ILO Home
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us Français | Español
view in a printer-friendly format »

Ethers - 423 entries found

Your search criteria are

  • Ethers

1985

CIS 88-1098 Butyl glycidyl ether
Butyyliglysidyylieetteri [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Flammable liquid. Exposure limit (15min.) = 135mg/m3. Irritates the skin and the eyes. Has a narcotic effect. Causes paralysis of the CNS. Long term exposure has a mutagenic effect and sensitises the skin. Mandatory European labelling: F, XN, R10, R20, R101, S24, S25, S101.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Mar. 1985. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 88-1086 Allyl glycidyl ether
Allyyliglysidyylieetteri [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (15min) = 22mg/m3. Is absorbed through the skin. The liquid irritates the skin and the eyes. The vapour irritates the eyes and the respiratory tract. Inhalation causes nausea and has a narcotic effect. Can cause inflammation of the vocal organs and pneumonia. Long term exposure has a sensitising and a mutagenic effect. Can cause hepatic and renal damage. Mandatory European labelling: F, XN, R20, R101, S24, S25, S101.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Mar. 1985. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 88-91 Diglycidyl ether
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: bis(2,3-epoxypropyl) ether. Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (1985) = 0.5ppm (ceiling concentration); ACGIH TLV (1983) = 0.5mg/m3; IDLH (NIOSH/OSHA, 1978) = 85ppm. Is absorbed through skin. Toxicity: can cause death or permanent injury via oral and inhalation routes during exposure encountered in normal work; skin damage and burns; irritation of eyes and respiratory tract.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 87-1216 Diepoxybutane
Chemical safety information sheet. The substance is absorbed through the skin. Toxicity: severe skin, respiratory tract and eye irritant; delayed swelling of the eyelids. The dl, L(-) and meso forms have all been determined to be positive animal carcinogens.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 87-37 Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide: Labeling requirements [USA]
Amendment to OSHA's final ethylene oxide standard (29 CFR 1910.1047) providing for exceptions to the labelling requirements.
Federal Register, USA, 11 Oct. 1985, Vol.50, No.198, p.41491-41494.

CIS 87-77 Chloromethyl ether
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physico-chemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazards (human carcinogen); uses; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1913 Ethylene oxide
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; properties; occupational exposure limits (8-h TWA recommended in the United Kingdom: 5ppm, 10-min short-term TWA: 15ppm); industrial uses; fire hazards and extinguishants to be used; hazardous reactions; acute and chronic health effects due to exposure; medical surveillance; handling and storage; safety precautions; leakage and spillage; first aid.
Safety Practitioner, Dec. 1985, Vol.3, No.12, p.12-13. 4 ref.

CIS 86-1646 Koga M., Hori H., Tanaka I., Akiyama T., Inoue N.
Quantitative analysis of urinary ethylene glycol in rats
Ethylene glycol in urine was separated by azeotropic distillation and esterified with n-butylboronic acid. The derivatised ethylene glycol was separated by gaz chromatography at 70° on a 2m by 3mm glass column of 2% OV-225 on 60-80 mesh Uniport HPS. A flame ionisation detector was used. Known amounts of z-methylcyclohexanone were included in the samples as internal standards. A linear calibration curve was obtained up to 500µg/mL of ethylene glycol. The detection limit was 10µg/mL and the relative standard deviation was 3.5% for 100µg/mL of ethylene glycol. This method was used to determine the urinary excretion of ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide at various concentrations (50-500ppm). The amounts of ethylene glycol excreted were sigmoidally dependent on the concentration of ethylene oxide to which the rats had been exposed.
Journal of UOEH, Mar. 1985, Vol.7, No.1, p.45-49. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 86-1638 Dichloroethyl ether
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1631 Butyl vinyl ether
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1586 Chloromethyl methyl ether
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1582 Epichlorohydrin
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1552 Oxetane, 3,3-bis(chloromethyl)-
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases. The thermoplastic resin Penton is derived from this monomer.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1334 Propylene oxide
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1324 Ethylene oxide
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1048 Ethylene oxide
Taking into account available data concerning the alkylating nature of ethylene oxide, the reproducible positive carcinogenic findings in experimental animals, the overwhelmingly positive in vivo mutagenicity and genotoxicity tests, and the epidemiological findings suggesting an increase in the incidence of human cancer, ethylene oxide should be considered as probable human carcinogen, and its levels in the environment should be kept as low as feasible.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1985. 79p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.9.00.

CIS 86-1002 Propylene Oxide
Exposure of man to propylene oxide mainly occurs through inhalation at the workplace. Taking into account the body of available data - the alkylating nature of propylene oxide, the formation of DNA adducts, the positive response in in vitro mutagenesis assays, the carcinogenic effects in animals at the sites of entry into the body, and the absence of adequate data on cancer in human beings - propylene oxide should be regarded as if it presented a carcinogenic risk for man, and levels in the environment should be kept as low as feasible.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1985. 53p. 99 ref. Price: SF.8.00.

CIS 86-687 Evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Allyl compounds, aldehydes, epoxides and peroxides
Conclusions of a meeting of experts (Lyon, France, June 1984). There is limited or inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of allyl chloride, allyl isothiocyanate, allyl isovalerate and eugenol in animals; in the absence of epidemiological data, no evaluation of human carcinogenicity could be made. There is sufficient evidence that acetaldehyde is an animal carcinogen, but inadequate evidence of its carcinogenicity in humans. Evidence of the carcinogenicity of acrolein and malonaldehyde in animals or humans is inadequate or absent. There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of diglycidyl resorcinol ether, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide and styrene oxide in animals, but only ethylene oxide can be identified as "probably carcinogenic" in humans. Evidence of the carcinogenicity of benzoyl, hydrogen and lauroyl peroxides is limited or inadequate for animals and inadequate or absent for humans.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, Feb. 1985. 369p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$25.00; SF.70.00.

CIS 86-685 De Craecker W.
Ethylene oxide
Oxyde d'éthylène [in French]
Technical data sheet. Ethylene oxide is a highly flammable and explosive gas that has already caused major accidents. It is included in the EEC Seveso Directive, which became effective in Belgium on 1 Feb. 1985. Recent discoveries indicate that the substance is more toxic than previously thought, and that it has mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, leading occupational hygienists to recommend a lowering of the TLV from 10 to 1ppm. The introduction, in the near future, of a Belgian standard on the safe utilisation of ethylene oxide for sterilisation in medicine will contribute to its safe use.
Promosafe, May-June 1985, Vol.12, No.3, p.265-276. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 86-398 Ehlert Knudsen L.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Threshold Limit Values - 60. Propylene oxide
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 60. Propylenoxid [in Danish]
A critical survey and evaluation of the relevant literature as the basis for determination of an occupational exposure limit for propylene oxide. Propylene oxide is a highly reactive, electrophilic substance, which reacts with cellular macromolecules such as RNA, DNA and proteins, by alkylating nucleophilic centres. Propylene oxide is a mutagen. It induces local tumours when inhaled or administered by subcutaneous and intragastric routes and has an adverse effect on male and female reproduction in animals (mice and rats). In 1984, a working group in the IARC determined that there was sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of propylene oxide in experimental animals. Propylene oxide is an allergic sensitiser. It is recommended that the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects serve as the biological effects to be used as a basis for an evaluation in setting an occupational exposure limit for propylene oxide.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 43p. 89 ref.

CIS 86-177 Bergqvist-Karlsson A.
Contact allergy to glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride
Two chemists working in the pharmaceutical industry developed a papular itching dermatitis. Patch testing showed glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride to be the agent responsie. Avoidance of contact with the substance (in one case, by transfer to other work) prevented recurrence of the dermatitis. This is the first report of human sensitisation to glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1985, Vol.12, No.1, p.61-62. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 86-161 Roe F.J.C.
Chloromethylation: three lung cancer deaths in young men
This letter to the editor reports on 3 cases of lung cancer (2 oat-cell type and 1 anaplastic squamous-cell type) which developed in men ≤40 years old who worked in a chemical factory and were employed on a chloromethylation process during which bischloromethyl ether may be formed. The process has been closed down. The need for complete elimination of exposure to BCME is stressed.
3 Aug. 1985, Vol.2, No.8449, p.268. 5 ref.

CIS 86-106 Kring E.V., McGibney P.D., Thornley G.D.
Laboratory validation of five commecially available methods for sampling ethylene oxide in air
2 types of large charcoal tubes, 2 passive dosimeters (DuPont, Pro-Tek C-70 and 3M No.3550), and a Miran infrared Model 103 Analyser were tested simultaneously over 6 concentrations (0.25 to 10.7ppm) at 65% relative humidity. Only the DuPont ethylene oxide badge met the accuracy criteria in the OSHA ethylene oxide standard over the entire concentration range tested.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1985, Vol.46, No.10, p.620-624. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 85-1380 Van Sittert N.J., De Jong G., Clare M.G., Davies R., Dean B.J., Wren L.J., Wright A.S.
Cytogenetic, immunological, and haematological effects in workers in an ethylene oxide manufacturing plant
Samples of blood were collected over a period of up to 14 years from 36 workers engaged in ethylene oxide (EO) manufacture and from 35 matched controls. There was a small positive correlation between length of employment in EO manufacturing and frequency of chromosome breaks and with the percentage of neutrophils in a differential white blood cell count. There was a small negative correlation between length of employment and the percentage of lymphocytes. None of these correlations had a significance for health. No correlations were found between EO exposure and the other biological parameters investigated.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1985, Vol.42, No.1, p.19-26. 21 ref.

1984

CIS 99-1993 Castegnaro M., Alvarez M., Iovu M., Sansone E.B., Telling G.M., Williams D.T.
Laboratory decontamination and destruction of carcinogens in laboratory wastes: Some haloethers
Topics: carcinogens; chloromethyl methyl ether; bis(chloromethyl) ether; description of technique; disposal of harmful waste; halogenated ethers; IARC; laboratory work; manuals; pollution control.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1984. 53p. Illus. 77 ref.

CIS 87-1206 Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether
Bisfenoli-a-diglysidyylieetteri [in Finnish]
Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether is an irritating and sensitising liquid (LD50 = 11g/kg). Skin contact and inhalation should be avoided. Irritates the skin and the eyes. Can cause dermatitis. The substance has a radiomimetic effect: it causes paralysis of the bone marrow and is carcinogenic in animals. Mandatory European labelling: XI, R36, R38, R43, S28, S37, S39, S101.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Dec. 1984. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 86-1657 Hogstedt C., Aringer L., Gustavsson A.
Ethylene oxide and cancer - review of the literature and follow-up of two studies
Etylenoxid och cancer - litteraturöversikt och uppföljning av två epidemiologiska studier [in Swedish]
The rapidly growing literature on genotoxic effects in humans and animals of exposure to ethylene oxide is reviewed. Furthermore, two Swedish studies published in 1979 were followed up regarding mortality and cancer incidence. One more case of leukaemia was detected in a group of 203 exposed packers in addition to the two previously described cases of malignancies from the haematopoietic system and a non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Among 89 ethylene oxide operators with mixed exposure, another case of leukaemia was found in addition to two previously described cases. Furthermore, the risk of stomach cancer was greatly increased in the production group. Epidemiological, cytogenetic and animal studies support the view that ethylene oxide in low concentrations increases the risk of cancer after continuous exposure and possibly also after intermittent exposure.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 32p. 34 ref.

CIS 86-1275 Herzog V., Horn H., Machwerth R., Schnellhardt E., Lindig K.
Ethylene oxide contamiation of sterilizing staff
Zur Belastung des Bedienungspersonals bei der Ethylenoxidsterilisation [in German]
In a separate room 2 ethylene oxide sterilisers were operated, and the concentration of the gas in the indoor air as well as in the surrounding open air was determined by gas chromatography. The highest concentrations were found when the sterile goods were unloaded, and during their storage for desorption of the gas. Directions are given for further proper and safe use of the sterilising method, based on experiments, experience and the study of new literature about the intoxication risk of sterilising staff.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1984, Vol.30, No.9, p.510-513. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 86-473 Hegyi E., Jakubík A.
Skin damage from work with phenyl glycidyl ether
Kožné poškodenia pri práci s fenylglycidyléterom [in Slovak]
A small epidemic of skin damage occurred after the introduction of lubricating oils with the stabiliser phenyl glycidyl ether. Of 74 exposed workers, 16 developed contact sensitisation to phenyl glycidyl ether. After replacement of this oil with another one free of the implicated substance, no further cases of skin damage were reported.
Pracovní lékařství, 1984, Vol.36, No.4, p.121-122. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 86-120 Epichlorohydrin
Epichlorohydrin is absorbed rapidly via the skin, gastrointestinal tract and, in vapour form, via the lungs. It is strongly irritating to the eyes and lung and will sensitise the skin. The compound is mutagenic in most short term assays and has shown carcinogenic, embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in animals. None of these effects have been, as yet, observed in humans. Other aspects covered: properties and analytical methods; uses and distribution in the environment; toxicology and levels of exposure; current regulations, guidelines and standards. French translation available from World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 51p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.8.00.

CIS 86-168 Uždavini Ė.R., Parfenova T.I., Mamaeva A.A., Gilev V.G.
Inhalation toxicity of anisole
Toksičeskie svojstva anizola pri ingaljacionnom vozdejstvii [in Russian]
Anisole, a solvent used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, had an LC50 of 3021mg/m3 in experiments with mice; no lethal concentration could be established for rats. The compound was primarily an irritant and narcotic, although dystrophic changes were found in the livers of experimental animals. Human volunteers exposed to 200mg/m3 experienced buring in the throat, irritation of the eyes and a foreign taste in the mouth. A MAC of 5mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1984, No.6, p.43-44. 4 ref.

CIS 86-139 Laurent C., Frederic J., Léonard A.Y.
Sister chromatid exchange frequency in workers exposed to high levels of ethylene oxide in a hospital sterilization service
Blood samples were taken from a group of 25 subjects exposed to high levels of ethylene oxide (EO); the quantity of EO inhaled during the past 2 years was evaluated to fall between 500 and 5800mg. Compared to a control group, the exposed group demonstrated a significant increase in the sister chromatid exchange (SCE); the rise was 100% in certain individuals. Senior workers had the highest SCE mean levels. This observation shows that the effect of exposure to EO was sufficient to produce a genetic reaction, was cumulative and in some cases persistent.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.54, No.1, p.33-43. 40 ref.

CIS 85-1375 Schaffer P., Lavillaureix J., De Fonso L.R., Maher K.V., Weiss W., Bauer R.
Cancer registries in occupational cancer monitoring: a study of the incidence of cancer among workers exposed to chloromethyl ethers in a chemical factory
Les registres du cancer dans la surveillance du risque professionnel de cancer. A propos d'une étude de l'incidence du cancer parmi les employés d'une usine de l'industrie chimique, exposés aux chlorométhyléthers [in French]
Study of 670 persons hired between 1959 and 1971 and having worked in the factory for at least 6 months; 168 had been exposed to chloromethyl ethers. The number of deaths and the number of cases of cancer were determined with data from company records and the tumour registry of the Bas-Rhin area of France. In terms of the time-weighted exposure, total length of exposure and person-years of exposure, there was no significant difference in the number of lung cancer cases between the exposed and non-exposed workers. To compensate for the small population and low exposure levels, the study will be extended to cover all cases up to 1985.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.3, p.165-172. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 85-1052 Sarto F.
Toxicity of ethylene oxide and its relevance for man
Tossicità dell'ossido di etilene e sua rilevanza per l'uomo [in Italian]
A literature review of the toxicity of ethylene oxide (acute and chronic poisoning, local irritation, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, teratogenic effects and effects on the reproductive function) and of its environmental and biological monitoring. The Italian exposure limit of 3ppm is judged to be still too high.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.75, No.4, p.254-263. 57 ref.

CIS 85-758 Currier M.F., Carlo G.L., Poston P.L., Ledford W.E.
A cross sectional study of employees with potential occupational exposure to ethylene oxide
This study was conducted on 84 workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) in the chemical manufacturing industry and on individually matched controls. The exposure level was estimated to be below the TLV of 10ppm, and mostly below 1ppm. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the results of haematological and biochemical tests. There was a significant (p=0.035) increase in the prevalence of proteinuria among workers exposed to EO.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1984, Vol.41, No.4, p.492-498. 17 ref.

CIS 85-408 Kring E.V., Damrell D.J., Basilio A.N., McGibney P.D., Douglas J.J., Henry T.J., Ansul G.R.
Laboratory validation and field verification of a new passive air monitoring badge for sampling ethylene oxide in air
The DuPont Pro-Tek C-70 colorimetric dosimeter has been laboratory validated over the range of 4-375ppm-h (0.5-47ppm on an 8h TWA) using standard spectrophotometer readout in 1cm cells. Overall sampling and analytical method accuracy is ±13.5%. Temperature, pressure, relative humidity or face velocity have no effect on sampling over practical ranges. Badges were more precise than the charcoal tube/pump method in all field tests conducted. The badge may be used to determine ambient formaldehyde levels if suspected to be present along with ethylene oxide. Glycols and formaldehyde will give a positive interference.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1984, Vol.45, No.10, p.697-707. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 85-449 Osterman-Golkar S., Bailey E., Farmer P.B., Gorf S.M., Lamb J.H.
Monitoring exposure to propylene oxide through the determination of hemoglobin alkylation
The levels of Nτ-(2-hydroxypropyl)histidine in haemoglobin (Hb) were determined for 8 employees in a plant where propylene oxide (PO) was used for the production of hydroxypropylated starch, and for 13 referents. Good agreement was obtained between the estimated exposure and the degree of alkylation of Hb. Values of 0.1-0.38nmol/g Hb were found for referents compared with 0.85-1.2 for employees with low to intermediate exposure and 4.5-13 for employees with exposure at 10ppm PO for 25-75% of work time. The method gives a measure of the in vivo dose obtained during a period of 4 months and is superior to point measurement of concentrations for the surveillance of exposure conditions in work environments.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1984, Vol.10, No.2, p.99-102. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 85-131 Hansen J.P., Allen J., Brock K., Falconer J., Helms M.J., Shaver G.C., Strohm B.
Normal sister chromatid exchange levels in hospital sterilization employees exposed to ethylene oxide
Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies were determined for 9 female and 5 male hospital workers exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) in sterilising areas and were compared with those of 14 controls matched for sex, race and age. Time-weighted average (TWA) and peak ambient levels of EO were measured in the sterilising areas. All workers were exposed to <5ppm TWA of EO, and there were no statistically significant differences in SCE levels between workers and controls. Smoking was associated with increased SCE levels. In this particular hospital setting no evidence of genetic effects stemming from exposure to low levels of EO was found.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1984, Vol.26, No.1, p.29-32. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 84-1921 Lahaye D., van Assche F., Theunissen A.
Ethylene oxide concentration in hospital sterilisation units
Ethyleenoxideconcentratie in de sterilisatieafdelingen van ziekenhuizen [in Dutch]
Ethylene oxide exposure of sterilisation unit personnel in 19 Belgian hospitals was measured. The concentration of ethylene oxide was also measured in air samples taken in premises adjacent to the units, and in packages containing sterilised instruments. The highest concentrations were measured during the opening of sterilising equipment (up to 265ppm). Lower concentrations were found during the use of the new "high-pressure" equipment. The lowest values (1.8ppm averaged over 2h near the steriliser) were found during the use of "low-pressure" equipment. Recommendations: installation of equipment in ventilated rooms; use of low-pressure equipment; regular checking and maintenance of equipment; airing of equipment after unpacking; inadvisability of vacuum-packing.
Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg, 12 Sep. 1984, Vol.62, No.18, p.707-713. 19 ref.

CIS 84-1612 Bouisson F.
The use of ethylene oxide in sterilisation and disinfection
L'oxyde d'éthylène, emploi en stérilisation et désinfection [in French]
Proper use of ethylene oxide during sterilisation and disinfection operations in hospitals and industry. Physical and chemical properties (toxicity, flammability, tendency to polymerise, TLV in air). Conditions of use in explosive and non-explosive atmospheres. Recommended air monitoring measures (sampling), appropriate ventilation of work premises.
Face au risque, Feb. 1984, No.200, p.25-31. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 84-1379 Ethylene oxide toxicology and its relevance to man: an up-dating of ECETOC Technical Report No.5
For ECETOC Technical Report No.5, see CIS 84-784. Since the publication of Report No.5, OSHA (1983) has proposed to lower the permitted exposure level of ethylene oxide (EO) to an 8h-TWA of 1ppm. The Environmental Protection Agency (USA) believes that this 1ppm TWA level will reduce not only the cancer risk from workers' exposure to EO, but also other health hazards, including neurotoxic and adverse reproductive effects. The permitted exposure level in Italy was reduced from 50 to 3ppm in 1983.
European Chemical Industry, Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, Boîte 63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 26 Mar. 1984. 47p. 101 ref.

CIS 84-920 Periodic checks of sterilising facilities - Ethylene oxide and sterilisers
Vérification périodique des installations de stérilisation - L'oxyde d'éthylène et les stérilisateurs [in French]
Practical rules to follow during the use of ethylene oxide; methodology of periodic checks (safety equipment, leak detectors, earthing, ethylene oxide distribution, exhaust ventilation); maintenance of positive pressure and negative pressure sterilisers.
APAVE, Jan.-Mar. 1984, Vol.65, No.225, p.65-68.

1983

CIS 84-1634
Health and Safety Executive
Ethylene oxide in air - Laboratory method using charcoal adsorbent tubes, solvent desorption and gas chromatography
Contents of this guidance note: Properties, uses, toxicity and first aid in case of massive exposure to ethylene oxide; determination method (sampling through a glass or metal tube packed with activated charcoal; desorption of the absorbed ethylene oxide by carbon disulfide; analysis of the solution with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionisation detector). Scope: suitable for measurement over periods of 10min-8h, both for personal and area sampling. Analytical range: 1-200mg/m3 for 5l air samples. Precision: <10%. Samples stored for more than 4 days without refrigeration will suffer substantial sample loss due to migration from the front to the back section of the charcoal. Interference is provided by high humidity and compounds coeluting with ethylene oxide.
Health and Safety Executive Sale Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, July 1983. 4p. 12 ref. Price: £0.50.

CIS 84-1035 Beck M.H., King C.M.
Allergic contact dermatitis to epichlorhydrin in a solvent cement
Case report of a 51-year-old plumber handling PVC pipes and displaying a persistent, irritable, vesicular and occasionally bullous rash spreading from the tips of the fingers to the sides and palmar aspects of the fingers and hands. He showed a vesiculo-bullous reaction to 0.1% epichlorohydrin in alcohol and 0.5% in petroleum.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1983, Vol.9, No.4, p.315. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 84-710 Kramer R.F.
How hospitals handle ethylene oxide
The extent to which recommended threshold limit values for exposure to ethylene oxide (EtO), used as a sterilising agent in many hospitals, were exceeded, was determined after evidence was presented of the potential carcinogencity of EtO. The causes for elevated exposure levels in 6 hospitals were: not allowing for sufficient time to elapse with the sterilizer door open prior to transfer of sterilized material to the aerator; improperly ventilated drain room enclosures; improperly designed gas sterilizer locations or layouts. The recommended TLV standard ceiling value of 10ppm was exceeded in >30% of the hospitals initially surveyed; however, after slight modifications in the sterilizing equipment, ventilation systems and operating procedures, only one of 22 hospitals consistently exceeded the 10ppm standard.
National Safety News, May 1983, Vol.127, No.5, p.44-47. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 84-745 Tassignon J.P., Bos G.D., Craigen A.A., Jacquet B., Kueng H.L., Lanouziere-Simon C., Pierre C.
Mortality in an European cohort occupationally exposed to epichlorohydrin (ECH)
Animal, human, and mutagenicity studies are reviewed. Mortality figures over at least 10 years were studied in a plant each in Great Britain, the Netherlands, Switzerland and France. Of a total of 606 subjects, subgroups with exposure of >10 years and <10 years were formed. There was no excess mortality from cancer which could be related to ECH exposure in either subgroup or the cohort as a whole. No firm conclusion as to the possible carcinogenicity of ECH emerged from the results.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 1983, Vol.51, No.4, p.325-336. 33 ref.

CIS 84-435 Korpela D.B., McJilton C.E., Hawkinson T.E.
Ethylene oxide dispersion from gas sterilizers
Ethylene oxyde (EtO) concentrations were simultaneously monitored both immediately above and below the door of 3 different types of sterilisers during various process runs using Miran-1A gas analysers. EtO tends to flow upward when the steriliser door is opened. Local exhaust ventilation significantly reduced EtO concentration and lessened the duration of persistence in the air. Temperature and relative humidity changes had no effect on evolution patterns, concentration or duration.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1983, Vol.44, No.8, p.589-591. 17 ref.

CIS 84-124 Mouilleseaux A., Laurent A.M., Fabre M., Jouan M., Festy B.
Ethylene oxide concentration in the air of sterilisation and disinfection facilities
Teneurs atmosphériques en oxyde d'éthylène décelées dans l'environnement professionnel d'installations de stérilisation ou de désinfection [in French]
Ethylene oxide concentrations in air were measured in 4 facilities (3 of them hospitals) by Dräger detector tubes and gas chromatography. Sampling time varied from a few minutes (peaks of pollution) to 8h (background pollution). Each facility presented its own problems related to its capacity (0.3-14m3), to its design, to its operating conditions and to its ancillary premises, but ethylene oxide concentration increased with capacity. Over short periods of time, concentration increased near the discharge area, and particularly in the desorption rooms. The concentrations observed by gas chromatography were between 0.5 and 230ppm. The measurements for periods of 6-8h varied from 0.05 to 0.7ppm for small facilities, and 0.05 to 5ppm for large ones. Concentrations were highest in the desorption rooms, but even there they remained below the U.S. TLV (10ppm). Precautions advised: control of ethylene oxide levels by the use of Dräger tubes; more specific measures associated with biological monitoring of exposed workers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.1, p.1-14. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 83-2008 Araszkiewirz G.
Low-temperature gas sterilisation in the hospital - Occupational hazards and their prevention
La stérilisation à basse température par les gaz à l'hôpital. Risques professionnels et prévention [in French]
This thesis summarises the present state of knowledge of low-temperature sterilisation with ethylene oxide or formaldehyde. An evaluation of the health risks of these two agents emphasises recent indications that they are mutagenic or carcinogenic in man. The two agents are compared in terms of occupational hygiene for the benefit of personnel responsible for choosing a method of gas sterilisation. Safety measures and medical supervision are discussed, and relevant laws and regulations are presented.
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France. 1983. 70p. 84 ref.

CIS 83-1918 Berthelette D., Abenhaim L.L.
Evaluation of studies of ethylene oxide
Bilan des études portant sur l'oxyde d'éthylène [in French]
Synthesis of information useful for the prevention of risks associated with occupational exposure to ethylene oxide (EO). A first part enumerates the workplaces where EO is encountered and describes its effects (acute toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity; effects on fertility and other effects). A second part deals with preventive measures: primary safety measures, storage, handling, sterilisation and fumigation, desorption, medical supervision, toxicology, first aid, fires. The carcinogenic and neurotoxic potential of EO has been demonstrated; research has not yet identified levels of chronic exposure which are without risk. In Quebec (Canada), there is little data on the concentrations of EO to which workers are exposed and on its effects on their health. Because the hazards of EO exposure are so great, exposure should be reduced, and medical surveillance programmes should take account of the possible carcinogenicity of EO as well as of its other effects.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec, 505 ouest, boulevard de Maisonneuve, Montréal, Quebec 3C 3A2, Canada, Nov. 1983, 59p. 47 ref.

CIS 83-1645
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Epichlorohydrin
Epichlorhydrine [in French]
Synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, storage, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology (action on the central nervous system and irritant effects; acute and chronic toxicity in animals and man; potential mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects; approximate exposure limit in France: 10mg/m3). French regulations on occupational health and safety and neighbourhood protection are mentioned, as are French and international transport regulations. Technical and medical recommandations are offered.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1983, No.112, p.441-444. 30 ref.

< previous | 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 | next >