not be overlooked on account of the risk of escalation and serious occupational accidents. The plant physician should have young and immature workers showing a predisposition to this type of addiction transferred away from posts where they would be exposed to these products.
Evolution médicale, 1973, Vol.17, No.2, p.107-113.
The toxicity of certain surface-active agents of the alkylphenolpolyethyleneglycolate type used for dust control in mines
Toxicitatea unor substanţe tensioactive de tip alchilfenol polietilenglicolat, utilizate la combaterea prafului în subteran [in Romanian]
The general toxicity of 2 surface-active agents, OF-9 and OF-15 (alkylphenolpolyethyleneglycolates with 9 and 15 ethylene oxide molecules respectively), used for some time as dust control agents in mines, has been studied on 297 rats and 544 mice. The 2 substances were administered acutely and subacutely by oral and intraperitoneal routes. Only OF-9 (in a 0.04% aerosol) was used for chronic-toxicity studies. The products were of low toxicity to the experimental animals, the oral LD50 being 200-400mg/kg and the intraperitoneal LD50, 1250-5000mg/kg; tolerance was high (90-100%) and prolonged respiratory exposure did not result in pulmonary lesions.
Igiena, June 1972, Vol.21, No.6, p.335-342. 21 ref.
Eter etylowy [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 300mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1970. 2p.
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