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Ethers - 423 entries found

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  • Ethers

1988

CIS 90-420 Chloromethyl methyl ether, potential human carcinogen
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Toxicity: irritation and chemical burns (skin, eyes, mucous membranes); pulmonary oedema; pneumonia; lung cancer (ACGIH: A2 carcinogen).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226, USA, 1988. 6p. Bibl.

CIS 90-54 Phenyl glycidyl ether
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (8h-TWA) = 60mg/m3; NIOSH REL (15min ceiling) = 5mg/m3; ACGIH TLV (8h-TWA) = 6mg/m3. Toxicity: irritates eyes, skin and respiratory tract; dermatitis; skin sensitisation.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226-1988, USA, 1988. 5p. Bibl.

CIS 90-43 Isopropyl glycidyl ether
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (8h-TWA) = 240mg/m3; NIOSH REL (15min ceiling) = 240mg/m3; ACGIH TLV (8h-TWA) = 240mg/m3. Toxicity: reversible neurotoxic effects; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; dermatitis; skin sensitisation.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1988, USA. 5p. Bibl.

CIS 90-225 Dannaker C.J.
Allergic sensitization to a non-bisphenol A epoxy of the cycloaliphatic class
This is the first report of sensitisation to a cycloaliphatic epoxy. Allergic contact dermatitis occurred in an electron microscopist after exposure to the cycloaliphatic epoxy, vinyl cyclohexane diepoxide. Cycloaliphatic epoxies are not based on the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), presently the epoxy of greatest commercial usage. Non-DGEBA epoxies are finding new applications in the semiconductor and aerospace industries and will likely gain in importance as a cause of occupational allergic dermatitis. Latex or polyvinyl chloride gloves did not protect the reported patient from precutaneous absorption and elicitation of allergic dermatitis.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1988, Vol.30, No.8, p.641-643. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 90-190 Javorskij A.P., Manza I.A., Petrov N.A., Timofeeva T.N.
Comprehensive study of the composition of the volatile products of epoxy resins by proton magnetic resonance and gas-liquid chromatography
Kompleksnoe izučenie sostava letučih produktov ėpoksidnyh smol s primeneniem metoda protonno-magnitnogo rezonansa i gazožidkostnoj hromatografii [in Russian]
The composition of volatile products of cycloaliphatic epoxy resins UP-640 and UP-650 T, polyoxypropylene epoxides DE-1000, DE-2000, TE-750, TE-1500 and epoxy-diane ED-6 was determined. The cycloaliphatic epoxy resins and polyoxypropylene epoxides (POPE) differ from earlier epoxy resins in both component composition and content. Such highly toxic components as allyl chloride and styrene can volatilise along with epichlorohydrin and toluene from UP-640 and UP-650 T, in contrast to epoxy resins. Volatile products of POPE include acetone, allyl chloride, ethanol and dioxane equally with the usual components of diane resins. The main component taken into account for standardisation cannot be only epichlorohydrin. In the case of hygienic standardisation of POPE, in particular, acetone is chosen as the volatile component because of its proportion, boiling point and volatilising proportion in comparison with other volatile products.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.86-88. 5 ref.

CIS 89-1957 Imbriani M., Ghittori S., Pezzagno G., Capodaglio E.
Evaluation of exposure to isoflurane (forane): environmental and biological measurements in operating room personnel
The concentration of isoflurane (Forane) in the ambient atmosphere in 11 operating theatres of 5 hospitals in Italy exceeded the recommended time-weighted average exposure levels (median value: 113µmol/m3). Isoflurane was detected in the urine of 45 exposed subjects (anaesthetists, surgeons, and nurses). A significant correlation was found between the isoflurane concentration in urine produced during the shift and isoflurane environmental concentration. The results show that the urinary isoflurane concentration can be used as an appropriate biological exposure index. The authors suggest a biological exposure index of 18nmol/L (3.4µg/L). This is the biological value obtained after 4h of an average environmental exposure to 81µmol/m3 (2ppm).
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1988, Vol.25, No.4, p.393-402. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-1781 Diglycidyl ether, potential human carcinogen
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (8h-TWA) = 2.8mg/m3; NIOSH REL (15min-TWA) = 1mg/m3; ACGIH TLV (8h-TWA) = 0.5mg/m3. Odour threshold = 5ppm. Toxicity: potential human carcinogen; skin burns; severe irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; dermatitis; skin sensitisation.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226, USA, 1988. 5p. Bibl.

CIS 89-1635
Health and Safety Commission
Control of substances hazardous to health in fumigation operations; Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulation 1988 [United Kingdom] - Approved Code of Practice
This booklet contains the Approved Code of Practice (effective 1 Oct. 1989) and 19 Regulations (applying to all fumigant gases; special duties are also imposed on the users of the more commonly used fumigants - methyl bromide, hydrogen cyanide, ethylene oxide and phosphine). The Code was approved under Section 16 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 for the purpose of providing practical guidance with respect to the provisions of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988. It applies to fumigant operations whether undertaken in the open air, in temporarily created containment or in purpose-built fumigation or sterilisation chambers or enclosures. It does not apply to the use of vapours, fogs, fumes and smokes for the purpose of pest control, the use of which should follow the Approved Code of Practice, "The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health: Control of Exposure to Pesticides at Work" (in preparation).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 42p. Price: GBP 3.00.

CIS 89-1468 Ethylene oxide
Tlenek etylenu [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 1mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1988. 2p.

CIS 89-1458 n-Butyl glycidyl ether
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (8h-TWA) = 270mg/m3. NIOSH REL (15min ceiling) = 30mg/m3; ACGIH TLV (8h-TWA) = 135mg/m3. Toxicity: mild irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; inflammation and sensitisation of skin in case of chronic exposure.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1988. 6p. Bibl.

CIS 89-1449 Allyl glycidyl ether
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (ceiling) = 45mg/m3; NIOSH REL (ceiling, 15min) = 45mg/m3; ACGIH TLV (TWA, skin) = 22mg/m3. Toxicity: skin absorption; severe irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; dermatitis; skin sensitisation and mild irritation.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, NIOSH, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226, USA, 1988. 6p. Bibl.

CIS 89-553 Austin S.G., Sielken R.L.
Issues in assessing the carcinogenic hazards of ethylene oxide
Characterisation of the health risks associated with occupational and environmental exposure to ethylene oxide is made difficult by the limited dose-response information contained in the few published epidemiologic studies available, and the absence of toxicological data for chronic exposures in species other than the rat. Federal regulatory agencies have relied heavily on conventional quantitative risk assessment techniques in setting revised occupational exposure standards for ethylene oxide. This paper indicates the variability in risk assessment results that can be obtained using the multistage dose-response model and a single animal study depending on the method used to characterise risk, the health endpoint selected, the use of confidence intervals, and the method used to equate animal and human exposure levels. Selection of the most pessimistic options available in each of these four areas is shown to result in a virtually safe dose being characterised as 0.005ppb, whereas other reasonable assumptions yield a safe dose estimate of 1.3ppm.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1988, Vol.30, No.3, p.236-245. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 89-415 Dioxane
Dioxano [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit (OSHA): PEL (8h) = 360mg/m3. Toxicity: skin absorption; irritation of respiratory tract, eyes and skin; dermatitis; hepatic and renal damage; carcinogenic in experimental animals.
Noticias de seguridad, 1988, Vol.50, No.12, 4p. insert.

CIS 89-604 Deschamp D.
Use of ethylene oxide in medical and surgical sterilisation. Evaluation of the occupational risk of opacification of the lens
Utilisation de l'oxyde d'éthylène en stérilisation microchirurgicale. Evaluation du risque professionnel d'opacification du cristallin [in French]
This medical thesis reports on a cross-sectional epidemiologic survey of 75 persons - 45 exposed to ethylene oxide during equipment sterilisation in 5 hospitals in Paris, and 20 controls - to determine whether or not the exposure increased the risk of developing cataracts or opacities of the lens. Topics: characteristics of ethylene oxide; use of ethylene oxide for sterilisation; methodology and results of the epidemiologic study. Continuous measurements according to French standards showed that the exposure level was 0.06-39ppm for periods of 0.5-190min. There seems to be no risk of cataract in the case of low exposure, but the condition may occur in the case of massive overexposure, and should be considered as an occupational accident.
Université de Paris, Faculté de médecine Broussais-Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1988. 222p. Illus. 108 ref.

CIS 88-2000 Elliott L.J., Ringenburg V.L., Morelli-Schroth P., Halperin W.E., Herrick R.F.
Ethylene oxide exposures in hospitals
Results of surveys conducted at 12 US hospitals indicated that TWA exposures reached up to 6.7ppm ethylene oxide (EtO) and maximum short-term exposures reached 103ppm. Lowest exposure levels were linked to good engineering controls and work practices.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, May 1988, Vol.3, No.5, p.141-145. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 88-1999 Necker G.
Cold gas sterilisation with ethylene oxide
Kaltgassterilisation mit Ethylenoxid [in German]
The concentrations of ethylene oxide in workplace air within the first 7 minutes after opening the steriliser were measured in various hospitals. Initial values ranging from 25 to 100ppm were found to drop within 15 minutes to 3ppm and within 30 minutes to 1ppm. Measurements of 14 different sterilisers yielded values between 2.5ppm under extremely favourable conditions and 245ppm in the case of a defective steriliser.
Krankenhaustechnik, May 1988, Vol.14, No.5, p.64-67. Illus.

1987

CIS 89-1115 Bis(chloromethyl) ether
Diklordimetyleter; bis(klormetyl)eter [in Swedish]
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the Kemiska Ämnen Register (see CIS 89-214). Toxicity: very toxic if inhaled, ingested or in contact with skin; carcinogen; irritates the eyes.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1987. 2p.

CIS 89-762 Propylene oxide
1,2-Propylenoxid; 1,2-Epoxipropan; Metyloxiran [in Swedish]
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the Kemiska Ämnen Register (CIS 89-214). Exposure limit: TLV = 12mg/m3. Toxicity: irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1987. 3p.

CIS 89-751 Ethylene oxide
Etylenoxid; Etenoxid [in Swedish]
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the Kemiska Ämnen Register (CIS 89-214). Toxicity: carcinogen; irritates the skin, eyes and mucous membranes; affects the central nervous system.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 10364 Stockholm, Sweden, 1987. 3p.

CIS 89-709 Regulation respecting ethylene oxide - made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act [Canada - Ontario]
The Regulation prescribes ethylene oxide as a designated substance. It outlines the responsibilities of employers and employees to limit exposure and institutes a control programme. The 15min maximum exposure concentration is given as 18mg/m3, while the TWA exposure limit is 1.8mg/m3. The publication includes as well codes for respiratory equipment and for measuring airborne ethylene oxide.
Ontario Ministry of Labour, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 400 University Ave., Toronto, Ont. M7A 1T7, Canada, 1987. 50p. Illus. Index. (Regulation originally published: Ontario Gazette, 11 Apr. 1987, No.15, p.1686-1690).

CIS 89-870 Javorovskij A.P.
Comparative toxicological and hygienic assessment of polyoxypropylene epoxides and bases for group MACs for their volatile components in workplace air
Sravnitel'naja toksikologo-gigieničeskaja harakteristika polioksipropilenėpoksidov i obosnovanie gruppovoj PDK ih letučih komponentov v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Animal experiments were carried out to study polyoxypropylene epoxides (PE), a group of new compounds with similar toxicological characteristics. PE do not penetrate the skin but slightly irritate the skin and the conjunctiva. Acetone, toluene and epichlorohydrin, which separate out from PE at temperatures of 20-100°C produce hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Since PE have similar toxicological characteristics, the group MAC of 100mg/m3 as acetone has been set up for their volatile components in workplace air. These experiments demonstrated the possibility of setting group standards for newly synthesised epoxy resins representing homologous series.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.28-31. 6 ref.

CIS 89-537 Vermej M.I.
Combined allergenic effect of volatile complexes of epoxy and phenol-formaldehyde compositions
Kombinirovannoe allergennoe dejstvie letučih kompleksov ėpoksidnyh i fenolformal'degidnyh kompozicij [in Russian]
Animal expirements were performed to study the individual and combined allergenic effects of volatile complexes of chemicals released from epoxy and phenol-formaldehyde compositions. The combined action of formaldehyde and epichlorohydrin in volatile materials from EIF lacquer is such as to enhance the allergenic activity of formaldehyde and suppress that of epichlorohydrin. This should be taken into consideration when setting standards for volatile epoxy-phenol-formaldehyde complexes. The volatile complex of EIF epoxy-phenol-formaldehyde lacquer possesses more allergenic activity than volatile complexes of ED-16 solution and IF lacquer. 0.5mg/m3 of the volatile complex of IF (as formaldehyde) is the threshold of allergenic action.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1987, No.2, p.37-40. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 89-532 D'jačkova E.F., Lovčinovskaja T.A., Čikin G.A.
Chromatographic determination of acrylonitrile, ethanol, toluene, butyl alcohol and epichlorohydrin in mixtures in workplace air
Gazohromatografičeskoe opredelenie akrilonitrila, ėtanola, toluola, butanola i epihlorgidrina v vozduhe pri sovmestnom prisutstvii [in Russian]
Optimal conditions were established for the determination of the title compounds: 3m by 3mm column packed with 10% polyethylene glycol adipate on 0.25-0.5mm Spherochrome; column temperature 90°C; injector temperature 125°C; carrier gas (helium) flow rate 40mL/min; flame ionisation detector. An analysis takes 10min. The newly developed method permits determination of the following minimal concentrations: acrylonitrile - 0.25mg/m3 (MAC 0.5mg/m3), ethanol - 1mg/m3 (MAC 1000mg/m3), toluene - 1mg/m3 (MAC 50mg/m3), butyl alcohol - 1mg/m3 (MAC 10mg/m3), epichlorohydrin - 0.5mg/m3 (MAC 1mg/m3).
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1987, No.4, p.55-56. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 89-205 Cold gas sterilisation with ethylene oxide. Surveys conducted by the Technical Inspection Service
Kaltgassterilisation mit Ethylenoxid - Der Technische Aufsichtsdienst führte Übersichtsmessungen durch [in German]
The results of measurements of ethylene oxide in several hospitals are presented. A flame ionisation detector with a range of 1 to 10,000ppm and a response time of 1.5 seconds was used. Indoor measurements were taken after opening of the cold gas steriliser. During the few minutes while the sterilised objects were removed concentrations of ethylene oxide ranging from 20 to 100ppm were recorded. It is recommended that sterilisers be designed to prevent opening until all the ethylene oxide has been drawn off.
Die Fachkraft für Arbeitssicherheit, 1987, No.2, p.11-13. Illus.

CIS 88-1795 Diethyl ether
Oxyde de diéthyle [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limits (France, 1984): TWA = 1200mg/m3; ceiling value = 1500mg/m3. Toxicity: irritation of mucous membranes, skin and eyes; strong narcotic effects; respiratory disorders.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1988. 4p. 16 ref.

CIS 88-1599 Mathias C.G.T.
Allergic contact dermatitis from a nonbisphenol A epoxy in a graphite fiber reinforced epoxy laminate
An employee of an aircraft engine manufacturing firm developed dermatitis associated with the handling of a graphite-fibre-reinforced epoxy laminate (epoxy prepreg). Patch test investigation demonstrated that the responsible causal agent was the nonbisphenol A epoxy binder 4-glycidyloxy-N, N-diglycidylaniline. A patch test with bisphenol A epoxy from a standard patch test screening series was negative. Subsequent interviews with other employees suggested that a relative lack of awareness of the cutaneous hazards of fibre-reinforced epoxy laminates, compared with liquid epoxy systems, may be an important risk factor for allergic sensitisation to these composite materials.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.29, No.9, p.754-755. 4 ref.

CIS 88-1076 Regulation made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act; Designated Substance - Ethylene Oxide [Canada - Ontario]
The responsibilities of employers to limit exposure and to institute a control programme are outlined as well as the employee responsibilities. The short-term exposure concentration, measured over 15min. is 10ppm or 18mg/m3. Records and medical examinations are covered and a method for calculating exposure is shown.
Ontario Gazette - Gazette de l'Ontario, 11 Apr. 1987, No.15, p.1686-1690.

CIS 88-1223 Sarto F., Clonfero E., Bartolucci G.B., Franceschi C., Chiricolo M., Levis A.G.
Sister chromatid exchanges and DNA repair capability in sanitary workers exposed to ethylene oxide: Evaluation of the dose-effect relationship
Determination of ethylene oxide (EtO) in the working environment and induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in peripheral lymphocytes of 10 exposed workers and 10 control subjects matched for sex, age, and smoking habits are reported. The 10 newly examined workers were exposed to EtO concentrations (1.84ppm as time-weighted average) intermediate between the high (10.7ppm) and low (0.35ppm) levels of exposure of the two previously examined groups (19 and 22 workers, respectively). A statistically significant increase of SCE frequency was observed between the present control and exposed groups. The inducibility of UDS by gamma rays was insignificantly lower in the lymphocytes of the exposed workers than in controls. A significant relation between the frequency of SCE and the level of EtO exposure for the three exposed groups was demonstrated by two statistical methods. It is suggested that the present Italian threshold limit value for EtO (3ppm) may not protect the exposed workers against possible genotoxic effects and that even a chronic exposure to 1ppm may not be devoid of genotoxic risk.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.5, p.625-637. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 88-912 Cumins K.J., Schultz G.R., Lee J.S., Nelson J.H., Reading J.C.
Development and evaluation of a hydrobromic acid-coated sampling tube for measuring occupational exposures to ethylene oxide
Charcoal is coated with hydrobromic acid, which reacts with ethylene oxide to form 2-bromoethanol. The reaction product is desorbed with dimethylformamide and derivatized with heptafluorobutyrylimidazole. Quantitative determination is done on a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector. The sensitivity of the method is 0.1ppm.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1987, Vol.48, No.6, p.563-573. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 88-798 Epichlorohydrin health and safety guide
Chemical safety information sheet based on WHO Environmental Health Criteria 33: Epichlorohydrin (CIS 86-120). Toxicity: irritant; corrosive; animal carcinogen; neurotoxic.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1987. 44p. Illus. Price: CHF 5.00.

CIS 88-395 Epichlorohydrin (ECH) and epoxy resins (EC)
Epichlorhydrine (ECH) et résines époxides (EP) [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Covers epichlorohydrin (ECH) and high and low molecular weight epoxy resins. Hazards from ERs are mainly toxic fumes from burning resins, dermatitis and sensitisation from contact with low molecular weight ERs. ECH is flammable and its vapours can form explosive mixtures with air. Toxicity of ECH: powerful irritant to eyes, skin and respiratory tract; depression of the central nervous system; allergen and sensitiser; inhalation can lead to pulmonary oedema; kidney damage; suspected carcinogen. Exposure limit: (ACGIH, 1986-87) TLV-TWA = 10mg/m3 (ACGIH TLVs are used as official exposure limits in Belgium).
Association nationale pour le prévention des accidents du travail, Rue Gachard 88, Bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, mar.-apr. 1987. 19p. 76 réf.

CIS 88-241 Jolanski R., Estlander T., Kanerva L.
Contact allergy to an epoxy reactive diluent: 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether
Three female workers in a brush factory developed contact allergy from a 2-component epoxy glue containing epoxy resin (37% by weight), reactive diluents, i.e. 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) 3%, glycidyl ethers of aliphatic alcohols (Epoxide 8) 0.05% and phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) 0.01% and inert fillers. All 3 patients were positive to the resin component of the glue and to BDDGE, indicating that BDDGE was the main allergen. Two of the patients reacted to PGE, but none to Epoxide 8. Two of the patients did not react to epoxy resin, indicating that BDDGE may be an even stronger sensitiser in humans than epoxy resin, and that it does not cross-react with epoxy resins. Permeation studies revealed that BDDGE penetrates disposable PVC and rubber gloves in less than 30min. Thus, contaminated gloves should be replaced immediately. Reactive diluents should be included in patch test series if contact allergy to epoxy products is suspected.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1987, Vol.16, No.2, p.87-92. 19 ref.

CIS 88-240 Fischer T., Fregert S., Thulin I., Trulsson L.
Unhardened epoxy resin in tool handles
An electrician developed hand eczema when using certain screwdrivers, and reacted to epoxy resin in patch tests. Although the screwdriver handles were nominally made of cellulose acetate, the manufacturer reported that small amounts of epoxidised soybean oil and low-molecular-weight bisphenol A-type epoxy resin were included in the material as heat stabilisers. A survey of plastic tool handles showed that only a limited number of the cellulose acetate handles contained epoxy compounds.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1987, Vol.16, No.1, p.45. 2 ref.

CIS 87-1428 De Ceaurriz J., Moulin J.J.
Occupational health problems caused by bis(chloromethyl) ether
Affections professionnelles provoquées par le bis-chloro-méthyl-éther [in French]
Principal sources of pollution by bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME): laboratory or manufacturing equipment (wherever BCME is used as an alkylating agent); wherever formaldehyde and chloride ions are present together. Analytical methods proposed. Carcinogenic or mutagenic effects in animals and cells. Table showing the results of epidemiologic studies, demonstrating the incidence of cancer (particularly of bronchopulmonary cancer) following exposure to BCME.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.30, p.81-84. 2 ref.

CIS 87-814
Institution of Occupational Safety and Health
Dioxane
Chemical safety information sheet. Highly flammable; the explosive potential is increased by the formation of peroxides when in contact with air during storage. Dioxane has very high toxicity; it is classified as a carcinogen by IARC; the vapour irritates nose and eyes and the liquid has a defatting action on the skin. Exposure limits (United Kingdom): 8h TWA = 90mg/m3; 10min TWA = 360mg/m3.
Safety Practitioner, Mar. 1987, Vol.4, No.3, p.44-45. 13 ref.

1986

CIS 91-364
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
EPA Final Rule - Preliminary assessment information and health and safety data reporting; Addition of chemicals [USA]
EPA is adding 4 chemical substances to 2 model information-gathering rules contained in the Toxic Substances Control Act (see CIS 89-23): the Preliminary Assessment Information Rule (PAIR) and the Health and Safety Data Reporting Rule. Manufacturers, processors and importers of these chemicals will be required to report end-use, exposure, volume and unpublished health and safety data to the EPA. The substances are: 2-butanone oxime; 2-propanol; 2-methoxy-2-methyl-propane; N- [5-[bis[2-(acetyloxy)ethyl]-amino]-2-[(bromo-4,6-dinitrophenyl)azo]-4-etho xyphenyl]-acetamide (Disperse Blue 79). In addition, a 5th substance (phosphoric acid, tributyl ester) was added to PAIR and is now designated for response within 12 months. Details of the 2 Rules and an economic analysis of their impact follow.
Federal Register, 14 Nov. 1986, Vol.51, No.220, p.41328-41331.

CIS 89-1324
Sovet Ėkonomičeskoj Vzaimopomo¿či
Occupational Safety and Health - Methods for determining chemical substances in workplace air
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija - Metody opredelenija himičeskih veščestv v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Methods for the determination of the following hazardous substances in workplace air: dimethyl sulfate, norbornene polychlorinated biphenyls, benzidine, p-chlorophenol, carbon monoxide, chloroacetophenone, water-soluble chromium compounds, tetraethyllead, oil aerosols, epichlorohydrin, volatile hydrocarbons from cutting fluids, solvent naphtha. The gas chromatographic and photometric methods have been adopted as official methods of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.
Izdatel'skij otdel, Upravlenija delami Sekretariata SĖV, prospekt Kalinina 56, 121205 Moskva, USSR, 1986. 49p.

CIS 89-546 Pokrovskaja E.A., Antonjuženko V.A., Volkova I.O., Aširova S.A., Zoloto L.V., Alieva T.I.
Effects on workers of a complex of chemicals released during the preparation of polyurethane foam insulation in the manufacture of refrigerators
Vlijanie na organizm rabotajuščih kompleksa himičeskih veščestv, vydeljajuščihsja pri polučenii penopoliuretanovoj izoljacii v proizvodstve holodil'nikov [in Russian]
Hygienic studies of the working environment in shops for polyurethane foam insulation production revealed contamination with a mixture of chemicals that fall in hazard classes II-IV (dimethylethanolamine, propylene oxide, methylene chloride, 4,4-diphenylmethanediisocyanate). Medical examinations of the exposed workers demonstrated the potential risk of developing an occupational pathology. Changes in the upper respiratory tract were the major initial symptoms; later, nervous system disorders developed. These deviations in the workers' health were seen against a background of changes in their immune status.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1986, No.12, p.20-23. 6 ref.

CIS 89-416 Ethylene oxide
Chemical safety information sheet. Highly volatile and flammable liquid; burns in the absence of oxygen. Exposure limit: ACGIH TLV = 20mg/m3. Toxicity: cold burns on contact; irritates eyes; toxic effects after inhalation are delayed.
Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association, India Exchange, India Exchange Place, Calcutta 700 001, India, 1986. 1p.

CIS 88-1797 Diphenyl ether
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: eye irritant; may cause dermatitis.
Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association, India Exchange, India Exchange Place, Calcutta 700 001, India, 1986. 1p.

CIS 88-1794 Diethyl ether
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit: ACGIH TLV = 1200mg/m3. Toxicity: irritates skin and eyes; chemical burns to skin; strong narcotic effects.
Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association, India Exchange, India Exchange Place, Calcutta 700 001, India, 1986. 1p.

CIS 88-1261 Jolanki R., Estlander T., Kanerva L.
Occupational skin diseases caused by epoxy products
Epoksi-ihottumat ammatti-ihotauteina [in Finnish]
Over a 10-year period (1974-1983) 1,082 cases of occupational skin diseases were disagnosed. There were 542 cases of allergic contact dermatitis, 510 cases of irritant contact dermatitis, and 30 cases of other skin diseases. Epoxy products caused 71 cases (13.1%) of allergic contact dermatitis, 3 cases (0.6%) of irritant contact dermatitis and 1 case of contact urticaria. All but 3 of the 71 patients with allergic contact dermatitis had contact allergy to bisphenol A-type epoxy resins. The case of urticaria was caused by the hardener methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride. Bisphenol A-type epoxy resin oligomer with a molecular weight (MW) of 340 is a strong allergen. Although solid epoxy resins (those with average MW above 700) have been considered safe from the allergenic point of view, 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis and 3 cases of irritant contact dermatitis were caused by solid epoxy resins. All 3 cases of irritant contact dermatitis were due to solid bisphenol A-type epoxy resins.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia, 1986, Vol.4, No.1, p.47-54. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 88-1260 Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Laijoki T.
Glycidyl ethers in epoxy resin products
Epoksituotteiden sisältämät glysidyylieetterit [in Finnish]
The most important sensitiser is the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (molecular weight 340). Most glycidyl ethers used as reactive diluents are also sensitisers. Thirty-one liquid and solid epoxy resin products were studied: resins, paints and adhesives. Glycidyl ethers were analysed by gas chromatography. The liquid resins contained 42-82% diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, the solid resins 1-16%. Epoxy resins for coatings contained 0.2-30% diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A. Correspondingly, this ether constituted 18-76% of epoxy resin adhesives. More than half of the epoxy products studied contained varying amounts of reactive diluents (0.1-20%); over 10% reactive diluent was found in 2 modified epoxy resins. Epoxy resin products may contain sensitising glycidyl ethers, even when these are not mentioned in the information given for the product.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia, 1986, Vol.4, No.1, p.41-46. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 88-1259 Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Laijoki T.
Aliphatic polyamines and epoxy oligomers in cold-cured epoxy products
Alifaattisten polyamiinien ja epoksioligomeerien sitoutuminen kylmäkovettumisessa [in Finnish]
The aim of this study was to follow the cold cure of the epoxy resin-hardener system. The amount of unreacted epoxy oligomer of molecular weight (MW) 340 and aliphatic polyamine hardener (diethylenetriamine) was analysed as a function of curing time (5h to 2 months). Six different compounds were extracted into acetone and determined by liquid chromatography. The amount of unreacted compounds decreased rapidly within 1-2 days. After 2-3 days curing the amount of unreacted compounds decreased only slowly as a function of curing time. After 1 week of cure the products contained 0.02-12% unreacted oligomer and 0.01-1% unreacted polyamine. Results show that it is important to protect skin and lungs from the dust of freshly cured epoxy resin products in order to minimise sensitisation risks.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia, 1986, Vol.4, No.1, p.37-40. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 87-1405 Medical monitoring of workers exposed to ethylene oxide
This guideline for the prevention of adverse effects includes: background on the compound; entry, metabolism, and excretion; health effects (acute and chronic exposure); neoplastic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects; medical monitoring.
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Medical Services Branch, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, Oct. 1986. 6p. 12 ref.

CIS 87-612 Prens E.P., De Jong G., Van Joost T.
Sensitization to epichlorohydrin and epoxy system components
In an epoxy resin manufacturing plant, 26 of 228 (11.4%) workers had work-related eruptions; 19 were patch tested. The test series consisted of chemicals used in the manufacturing process, a standard battery and some other sensitisers. The prevalence of sensitisation to epichlorohydrin and/or epoxy resins in the whole group was 6.1%. A relatively high prevalence (3.5%) of epichlorohydrin sensitisation was found. 10 cases of sensitisation to liquid epoxy resin (MW about 385) were observed, in 7 cases combined with allergy to solid epoxy resin (MW 980). Sensitisation to Bisphenol A was not seen.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1986, Vol.15, No.2, p.85-90. 15 ref.

CIS 87-574 Pośniak M.
Determination of diethyl ether and diisopropyl ether in air by gas chromatography
Oznaczanie eteru dietylowego i diizopropylowego w powietrzu metodą chromatografii gazowej [in Polish]
Air samples are taken by adsorption of ether vapours on activated carbon and description with ethyl acetate. The resulting solutions are analyzed chromatographically with the use of a column packed with 10% polyethylene glycol 400 on chromosorb W-AW-DMCS. The method enables the determination of diethyl ether at concentrations of 150-2400mg/m3 (i.e. 0.5-8.0 and 0.5-6.0 times the Polish MAC, respectively).
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1986, Vol.36, No.128, p.25-38. 17 ref.

CIS 87-86 Ethylene oxide
Chemical identity; potential exposure; exposure limits; properties; health effects; industrial hygiene practices and control; personal protective equipment; fire, explosions, dangerous combinations; storage, spillage, disposal; transportation.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, Aug. 1986. 2p.

CIS 86-1066 Hogstedt C., Aringer L., Gustavsson A.
Epidemiologic support for ethylene oxide as a cancer-causing agent
The mortality and incidence of cancer in 3 groups of Swedish workers (733 in all) with occupational exposure to ethylene oxide (EO) was assessed, and compared with national average values in Sweden. Cases of leukaemia (8 observed; 0.83 expected) and stomach cancer (6 observed; 0.65 expected) were more common than expected among the exposed workers. These results provide evidence for an increased risk of malignancy in workers with extended and intermittent exposure to low concentrations of EO.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 28 Mar. 1986, Vol.255, No.12, p.1575-1578. 21 ref.

1985

CIS 89-82 Glycidyl phenyl ether
Fenyyliglysidyylieetteri [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (15min): 60mg/m3. Is absorbed through skin. It irritates the skin and the eyes, it has a narcotic effect and paralyses the central nervous system. Long term exposure has a sensitising and mutagenic effect. Mandatory European labelling: XN, R20, R21, R101, S24, S25, S101.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Mar. 1985. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 88-1098 Butyl glycidyl ether
Butyyliglysidyylieetteri [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Flammable liquid. Exposure limit (15min.) = 135mg/m3. Irritates the skin and the eyes. Has a narcotic effect. Causes paralysis of the CNS. Long term exposure has a mutagenic effect and sensitises the skin. Mandatory European labelling: F, XN, R10, R20, R101, S24, S25, S101.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Mar. 1985. 2p. Original on microfiche.

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