Ethers - 423 entries found
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(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Epichlorhydrine [in French]
Synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, storage, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology (action on the central nervous system and irritant effects; acute and chronic toxicity in animals and man; potential mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects; approximate exposure limit in France: 10mg/m3). French regulations on occupational health and safety and neighbourhood protection are mentioned, as are French and international transport regulations. Technical and medical recommandations are offered.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1983, No.112, p.441-444. 30 ref.
Joint assessment of commodity chemicals - No.2: 1,4-Dioxane
Concentrations of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) of ≥300ppm cause eye, nose and throat irritation in humans, and acute over-exposure can cause death. The acute toxicity to animals is low. 1,4-D is not mutagenic, and there is evidence that it has no effects on reproduction in mice. The carcinogenic risk for humans is not clear and future epidemiologic studies are recommended. Contents: chemical identity, physical and chemical properties; production and uses; human exposure; toxicological data (human; acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity; metabolism and pharmacokinetics; mutagenicity); ecotoxicological data; summary and conclusions; bibliography.
European Chemical Industry, Avenue Louise 250, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Feb. 1983, 13p. 31 ref.
Risvig Henriksen H.
Selection of materials for protective gloves - Polymer membranes for protection against contact with epoxy products
Udvælgelse af materialer til beskyttelseshandsker - Polymermembraner til værn mod kontakt med epoxyprodukter [in Danish]
Report intended to be used as a guide to the selection of the most resistant protective gloves (and polymer materials for manufacturing gloves) by means of an initial comparison of the 3-dimensional solubility parameter of the hazardous substance with the corresponding parameters of polymer materials. The practical use of the method is exemplified by the selection of materials for making protective gloves with minimal permeability to constituents of epoxy preparations. A key-word list and a list of research institutions in this field are appended.
Arbejdstilsynet, Direktoratet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København, Denmark, 2nd ed., 1982. 57p. Illus. 38 ref.
Propyleenioksidi [in Finnish]
Propylene oxide is a harmful, flammable liquid (LD50 = 1140mg/kg, TLV 8h = 100ppm). The vapour irritates the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Inhalation has narcotic effects. The liquid is an irritant. Forms extremely flammable compounds with air. Mandatory European labelling: F, XN, R12, R20, R21, R22, S9, S16, S26, S29.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Dec. 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Etyleenioksidi [in Finnish]
Ethylene oxide is an extremely flammable, very toxic gas (LD50 = 330mg/kg; TLV = 90mg/m3). The gas is very irritating to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. It causes coughing, nausea, vertigo, eczema and damage to the eyes. The liquid can cause chemical burns. The gas is very explosive. Mandatory European labelling: F, T, R13, R26, S9, S16, S33, S45.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Ethylene oxide use in hospitals
This manual for health care personnel covers: ethylene oxide (EO) and its use in the health care field; sources of EO gas and equipment used in sterilisation and aeration; effectiveness and safety in EO processing (materials appropriate for EO sterilisation; decontamination and cleaning, assembly and packaging, loading, sterilisation, aeration, record keeping, storage); environmental monitoring. Appendices cover: protocols for site survey; monitoring methods and equipment; emergency action plan; personnel health considerations.
American Society for Hospital Central Service Personnel of the American Hospital Association (AHA), 840 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1982. 162p. Illus. 12 ref. Glossary.
Toxicity of ethylene oxide and its relevance to man
Contents: conditions of human exposure; toxicological data (local and systemic effects), epidemiological data, experimental data, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, biochemical toxicology, interpretation of animal data in terms of human risk. Ethylene oxide (EO) does not cause teratogenic effects, but is a potent mutagen. The relevance for man of animal carcinogenic studies is questionable, and EO has no obvious carcinogenic properties in man, presumably on account of the existence of effective protective mechanisms. Areas worthy of further investigation are listed.
European Chemical Industry, Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, Boîte 63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 20 Sep. 1982. 75p. Illus. 146 ref.
Epidemic curve of respiratory cancer due to chloromethyl ethers
A small epidemic of respiratory cancer was identified in a cohort of 125 male workers exposed to chloromethyl ethers (CME) in the 17-year period from 1963 to the end of 1979. 14 cases of lung cancer and 2 cases of laryngeal cancer were found in 91 men exposed to CME compared with 2 cases of lung cancer in 34 unexposed men. The epidemic peaked 15-19 years after onset of exposure and began to subside thereafter.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Dec. 1982, Vol.69, No.6, p.1265-1270. Illus. 21 ref.
Canada Safety Council
Ethylene oxide - C2H4O
Contents of this data sheet: identification and physical properties; industrial uses; hazards (routes of entry, toxic effects, mutagenic potential, fire); emergency action information (fire, spills, first aid); occupational exposure limit (ACGIH TLV: 5ppm); preventive measures (personal protective equipment, disposal); transportation; storage and handling; training and supervision; glossary; 2-page summary for poster displays.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3V4, Canada, 1982. 11p. 24 ref.
Formation and occurrence of bis(chloromethyl) ether and its prevention in the chemical industry
This monograph covers: chemistry and occurrence of bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME); mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of BCME and its precursors (formaldehyde); experiments in formation and destruction; conclusions regarding BCME from formaldehyde-based resins, formation in air, concentration, occurrence, monitoring, prevention measures, exposure and TLV.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1982, Vol.8, Suppl.3, 86p. Illus. 389 ref.
Is trichloroethylene really carcinogenic?
Ist Trichloräthylen tatsächlich ein Krebsverursacher? [in German]
In animal experiments, trichloroethylene has appeared to raise the frequency of hepatic carcinomas. Analysis of the trichloroethylene administered in those experiments revealed the presence of small amounts of the stabilizers epichlorohydrin and epoxybutane. New studies on mice have used pure trichloroethylene and trichloroethylene containing varying known amounts of the two epoxides. In contrast to technical-grade trichloroethylene, the pure product had no carcinogenic effects. It is thus important to find appropriate harmless stabilisers.
Die BG, Apr. 1982, No.4, p.224.
Ethylene oxide use in hospitals: A manual for health care personnel
This book is a manual for training hospital personnel in safe and effective ethylene oxide (EO) gas sterilisation and a guide and recommended practice for managers. Each stage of the EO sterlilisation programme is presented, discussing how EO works, its possible hazards, a safety plan, equipment and its maintenance, packaging, sterilisation and quality control, aeration, storage, record keeping, and environmental monitoring. Each section includes learning objectives and study questions. Glossary of 259 terms. Appendices: example of site survey report; environmental monitoring methods and equipment; emergency action plan for handling major leaks and spills; personal health considerations.
American Hospital Association, 840 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, Aug. 1982. 162p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$52.50.
Epidemic curve of respiratory cancer due to chloromethyl ethers
Following the occurence in 1962 of suspicion that a statistical excess of lung cancer was developing in a chemical plant in which there was exposure to chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME) contamined with bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME), a prospective cohort study of 125 male workers at the plant was begun, and the group was followed from Jan. 1963 to the end of 1979. A small epidemic of respiratory cancer evolved, including 14 cases of lung cancer (13 were of the small-cell type) and 2 cases of laryngeal cancer among 91 men exposed to CMME in the 17-year period, as compared to 2 cases of lung cancer amolng 34 unexposed men . The lung cancer epidemic peaked 15-19 years after onset of exposure and began to subside thereafter.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Dec. 1982, Vol.69, No.6, p.1265-1270. 21 ref. Illus.
New moves to control sterilising agent ethylene oxide
This data sheet contains: nomenclature; production, use and occupational exposure; health effects (carcinogenic effects; reproductive effects; genetic effects); current regulatory action (TLV (lowered to 5ppm)); references.
Health and Safety Bulletin, May 1982, No.11, p.2-6. 13 ref.
Minisci S., Ricci E.
Anaesthetic-gas pollution of operating theatres
Inquinamento da gas anestetici nelle sale operatorie [in Italian]
The exposure of staff of 12 surgical operating theatres to ethrane and nitrous oxide was assessed. Analysis of samples taken in the breathing zone of surgical staff at different points in operating theatres and measurement of ventilation airflows showed that exposure levels may be high when the ventilation system is not operating correctly. Regular inspection and testing of the ventilation system are recommended.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1982, Vol.73, No.3, p.187-197. 13 ref.
Nordic group of experts for documentation on threshold limit values - 29. Ethylene oxide
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 29. Etylenoxid [in Swedish]
Literature survey of the health hazards of ethylene oxide designed to provide a basis for setting an appropriate TLV in the Scandinavian countries. Sections cover: physical and chemical properties; toxicology (metabolic model; toxicological mechanism; effects on skin and mucous membranes, respiratory tract, liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, heart and blood vessels, central and peripheral nervous systems, reproductive organs and offspring; allergy; genotoxic effects; carcinogenic effects; indicators of exposure; relation between exposure, effect and response). Summary in English. A list of TLVs established in 18 countries and a method recommended for sampling and analysis are appended.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 31p. 61 ref. Price: Swe-cr.25.00.
Nordic group of experts for documentation on threshold limit values - 28. Dioxane
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 28. Dioxan [in Swedish]
Literature survey of the health hazards of dioxane designed to provide a basis for setting an appropriate TLV in the Scandinavian countries. Sections cover: physical and chemical properties; toxicology (metabolic model; toxicological mechanisms; effects on skin and mucous membranes, respiratory tract, liver, kidneys, blood, central nervous system and reproductive organs; allergy; genotoxic effects; carcinogenic effects; indicators of exposure; relationship between exposure, effect and response). Summary in English. A list of TLVs established in 17 countries and a method recommended for sampling and analysis are appended.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 30p. 45 ref. Price: Swe-cr.25.00.
Fire Protection Association (UK)
Dimethyl ether (cylinders)
Uses, hazards (highly flammable gas; heavier than air; collects at low levels; forms explosive mixture with air; may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back; may form peroxides on mixing with air; cylinders are liable to explode quickly if they are involved in a fire; has anaesthetic properties which may be serious at high concentrations; contact with the liquefied gas causes frost burns); precautions (storage, marking, cylinder handling; no smoking; prohibition of naked lights; use of explosion-proof electrical equipment, with reference to pertinent British Standards); fire fighting; U.K. regulations; physical and chemical properties.
Fire Prevention, June 1982, No.150, p.47-48.
Oxyde de propylène [in French]
Sections of this toxicology data sheet cover: synonyms; appearance; properties; uses; pathology (irritant to skin and eyes); industrial safety (ventilation, TLV 50mg/m3).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd quarter 1982, Vol.22, Special Toxicology Issue (Supplement to No.86), p.35. 4 ref.
Hazard alert: Ethylene oxide
This data sheet provides information on: chemical names and identitifers; properties, production and use; occupational exposure and Association of Scientific, Technical and Managerial Staffs members at risk; health hazards; regulations; monitoring and control of occupational exposure; medical monitoring; recommendations (use of alternative substances; warning labels; TLV <10ppm); references and sources of information.
Association of Scientific, Technical and Managerial Staffs, 10/26a Jamestown Road, Camden Town, London NW1 7TD, United Kingdom, Feb. 1982. 10p.
Gorczak J., Palmqvist U.
Propylene oxide in air - Gas chromatographic determination
Propylenoxid i luft - gaskromatografisk bestämning [in Swedish]
This research report covers: equipment and reagents; preparation of standard solutions and filling, desorption and analysis of activated charcoal tube; results (desorption yield, absorption capacity, sample stability after a few days storage); discussion. The quantities of propylene oxide desorbed were 0.002-2.0mg. The described method has several advantages over that recommended by NIOSH, since it is more sensitive.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Forkningsavdelningen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 10p. 3 ref.
Basic safety rules for the handling of ethylene oxide
Reglas básicas de seguridad para el manejo de óxido de etileno [in Spanish]
This illustrated guide covers the essential aspects of safety and health related to the production and handling of industrial quantities of ethylene oxide. A supplement in comic strip format is included.
Petróleos Mexicanos, Av. Marina Nacional No.329, Edif. A. Colonia Huasteca, México D.F., C.P.11311, Mexique, 1981. 40p. Illus. Suppl.
Chromosome damage induced by styrene, styrene oxide and some analogues
Academic dissertation, including a review of the literature on the metabolism and genotoxicity of styrene. In vitro (cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes), styrene and styrene 7,8-oxide, the main reactive metabolite of styrene, and some of their analogues produced structural chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Although styrene oxide was apparently mutagenic in human lymphocytes, neither styrene nor styrene oxide produced detectable chromosome damage in the bone marrow of hamsters. Styrene and vinyltoluene did cause chromosome breakage in the bone marrow of mice, as indicated by the micronucleus induction test. The difference between the 2 rodents is probably due to the relatively low activity of epoxide hydrolase in the mouse, which makes the mouse less able to inactivate styrene oxide.
Institute of Occupational Health, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 1, Helsinki, Finland, 1981. 56p. Illus. 111 ref.
Ševčenko A.M., Konstantinovskij G.A., Javorovskij A.P.
Physiological effects of new industrial brands of epoxy resins
Vozdejstvie na organizm primenjaemyh v promyšlennosti novyh marok ėpoxidnyh smol [in Russian]
Rats were exposed for 4h every day for 4 months to volatile mixtures of epoxy resin constituents (epichlorohydrin, toluene, allyl chloride). Concentrations of the components of epoxy resins UP-650 and UP-650T equivalent to 12.15 and 11.9mg/m3 epichlorohydrin, respectively, produced marked morphological and functional changes in the liver and kidney. Lower concentrations (0.75 and 0.65mg/m3) had some small effect on the nervous and urinary systems. A TLV of 0.3mg/m3 epichlorohydrin for the volatile constituents of resins UP-650 and UP-650T in workplace air is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1981, No.7, p.43-45. 5 ref.
Norpoth K., Müller G., Zilius Z., Ulynec U., Travenius S.Z.M.
Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of carcinogenic alpha chloro ethers
Chromogens were tested for sensitive determination of chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME) and bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME). The latter compoud can be determined by means of 2-hydrazono-2,3-dihydro-3-methylbenzotriazole hydrochloride (detection limit 10ng). Colorimetric determination using 4-pyridine carboxaldehyde 2-benzothiazolylhydrazone (PBH) is also highly sensitive (detection limits 10ng and 15ng for BMCE and CMME respectively). Sensitive measurements are also possible by means of the Hantzsch reaction as modified by Nash, using acetyl acetone, ammonium chloride, and acetic acid. Dichloromethyl methyl ether, an analogue of the alkylating carcinogens, did not show measureble reactions in the low concentration range. Using the PHB reaction it is possible to determine BCME in air in concentrations as low as 0.2ppb even after absorption on Porapak Q.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1981, Vol.49, No.2, p.151-155. 8 ref.
Milby T.H., Whorton M.D., Stubbs H.A., Ross C.E., Joyner R.E., Lipshultz L.I.
Testicular function among epichlorhydrin workers
Results of a clinical and epidemiological study to determine whether epichlorohydrin (ECH) may be responsible for sperm count depression or suppression in ECH production workers in 2 chemical plants. Medical histories were compiled and physical examinations carried out on each worker with particular reference to the genitourinary tract. A group of 90 chemical plant workers unexposed to any agent known to be toxic to the testes was used as a control. Distributions of sperm counts in both plant populations were practically identical to the distribution observed in the control population, and consequently there was no evidence that exposure to ECH at the concentrations existing at the 2 plants studied is responsible for sperm count suppression.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1981, Vol.38, No.4, p.372-377. Illus. 7 ref.
Müller G., Norpoth K., Travenius S.Z.M.
Quantitative determination of bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME) in the ppb range by using portable air sample collectors
Using the capillary gas chromatography in connection with mass spectrometry, a method was developed for measuring air concentrations of the carcinogenic BCME below 1ppb (TLV in USA) after the compound has been adsorbed to Porapak Q in a sample tube. Simulation experiments have shown that the whole amount of adsorbed BCME can be recovered from the adsorbent and that the former disturbing factors (such as co-adsorbed water and thermal desorption that tended to decompose the BCME and thus falsify the results of analyses) are eliminated. The storage time of BCME in the tube has no influence on the recovery rate.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.4, p.325-329. 9 ref.
Chakrabarti S., Brodeur J.
Plasma disappearance and biliary excretion of bromosylfophthalein in styrene-treated and styrene oxide-treated rats
Intraperitoneal administration of a single 908mg/kg dose of styrene 5h before intravenous injection of 50mg/kg bromosulfophthalein (BSP) in rats resulted in a 30% decrease in biliary flow during 10-25min but an increase in such flow 60-90min after the BSP dose; a 50% delay in cumulative excretion of BSP in bile after 5-60min; no change in plasma disappearance of BSP. The first two effects were dependent on the styrene dose. 2h after pretreatment with 375mg/kg styrene oxide, ip., a 50% diminution of bile flow and of cumulative excretion of BSP was observed during the entire 5-90min of bile collection after BSP administration, but the plasma disappearance of BSP was unaffected. The intrahepatic metabolism of BSP and its transport from liver to bile appeared to be impaired after liver injury induced by styrene or styrene oxide.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Oct. 1981, Vol.8, No.4, p.609-617. Illus. 15 réf.
Formation possibilities of haloethers in industrial processes
An investigation of industrial processes involving the manufacture or use of formaldehyde resins, in both plastics and textile industries showed that bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME) was not a significant health risk because the processes are carried out in sealed units, or produce steam which scavenges the BCME. Atmospheric formation of BCME from free formaldehyde and chloride ions in the air did occur at formaldehyde concentrations of 1ppm (TLV level) and BCME was present at >1ppb. Formation of BCME is a potent, direct-acting carcinogen, atmospheres in which formation is likely to occur should be continously monitored.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1981. 68p. 28 ref.
Stampfer J.F., Hermes R.E.
Development of sampling and analytical method for styrene oxide
Styrene oxide (SO) is collected on a sampler which consists of a glass fibre followed by Tenax-GC sorbent. The SO is extracted from the sampler with ethyl acetate, and an aliquot is analysed by gas-liquid chromatography. Recoveries of >95% were obtained from samples in the range 0.5-44µg collected from 80% relative humidity test atmospheres. The coefficient of variation for the method, including an assumed pump error of ±5%, was 0.076. The limit of detection was 0.1µg per sample. Stability and interference studies indicate that the method is suitable for personal monitoring.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1981, Vol.42, No.10, p.699-706. Illus. 14 ref.
Contact allergy to propylene oxide and isopropyl alcohol in a skin disinfectant swab
2 hospital laboratory assistants developed contact dermatitis from a disposable swab for pre-injection use, containing 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and 1% propylene oxide (PO). Patch testing showed that both patients had positive allergic reactions to PO, and 1 reacted to IPA. Testing of 25 control subjects gave negative results.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1981, Vol.7, No.3, p.148-150. 3 ref.
Ehrenberg L., Hällström T., Osterman-Golkar S.
Criteria document for threshold limit values: Ethylene oxide
Kriteriedokument för gränsvärden - Etylenoxid [in Swedish]
This literature survey presents evidence for the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of ethylene oxide (EO) in all groups of organisms from bacteria to mammals. Experimental and epidemiologic data show that a linear dose-dependent relationship exists for induction of mutation and tumours by EO and that there is no no-effect threshold. A reaction-kinetic and pharmaco-kinetic model was used to estimate that 6 tumours/year would result from 40h/week exposure of 1,000 persons at 1ppm. Epidemiologic studies of two occupationally exposed populations confirmed the order of magnitude of this estimate.
Arbetarskyddsverket, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1981. 33p. 73 ref.
Canada Safety Council
Contents: definitions, names, formula, physical properties and industrial uses; hazards (routes of entry, general hazards, fire and explosion, emergency action information); exposure limits (ACGIH TLV is 2ppm; short term exposure limit is 5ppm); preventive measures (precautions, process control, confined spaces, personal protective equipment); pre-employment and periodic medical examinations; air sampling and monitoring; disposal; storage and handling; transportation; training and supervision; glossary; references; 2-page summary for poster display.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3V4, Canada, 1981. 15p. 8 ref.
Published as NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin No.35, this warning notice refers to recent research from which it appears that ethylene oxide (EtO) is carcinogenic in experimental animals, and contains the recommendation that EtO be regarded in the workplace as a potential occupational carcinogen. The bulletin provides information on: production, use and potential for occupational exposure; epidemiologic evidence for cancer in humans; carcinogenic, mutagenic, and adverse reproductive effects in animals and humans; exposure standards and guides; references; guidelines for minimising worker exposure.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 22 May 1981. 22p. 49 ref.
Fire Protection Association (UK)
Uses, hazards (highly flammable liquid, explosion hazard, moderately toxic), precautions (storage, marking; where possible totally enclosed plant should be employed for processes using diisopropyl ether; explosion venting; no smoking; prohibition of naked flames or hot elements; electrical equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres, with reference to British Standard Code of Practice); fire fighting; U.K. regulations; physical and chemical properties.
Fire Prevention, June 1981, No.142, p.47-48.
Thiess A.M., Schwegler H., Fleig I., Stocker W.G.
Mutagenicity study of workers exposed to alkylene oxides (ethylene oxide/propylene oxide) and derivatives.
Mutagenicity studies were carried out on lymphocyte cultures. Workers were classified as having; exposure > 20 years; < 20 years; long-term exposure and an accident (ethylene oxide inhalation or skin contact); an accident with only brief exposure. Only workers exposed for more than 20 years showed a significant increase in the chromosome aberration rate.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1981, Vol.23, No.5, p.343-347. 26 ref.
Jonas L.C., Billings C.E., Lilis C.
Laboratory performance of passive personal samplers for waste anesthetic gas (enflurane) concentrations.
The performance of diffusional samplers was studied in a situation simulating that of operating rooms. Results were compared with charcoal tube samples and infrared analyser readings. Passive personal samplers can determine concentrations of enflurane with an accuracy of 24-70%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1981, Vol.42, No.2, p.104-111. Illus. 16 ref.
Langhorst M.L., Melcher R.G., Kallos G.J.
Reactive adsorbent derivative collection and gas chromatographic determination of chloromethyl methyl ether in air.
Following sampling the CMME derivative is desorbed into methanol, cleaned up with aqueous KOH, extracted into hexane, and analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Air containing the CMME is pulled through an air sampling tube containing 1.5% potassium 2,4,6-trichlorophenate on modified 120/140 mesh GLC-110 as adsorbent. The procedure is designed to give an accurate 4h TWA of the exposure level. Yields were 56 ± 10% and recoveries independent of yield averages 96% for concentrations of 6-900ppb (v/v). Breakthrough concentrations, humidity and storage and other effects were also investigated.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1981, Vol.42, No.1, p.47-55. Illus. 20 ref.
Properties, uses, containers and shipping regulations, labelling, storage, handling, health hazards (acute and chronic toxicity), preplacement medical examination, U.S. TLVs (ACGIH: 50ppm (90mg/m3) TWA; short-term exposure limit: 75ppm or 135mg/m3), personal protective equipment, ventilation, fire and explosion hazards, electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres, bonding and earthing of containers (static electricity), inerting, poisoning symptoms, first aid, eye irrigation, waste disposal.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1980. 6p. 12 ref.
Buhalovskij A.A., Šugaev V.B.
Determination of the maximum permissible concentration of trimethyl ethylene oxide in workplace air
Materialy po obosnovaniju PDK okisi trimetilėtilena v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Trimethyl ethylene oxide (TEO) is an intermediate product in the production of monomers for synthetic rubber. Basic toxicometric parameters are followed by the results of animal experiments and observations made in exposed workers, and a threshold limit value of 5mg/m3 is established for TEO in workplace air. TEO may be absorbed through the skin.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1980, No.10, p.49.
Styrene monomer - Current knowledge of toxicity and occupational hazards
Le styrène monomère - Toxicité et risques professionnels actuellement connus [in French]
M.D. thesis reviewing current knowledge of styrene toxicity. It covers: structure; production; physical and chemical properties; experimental and human toxicity; metabolism; safety measures. Styrene oxide seems much more toxic than styrene. The main findings in animals, or animals and man, are skin and mucuous membrane irritation, pre-narcotic state, renal, haematological and pulmonary abnormalities and mutagenic potential via styrene oxide. The question of styrene carcinogenicity is raised. Recommendations: atmospheric concentrations of styrene below 100ppm, workplace ventilation, information of workers, personal protective equipment, pre-employment medical examinations, and limitation of working hours for women and young persons.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants-Malades, Paris, France, July 1980. 76p. 56 ref.
Nordic group of experts for TLV documentation - 19. Epichlorohydrin
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 19. Epiklorhydrin [in Swedish]
This review of existing literature forms the medical basis for recommending a standard for occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin. Topics covered: chemical identifiers and properties; metabolic model; toxicological mechanisms; effects on body organs; allergic effects; genotoxic effects; carcinogenic effects; indicators of exposure; sampling and analysis; references; TLV list for 15 countries.
Arbetarskyddsverket, 17184 Solna, Sweden, Dec. 1980. 31p. 63 ref.
Toxicity of epichlorohydrin - A case of acute occupational poisoning
Toxicité de l'épichlorhydrine - A propos de cas d'intoxication aiguë professionnelle [in French]
MD thesis reviewing current knowledge about epichlorohydrin toxicology; physical and chemical properties; manufacture; uses; metabolic data; determination in air and liquids; pathology of acute, subacute and chronic poisoning; occupational hazards and their control (inhalation, skin and mucous membrane contact, ingestion, technical safety and health measures, maximum allowable concentration (<5ppm)). The thesis is illustrated by 2 cases of acute occupational poisoning.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Paris-Ouest, Paris, France, 1980. 110p. 39 ref.
Determination of epichlorhydrin and ethylene chlorhydrin in air
Bestämning av epiklorhydrin och etylenklorhydrin i luft [in Swedish]
Determination by gas chromatography. The air to be analysed is passed through activated carbon, and then pumped into the chromatograph after desorption by injection of dichloromethane (desorption can also be obtained with carbon disulfide).
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Arbetsmedicinska avdelningen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1980. 12p. 1 ref.
Establishment of exposure limits for methoxyflurane at the workplace
Obosnovanie PDK ingalana v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Acute, subacute, and chronic effects of this anaesthetic were studied in animals: LC16 = 24.5, LC50 = 33.5, LC84 = 47.2mg/l. Recommended and approved exposure limit: 200mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1980, No.4, p.55.
Ivanov N.G., Mel'nikova L.V., Kljačkina A.M., Germanova A.L.
Study of toxicity, hazards and harmful effects on human organs of glycidol
Issledovanie toksičnosti, opasnosti i haraktera vrednogo dejstvija na organizm glicidola [in Russian]
Following intragastric administration of glycidol, a substance used in organic synthesis, LD50 in mice was determined at 431mg/kg. Inhalation LC50 was 1,069mg/m3 for mice, and 1,260mg/m3 for rats. This substance, which was moderately irritant when inhaled or on skin contact, and highly irritant on contact with conjunctival tissue, may be toxic on absorption through intact skin. Recommended TLV: 5mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1980, No.3, p.42-43. 4 ref.
Epoxides - is there a human health problem?
In this review, possible means of occupational and non-occupational exposure are discussed. In addition to the epoxides themselves, unsaturated compounds that may be metabolised in vivo to epoxides are included. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity are discussed, with a brief outline of the mebatolism, binding to cell constituents, and DNA repair mechanisms. Interactions between different epoxides in vivo are considered.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1980, Vol.37, No.4, p.317-336. 181 ref.
The cigarette factor in lung cancer due to chloromethyl ethers.
In a prospective study of 51 men exposed to chloromethyl ethers, 11 developed lung cancer over a 10-year period. The risk was higher in those who did not smoke cigarettes at the start of the study. Cigarette smoking appeared to inhibit the carcinogenic effect of chloromethyl ethers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1980, Vol.22, No.8. p.527-529. 7 ref.
Ethylene oxide - Safety measures in sterilisation, disinsectisation and disinfection installations
L'oxyde d'éthylène - Sécurité des installations de stérilisation, de désinsectisation et de désinfection. [in French]
Ethylene oxide, mixed with other gases, is a sterilising agent used in hospitals, and in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Description of some typical accidents; toxic hazards (U.S. TLV: 90mg/m3h; Soviet TLV: 1mg/m3); explosibility; insecticidal, bactericidal and germicidal properties; technical data on sterilisation units. Preventive measures: siting (outside workplaces), design and layout of installations (ventilation, fire- and explosion-resistant walls, minimum electrical equipment); use of non-explosive mixtures (ethylene oxide/CO2, ethylene oxide/freon 12).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1980, No.101, Note No.1280-101-80, p.477-484. Illus.
Dinardi S.R., Sacco C.L., McLean-Shinaman C.
A gas handling system for ethylene oxide.
A safe and convenient apparatus for laboratory sampling and analysis using readily available stainless steel fittings is described. It provides for complete conversion of 100% ethylene oxide liquid to a vapour which is extractable from a sampling port for gas chromatographic analysis.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1980, Vol.41, No.10, p.766-769. 16 ref.
Hepatic and renal effects of low concentrations of methoxyflurane in exposed delivery ward personnel.
28 delivery room personnel and 12 non-exposed controls were studied. Analyses of blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid, SGOT and SGPT were significantly elevated 3 days after exposure to methoxyflurane. Reevaluation of the use of methoxyflurane for obstetrical analgesia is suggested.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1980, Vol.22, No.12, p.817-819. 22 ref.
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