Ethers - 423 entries found
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Hepatic and renal effects of low concentrations of methoxyflurane in exposed delivery ward personnel.
28 delivery room personnel and 12 non-exposed controls were studied. Analyses of blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid, SGOT and SGPT were significantly elevated 3 days after exposure to methoxyflurane. Reevaluation of the use of methoxyflurane for obstetrical analgesia is suggested.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1980, Vol.22, No.12, p.817-819. 22 ref.
Ethylene and propylene oxides
Etylenoxid och propylenoxid [in Swedish]
Contents of this directive (effective 1 Jan. 1981): general rules (enclosed-process handling, restrictions on use of ethylene oxide for sterilisation, limitation of exposure and protection of the skin); marking and labelling; monitoring of workplace air contamination; premises, installations and storage (ventilation, fire and explosion prevention, rescue organisation in case of explosion); personal protection. Appended: properties and hazards of these 2 substances, references to other directives and regulations, detailed commentaries.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 19 Aug. 1980. 19p. Illus. Gratis.
Gorczak J., Palmqvist U.
Ethylene oxide in air - Determination by gas chromatography
Etylenoxid i luft - Gaskromatografisk bestämning [in Swedish]
Description of a method for analysis of air samples taken in activated carbon-filled tubes, plastic bags or syringes. It is preferable to perform the air sampling in plastic bags or syringes before transferring the samples to the activated carbon-filled tubes. Concentrations of 0.2mg/m3 ethylene oxide can be determined.
Undersökningsrapport 1980:17, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1980. 18p. Illus. 5 ref. Gratis (1 free copy only).
Uses, hazards (highly flammable liquid; vapours readily form ignitable and explosive mixtures with air, even at temperatures well below 0°C; the vapour is heavier than air and will accumulate in basements and may flash back; sealed containers are liable to explode when slightly heated; moderately toxic, irritant); precautions (indoor and outdoor storage; electrically bonded and earthed vessels and pipelines; electrical equipment for use in flammable atmospheres, with reference to British standards); fire fighting; regulations.
Fire Prevention, H 88, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Protection Association, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJO. Mar. 1980, No.135, p.55-56.
Venable J.R., McClimans C.D., Flake R.E., Dimick D.B.
A fertility study of male employees engaged in the manufacture of glycerine.
64 men employed in the glycerine department of a chemical factory, exposed to epichlorohydrin, allyl chloride, and 1,3-dichloropropene, or combinations of them, and 63 controls were studied. Data were obtained by medical history, hormone determinations, medical examination, and semen analysis. No detrimental effect on fertility from exposure to chlorinated 3-carbon compounds was observed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1980, Vol.22, No.2, p.87-91. 5 ref.
Milby T.H., Whorton D.
Epidemiological assessment of occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression.
Sperm count data from 2 cohorts (107 and 71 men) exposed to dibromochloropropane (DBCP) and 2 cohorts (44 and 84 men) exposed to epichlorohydrin (ECH) and 4 control groups were studied. In both DBCP cohorts a significantly higher percentage of exposed workers was oligospermic, and the median sperm count for each exposed group was considerably lower than that of controls. In the ECH cohorts there was no difference in sperm count between exposed and non-exposed groups. The key to identifying and assessing occupationally related sperm count suppression is proper classification and interpretation of group sperm count data.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1980, Vol.22, No.2, p.77-82. 12 ref.
Cytogenetic investigation of occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin.
Peripheral lymphocytes from 93 workers exposed to epichlorohydrin showed an increase in aberration rates compared with a control group. There were statistically significant differences in the incidence of chromatid breaks, severly damaged cells, and total abnormal cells.
Mutation Research, 1979, Vol.66, p.169-173. 9 ref.
Association interprofessionnelle des Centres médicaux et sociaux de la Région parisienne.
Bis chlorométhyl éther. [in French]
Contents: synonyms; presentation; uses (alkylating agent, ion exchange resin and insecticide manufacture); hazard sources; acute and chronic health effects; industrial and medical prevention (TLV 0.001ppm or 5µg/m3); French regulations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1979, No.75 (detachable insert). 1p. 4 ref.
Maltoni C., Failla G., Kassapidis G.
First experimental demonstration of the carcinogenic effects of styrene oxide.
Long-term bioassays in Sprague-Dawley rats with 250 and 50mg/kg styrene oxide per kg bodyweight, administered by stomach tube, produced a high incidence of papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach, with a dose-response relation. The compound appears to be a very potent, direct carcinogen.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1979, Vol.70, No.5, p.358-362. Illus. 2 ref.
Weiss W., Moser R.L., Auerbach O.
Lung cancer in chloromethyl ether workers.
This historical study in 1446 male workers from 1960 to 1975 showed an increased risk of lung cancer in 465 exposed workers and a dose-response relation. Risk was significantly increased only in men with moderate and heavy chemical exposure. Smoking could be responsible for some of the cases with mild exposure. Study of microscopic sections of lung cancers suggested that small-cell carcinoma was a specific response to inhalation of chloromethyl ethers.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Nov. 1979, Vol.120, No.5, p.1031-1037. 29 ref.
Hogstedt C., Rohlén O., Berndtsson B.S., Axelson O., Ehrenberg L.
A cohort study of mortality and cancer incidence in ethylene oxide production workers.
Ethylene oxide is mutagenic in several organisms, and carcinogenicity has been suspected. The study comprised 89 full-time exposed workers, 86 with intermittent exposure, and 66 controls. Workers were also exposed to ethylene dichloride, ethylene chlorohydrin, ethylene, and bis(2-chloroethyl) ether. Full-time exposed workers showed considerable excess mortality, mainly due to tumours and also diseases of the circulatory system. There was a significant excess of cancer incidence in these workers. These results cannot be attributed to a particular chemical, but ethylene oxide and ethylene dichloride are the main suspects.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1979, Vol.36, No.4, p.276-280. 20 ref.
Effects of n-butyl glycidyl ether exposure.
Case histories are reported after an accident in which 2 men were exposed to spillage of approx. 3.5l of the compound, one for 90min and the other for 4h. Symptoms were anorexia cough, vomiting, ataxia, headache, diplopia, bloodshot eyes, and loss of concentration, some of which still persisted after 3 months.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, 4 Oct. 1979, Vol.29, No.4, p.142-143. 4 ref.
Romano S.J., Renner J.A.
Analysis of ethylene oxide - Worker exposure.
This personal air sampling method is based on trapping ethylene oxide in dilute sulfuric acid, where it is converted to ethylene glycol, which is determined by gas chromatography. The column used produces linear calibration curves and symmetrical peaks. 94.2% of the ethylene oxide was recovered at an air concentration of 1-8ppm. The technique is independent of air flow and sample size. Its advantages over the charcoal tube method and its shortcomings are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1979, Vol.40, No.8, p.742-745. Illus. 6 ref.
Dahlgren B.E., Olander L., Övrum P.
Pollution of delivery ward air by nitrous oxide - methoxyflurane.
Staff in delivery wards were exposed to 0.5-0.8ppm of methoxyflurane and 300-540ppm nitrous oxide in rooms where the ventilation system satisfied Swedish requirements. Local exhaust equipment reduced the air concentrations of analgesic gases by half.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1979, Vol.40, No.8, p.666-672. Illus. 25 ref.
Fluoride concentrations in urine of delivery ward personnel following exposure to low concentrations of methoxyflurane.
24 midwives and other personnel exposed to the obstetrical analgesic methoxyflurane were studied. There was a highly significant increase in urinary fluoride excretion after exposure, despite the low concentrations to which the personnel was exposed (0.5-0.8ppm).
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1979, Vol.21, No.9, p.624-626. 20 ref.
Contact sensitivity to phenylglycidyl ether.
Summary report on dermatological studies in 98 workers exposed to epoxy resins or phenylglycidyl ether with a view to determining the existence of sensitivity to phenylglycidyl ether and possibly of cross sensitivity between epoxy resins and the ether. There were a number of cases of simple and cross reactions, confirmed experimentally in guinea-pigs. The latency period between contact and appearance of symptoms was taken into consideration.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1979, Vol.27, No.2, p.42-44. 8 ref.
Bekanntmachung, Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn, 10 July 1979.
Data sheets for medical examination relating to Nos. 1307, 1310, 2104, 4301 and 4302 of schedule 1 of the occupational diseases Ordinance
Merkblätter für die ärztliche Untersuchung zu den Nrn. 1307, 1310, 2104, 4301 und 4302 der Anlage 1 zur Berufskrankheitenverordnung (BeKV) [in German]
The diseases covered are: 1307 - those due to organophosphates; 1310 - those due to halogenated alkyl, aryl and alkylaryl oxides; 2104 - blood circulation disorders of the hands due to vibration; 4301 - obstructive respiratory diseases due to allergens; 4302 - obstructive respiratory diseases due to irritant or toxic chemicals. A brief definition of the causal agent is given in each case, with information on the hazard source, physiopathology, clinical picture and diagnosis, and history-taking and medico-legal aspects.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, July-Aug. 1979, No.7-8, p.69-75. Illus. 9 ref.
Yao C.C., Miller G.C.
BCME formation and detection in selected work environments.
This report covers the physical chemistry of bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME) formation and an industrial hygiene survey in dye, fertiliser, textile, hospital and foundry facilities. Techniques for gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis in the field were evaluated. For the survey, criteria for the selected work environments, sampling variables (BCME, formaldehyde, chlorides and dust concentrations, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, lighting conditions, air movement) and each of the processes where BCME might occur are discussed. Although BCME occurred irregularly and in amounts less than low tenths of 1ppb under the conditions studied, it still may be a hazard because of the presence of starting and intermediate compounds.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.79-118, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Jan. 1979. 151p. Illus. 27 ref.
Determination of epichlorohydrin in air by gas chromatography
Gazohromatografičeskoe opredelenie ėpihlorgidrina v vozduhe [in Russian]
Description of a specific method for the determination of epichlorohydrin in the presence of other volatile compounds such as furfural, acetone and furfuryl alcohol in high concentrations. Sampling is by adsorption on activated carbon, from which the epichlorohydrin is desorbed by diethyl ether. To separate this solvent from the epichlorohydrin, the mixture is introduced into a 1m chromatographic column filled with silanised Chromaton N. Calibration of the chromatograph is performed by introducing standard epichlorohydrin solutions.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Feb. 1979, No.2, p.50-52. 2 ref.
Hogstedt C., Malmqvist N., Wadman B.
Leukemia in workers exposed to ethylene oxide.
Ethylene oxide is used in the production of ethylene glycol and of surface-active agents, and as a fungicide and sterilant. Three cases of leukaemia are reported (expected incidence: 0.2 cases) that occurred in Sweden between 1972 and 1977 as a result of leakage from boxes of medical equipment sterilised with 50% ethylene oxide and 50% methyl formate. Time-weighted average (TWA) concentration was 20±10ppm. Two of the cases were fatal. The Swedish TWA for ethylene oxide has been reduced to 10ppm.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 16 Mar. 1979, Vol.241, No.11, p.1132-1133. 14 ref.
Published as NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 30, this warning notice refers to an epidemiological study on workers and reseach on humans and animals from which it appears that there is a significant increase in chromosome abnormalities in exposed workers. NIOSH recommends that the substance be treated as a carcinogen and exposure should be limited. Suggested guidelines for monitoring and controlling exposure (monitoring, product substitution, contaminant controls, employee isolation, personal protective equipment) are given. Background information is included (exposure standards, production, uses, occupational exposures, human and animal carcinogenesis, mutagenesis and other toxic effects).
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.79-105, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Oct. 1978. 12p. 22 ref.
Basic data for carcinogenicity evaluation - II. Some alkylating substances
Underlag för utvärdering av carcinogena effekter - II. Några alkylerande ämnen [in Swedish]
This report considers the chemical and physical properties, production and uses, methods of determination in air, acute toxicity, observed carcinogenicity in animals and man, mutagenicity, effects on reproduction and toxicokinetics of 4 alkylating substances: 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (nemagon), epichlorohydrin, 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide) and methyl iodide (iodomethane). As it is impossible to extrapolate TLVs from animal experiments, the author recommends that all exposure to these substances should be avoided, and that less harmful substances should be substituted for them.
Undersökningsrapport 1978:20, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1978. 35p. 60 ref.
Published as NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin No.29, this warning notice refers to recent research from which it appears that these compounds produce testicular atrophy and haemopoietic abnormalities in animals. The NIOSH recommendation is that while no conclusive reports establish the ability of glycidyl ethers to produce the same effects in man, some of the changes observed in animals may act as predisposing factors to systemic problems, and that the occupational health community be advised of the possibility of these effects appearing in exposed workers. The NIOSH criteria document on the same subject (CIS 79-443) is referred to. Background information is included (industries and occupations using the compounds, number of workers exposed, toxic effects of each compound on animals).
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.79-104, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 12 Oct. 1978. 12p. 9 ref.
Levin J.O., Nilsson C.A., Westermark S.O., Andersson K.
Sampling and analysis of organic substances in the list of threshold limit values - III. Epichlorohydrin - Ethylenechlorohydrin
Provtagning och analys av organiska ämnen på gränsvärdeslistan. III. Epiklorhydrin - Etylenklorhydrin [in Swedish]
Evaluation and results of sampling methods for these 2 substances by adsorption on active charcoal or on Amberlite XAD (a granular, cross-linked polymer); the best results were obtained by desorption of active charcoal or Amberlite XAD-7 (polyacrylate), using CH2Cl2. Description of methods of analysis by gas chromatography. If these 2 substances are present simultaneously in the atmosphere they can be monitored simultaneously.
Undersökningsrapport 1978:23, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1978. 10p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: Swe-cr.10.00.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to glycidyl ethers.
Recommendations are made for the protection of health from exposure to glycidyl ethers. Ceiling concentrations of the ethers for 15min sampling periods are: allyl glycidyl ether 45mg/m3 (9.6ppm); isopropyl glycidyl ether 240mg/m3 (50ppm); phenyl glycidyl ether 5mg/m3 (1ppm); n-butyl glycidyl ether 30mg/m3 (4.4ppm); bis(2,3-epoxypropyl) ether 1mg/m3 (0.2ppm). Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of personnel, work and sanitation practices, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of standard; research needs. Procedures for sampling and analysis and useful additional information are given in appendices.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-166, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, June 1978. 197p. 98 ref.
Lambert D., Lacroix M., Ducombs G., Journet F., Chapuis J.L.
Skin allergy due to epichlorohydrin
L'allergie cutanée ą l'épichlorhydrine. [in French]
A review of the physical and chemical properties, uses and pathogenic effects of epichlorhydrin is followed by 6 case studies of skin allergy due to this chemical, confirmed by tests with 1% dilution in ethanol. The authors believe that epichlorhydrin should be included in the sets of standard tests.
Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie, 1978, Vol. 105, No.5, p.521-525. Illus. 7 ref.
Epichlorohydrin manufacture and use - Industrial hygiene survey.
2 plants manufacturing and using, and 3 plants only using epichlorohydrin were surveyed. The types of plants, processes and operations are described together with job descriptions and titles, and sampling and analytical methods. The exposure to epichlorohydrin and other process materials and control measures are detailed. At the manufacturing processes, epichlorohydrin was from non-detectable to 2.1ppm and allyl chloride was from non-detectable to 8.9ppm. Resin processing plants showed exposures from non-detectable to 0.83ppm epichlorohydrin. The time-weighted average exposures were below permissible levels. Recommendations: present control measures to be maintained; enclosed process systems to be generalised; vapour return lines to be installed for tank car filling operations; respiratory protection and protective clothing to be used; instruction of personnel to be conducted as a periodical routine; material losses to be reduced; prevention of fire and skin contact hazards. Reference is made to the NIOSH criteria document on epichlorohydrin.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-151, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Feb. 1978. 50p. Illus. 6 ref.
Buffler P.A., Wood S.M., Suarez L., Kilian D.J.
Mortality follow-up of workers exposed to 1,4-dioxane.
The background literature is discussed. The article reports a mortality study in all 165 workers at a chemical plant exposed to dioxane since 1954. Observed deaths from overall cancer were not significantly different from the expected number. The workers concerned had apparently been exposed to less than 25ppm for a mean period of less than 5 years, so that the results are not conclusive.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1978, Vol.20, No.4, p.255-259. 12 ref.
Determination of diphenyl and diphenyl oxide in the atmosphere by gas chromatography
Stanovenie difenylu a difenyloxidu v ovzdušķ plynovou chromatografiou [in Slovak]
Description of a method developed for the separate determination of these 2 substances in air. Samples are taken over a period of 10min in fritted scrubbers (3ml water) at the rate of 1-2l/min. Reproduction of calibration curves. N-hexadecane is used as an internal standard.
Bezpečnį prįca, 1977, Vol.8, No.3, p.113-114. Illus. 2 ref.
Occupational lung cancer after inhalation of alkylating compounds - dichlorodimethyl ether, monochlorodimethyl ether and dimethyl sulfate
Berufsbedingte Lungenkarzinome nach Inhalation alkylierender Verbindungen - Dichlordimethyläther, Monochlordimethyläther und Dimethylsulfat [in German]
A 42-year-old chemist died from extensive pulmonary carcinoma having inhaled dichlorodimethyl ether, monochlorodimethyl ether and small amounts of dimethyl sulfate for over seven years. These exposure conditions also caused cancer in animal experiments. Description of case, results of animal experiments and of other instances of carcinogenic effects in man. A causal relation between occupational exposure to these chemicals and carcinogenesis is suggested.
Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, 18 Mar. 1977, Vol.102, No.11, p.396-398. 26 ref.
Occupationally-induced lung carcinomas following inhalation of alkylating compounds: bis(chloromethyl) ether and chloromethyl methyl ether
Gewerblich induzierte Lungenkarzinome nach Inhalation alkylierender Verbindungen (Bischlormethyläther und Monochlormethyläther) [in German]
Bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME) and chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME) are used in the textile industry and in the manufacture of dyestuffs and insecticides on account of their alkylating effects. Animal experiments (skin application, subcutaneous injection, inhalation) showed the carcinogenicity of these substances. This article reviews 60 cases of lung carcinoma in workers with an average of 7.4 years of more or less intensive exposure to BCME or CMME. Significantly, the mean age of decease was 45 years. The carcinogenic effect of CMME was much less than that of BCME.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, June 1977, Vol.27, No.6, p.140-143. 13 ref.
Qazi A.H., Ketcham N.H.
A new method for monitoring personal exposure to ethylene oxide in the occupational environment.
Ethylene oxide was collected on activated carbon, desorbed with carbon disulfide and analysed by gas chromatography. Aspects dealt with are: selection of adsorbent and column; effects of humidity, sampling rate and volume; shelf-life (up to 7 days); interference from 10 contaminants; desorption technique (91% efficiency); calibration curve. The lower detection limit is 0.15ppm.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1977, Vol.38, No.11, p.635-647. Illus. 7 ref.
Pasternack B.S., Shore R.E., Albert R.E.
Occupational exposure to chloromethyl ethers - A retrospective cohort mortality study (1948-1972).
This epidemiological study evaluated carcinogenicity of the chloromethyl ethers (CME) in 1,827 CME-exposed workers and 8,870 controls on an industry-wide basis (6 of 7 U.S. CME producers). There were no differences in non-cancer death rates. An increased risk of respiratory cancer death in CME-exposed workers was found in only one firm, where exposures were high.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1977, Vol.19, No.11, p.741-746. 25 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to dioxane.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to dioxane. Airborne concentrations shall not be greater than 1ppm (3.6mg/m3) based on a 30 min sampling period. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protective equipment and clothing, information of personnel, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the heads: biological effects of exposure, environmental data, development of standard, research needs. Procedures for sampling and analysis in air are detailed and useful additional information is given in appendices.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-226, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1977. 193p. Illus. 122 ref.
Special occupational hazard review with control recommendations for the use of ethylene oxide as a sterilant in medical facilities.
This study includes a literature survey of the toxicity, mutagenicity and possible carcinogenicity of ethylene oxide used extensively in hospitals for sterilisation of heat sensitive equipment. Alternative chemicals or processes have serious limitations or health hazards. A review of the properties of ethylene oxide, its uses in medical facilities and a summary of the results of NIOSH field studies conducted in hospitals, etc. are followed by chapters on: biologic effects in animals and humans of exposure to ethylene oxide; occupational exposure limits; hazards, control measures, medical supervision and record keeping; and sampling and analytical methods. The report recommends a ceiling occupational exposure limit of 135mg/m3 (75ppm) over a 15 min sampling period, and a time-weighted average TLV of 90mg/m3 (50ppm) over a given workday.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-200, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA. Aug. 1977. 58p. 139 ref.
Weiss W., Figueroa W.G.
The characteristics of lung cancer due to chloromethyl ethers.
In a prospective 10-year epidemiological study in chemical workers (CIS 76-1067 and 76-1349), 11 developed lung cancer, including 3 of 91 men exposed to chloromethyl methyl ether contaminated with bis(chloromethyl) ether. Their exposure data, induction period and clinical characteristics are reported. All cancers were small-cell carcinomas, and there was a dose-resonse relation. They developed in relatively young men, and were inversely related to smoking habits.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1976, Vol.18, No.9, p.623-627. 16 ref.
Young J.D., Braun W.H., Gehring P.J., Horvath B.S., Daniel R.L.
1,4-dioxane and β-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid excretion in urine of humans exposed to dioxane vapors.
An average of 3.5µM/l 1,4-dioxane and 414µM/l β-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA) daily were found in the urine of dioxane plant personnel exposed to 1.6ppm dioxane. The biotransformation of dioxane is thus similar to that found in rats. The high ratio of HEAA to dioxane suggests that dioxane is rapidly metabolised, and that exposure to low concentrations of dioxane vapour presents a neglible hazard.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Dec. 1976, Vol.38, No.3, p.643-646. 8 ref.
Epoxy wise is health wise.
This little, well-illustated booklet is addressed to laboratory plant workers handling epoxy compounds and their derivatives. Contents: description of materials and their properties; descriptions of occurrences (sensitisation, illnesses, burns); safe working methods; first aid; personal hygiene.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-152, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Apr. 1976. 18p. Illus.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of epichlorohydrin on the health of workers. The time-weighted average exposure (10h working day) should not exceed 2mg/m3 (approx 0.5ppm) over a 40-h week. The ceiling concentration is fixed at 19mg/m3 (approx. 5ppm) as determined by a sampling time of 15min. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protective equipment, information of employees, work practices, and monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and engineering controls; development of a standard; research needs. Procedures for sampling and analysis of the compound in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-206, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1976. 152p. Illus. 101 ref.
Vainio H., Pääkkönen R., Rönnholm K., Raunio V., Pelkonen O.
A study on the mutagenic activity of styrene and styrene oxide.
Styrene oxide is mutagenic, without metabolic activation, to Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 1535 and TA 100, which have been devised to detect mutagens causing base-pair substitutions. Styrene seems mutagenic toward the same strains, but only after metabolic activation. The toxicity of the compounds impairs reliable dose-response relation conclusions. Diethyl maleate and 3,3,3-trichloropropene oxide enhance the mutagenicity of styrene oxide in the presence of homogenate; epoxide hydratase and glutathione S-oxide transferase participate in the metabolism of styrene oxide. These 2 chemicals do not influence the mutagenic activity of styrene. Styrene glycol and 4-tert-butylpyrocatechol are not mutagenic to any of the strains. The authors conclude suggesting that further, more detailed investigations of the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of styrene and styrene oxide are warranted, and possibly an epidemiologic study on workers in industry.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1976, Vol.2, No.3, p.147-151. 9 ref.
Thiess A.M., Tress E., Fleig I.
Results of occupational medical examinations of dioxane-exposed workers
Arbeitsmedizinische Untersuchungsergebnisse von Dioxan-exponierten Mitarbeitern [in German]
This study, which is based on 50 years of manufacturing experience, is related to the proposed revision of the TLV for dioxane in the Fed.Rep. of Germany (now 100ppm) and its possible inclusion in the list of carcinogenic substances. Physicochemical data and a literature survey of experience in animals and humans are followed by the results of studies in the authors' undertaking: dioxane concentration in the air of various workplaces, study of 24 exposed workers and 27 retired workers, chromosome analyses, epidemiological mortality study. No health damage or chromosomal aberrations due to dioxane were found. The cancer incidence observed in old age was not significant. No hazard appears to be present if skin contact is avoided and good ventilation and airtight apparatus is used.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Feb. 1976, Vol.11, No.2, p.36-46. 16 ref.
DeFonso L.R., Kelton S.C.
Lung cancer following exposure to chloromethyl methyl ether - An epidemiological study.
Report on an epidemiological study (1948-1972) in 2,285 male workers, 669 of whom had been exposed to chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME) containing 0.5-4% bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME). On the basis of an exposure rating system, exposed workers showed a relative risk of lung cancer that was 3.8 times higher than that of non-exposed workers. Dose-response relations were found between incidence of cancer and intensity and/or duration of exposure.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1976, Vol.31, No.3, p.125-130. Illus. 10 ref.
Cadmium, nickel, some epoxides, miscellaneous industrial chemicals and general considerations on volatile anaesthetics.
A series of 25 monographs consisting of data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 9-11 Dec. 1975 and 3-9 Feb. 1976). Individual monographs are devoted to: cadmium and cadmium compounds; nickel and nickel compounds; diepoxybutane; diglycidyl resorcinol ether; epichlorohydrin; 1-epoxyethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexane; 3,4-epoxy-6-methylcyclohexylmethyl 3,4-epoxy-6-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate; cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid; ethylene oxide; fusarenon-X; glycidaldehyde; glycidyl oleate; glycidyl stearate; propylene oxide; styrene oxide; triethylene glycol diglycidyl ether; benzyl chloride; β-butyrolactone; γ-butyrolactone; dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine; 1,4-dioxane; ethylene sulfide; trichloroethylene; and 4-vinylcyclohexene. A chapter is devoted to volatile anaesthetics. Supplementary corrigenda and a substance cumulative index to IARC monographs (Volumes 1-11) are appended.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man, Vol.11. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1976. 306p. 770 ref. Price: SF.34.00.
Chloromethyl ethers, cigarettes, cough and cancer.
10-year prospective study (1963-1973) in 125 chemical workers, 88 of whom had been exposed to chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME) and bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME). Correlations are shown between CMME/BCME exposure, smoking habits, cough, expectoration, dyspnoea, ventilatory impairment (low end-expiratory flow rate), and lung cancer.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1976, Vol.18, No.3, p.194-199. 16 ref.
De Zotti R., Volpe S., Gobbato F.
Ethrane pollution in operation theatres
Inquinamento da ethrane nelle sale operatorie [in Italian]
Measurements of ethrane (2-chloro-1-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,2-trifluoroethane) concentrations were made in the atmosphere of 4 operating theatres (2 with and 2 without forced ventilation), in the personnel's breathing zone and close to the outlet valve of the anaesthetic apparatus. The kinetics of the gas during the operation were studied. A significant correlation between the ethrane concentrations, which were relatively high when there was no ventilation system, and the logarithm of the exposure time was found. The possibility of pollution of the recovery room by the patient was also examined: the values measured were low. Possible preventive measures (exhaust ventilation, activated carbon filters) are briefly discussed.
Lavoro umano, Jan. 1976, Vol.28, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 30 ref.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 38. Ethers
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 38. Ethers. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, vinyl ethers, diallyl ether, di-n-butyl ether, diethyl ether, diisopropyl ether, dimethyl ether, dipropargyl ether, di-n-propyl ether, divinyl ether, ethyl tert-amyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, and methyl vinyl ether, and various inorganic substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st quarter 1976, No.82, Note No.1000-82-76, p.127-129.
Ethylene oxide - Codes of practice for chemicals with major hazards.
This code is intended as a guide in new or existing plants producing or using ethylene oxide. Detailed are: hazards with the compound (toxicity, flammability, decomposition, polymerisation); hazard control - general (fire, unwanted reactions, static electricity, toxicity, first aid, emergency procedures); hazard control - design (storage, plant layout, construction materials, joints, liquid transfer, vaporisers, instruments); hazard control - operations; transportable cylinders and tankers.
Chemical Industries Association Ltd., Alembic House, 93 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7TU, United Kingdom, Aug. 1975. 18p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: £1.50.
Multiple hazard substances: ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile and carbon disulfide
Stoffe mit mehreren gefährlichen Eigenschaften: Äthylenoxid - Acrylnitril - Schwefelkohlenstoff [in German]
Toxicity and explosibility of these substances; heat production hazard by polymerisation; hazardous concentrations and chemical reactions; transportation hazards.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Nov. 1975, Vol.27, No.11, p.452-455.
Caprino L., Togna G.
Toxicological aspects of dimethyl-ether.
Results of investigations on the toxic effects produced in mice and rabbits by inhalation of dimethyl ether. Median lethal concentration (LC50) and median lethal time (LT50) were determined in the mouse. Effects of inhalation on some physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, blood gas and pH data) were evaluated in the rabbit.
European Journal of Toxicology - Journal européen de toxicologie, Sep.-Oct. 1975, Vol.8, No.5, p.287-290. 9 ref.
Weiss W., Boucot K.R.
The respiratory effects of chloromethyl methyl ether.
After lung cancer had been found in 3 chemical workers exposed to chloromethyl methyl ether containing bis(chloromethyl) ether, a 10-year screening programme was undertaken in 45 men who had worked in the same area, and 80 from other areas. Lung cancer (small-cell carcinomas) developed in 4 men in the first 5 years and 7 more in the next 5 years, and there was a strong dose-response relation (30% incidence in high-exposure group). An inverse relation was found between smoking and lung cancer. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis occurred more often in exposed men, again with a dose-response relation. Ventilatory function was not significantly affected. Reduction in exposure over 5 years coincided with decrease in chronic cough and an increase in dyspnoea.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 15 Dec. 1975, Vol.234, No.11, p.1139-1142. 20 ref.
Tou J.C., Westover L.B., Sonnabend L.F.
Analysis of a non-crosslinked, water soluble anion exchange resin for the possible presence of parts per billion level of bis(chloromethyl) ether.
A homogeneous aqueous solution of a non-crosslinked anion exchange resin was investigated using a recently developed hollow fibre probe and mass spectrometric technique. The method is described in detail. Bis(chloromethyl) ether (bis-CME) was not found at the detection limit of 10 parts per billion (ppb). The kinetic data indicate that bis-CME hydrolyzes rapidly and cannot exist for long in the resin solution. Since commercial anion exchange resins contain 50% water within the bead matrix, it seems highly unlikely that bis-CME could be present.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1975, Vol.36, No.5, p.374-378. Illus. 6 ref.
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