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Ethers - 423 entries found

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  • Ethers

1993

CIS 95-1332 Teta M.J., Benson L.O., Vitale J.N.
Mortality study of ethylene oxide workers in chemical manufacturing - A 10 year update
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.50. No.8, p.704-709. Illus. 19 ref. ###

CIS 95-819 Butylene oxide (stabilized)
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects (may be delayed): irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. Long-term exposure effects: tumours detected in experimental animals.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-397 Hardening plastics [Sweden]
Härdplaster [in Swedish]
This directive, which came into force 1 January 1994, applies to all work with hardening plastics. General requirements cover work with all hardening plastics, especially spraying, work with hot objects and control of hazardous substances in the air. Employers must provide workers with medical examinations before work is initiated, and again if a worker shows respiratory problems. Cleaning and general housekeeping are covered. Special chapters deal with epoxies, polyurethanes, esters, acrylates and amino- and phenoplastics. Comments and rules of application are included.
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 23 Aug. 1993. 78p.

CIS 94-1976 Elias J.D., Wylie D.N., Yassi A., Tran N.
Eliminating worker exposure to ethylene oxide from hospital sterilizers - An evaluation of cost and effectiveness of an isolation system
Potential sources of worker exposure to ethylene oxide from hospital sterilizers were investigated at a large tertiary health care facility and a number of cost-effective control measures were recommended and implemented. These included use of alternative sterilization methods, isolation of sterilizers from other work areas, local and general ventilation and development of a procedural manual for personnel training. Subsequent air monitoring revealed a significant reduction in ethylene oxide levels. The cost and effectiveness of the system are evaluated.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1993, Vol.8, No.8, p.687-692. 14 ref.

CIS 94-1983 Gowers D.S., DeFonso L.R., Schaffer P., Karli A., Monroe C.B., Bernabeu L., Renshaw F.M.
Incidence of respiratory cancer among workers exposed to chloromethyl-ethers
The purpose of this cohort study was to determine whether workers at a factory in France whose jobs had involved potential exposure to chloromethyl-methyl-ether since 1958 had a higher incidence of lung cancer than co-workers, or others without potential exposure. Lung cancer occurred at a higher rate among potentially exposed workers than among non-exposed workers (rate ratio (RR)=5.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-12.3), or among an external reference population (RR=7.6, 95% CI 4.3-13.5). The average age at diagnosis for exposed cases was 10.5 years lower than for non-exposed cases. There was a positive dose-response relationship. The mean time from first exposure to diagnosis was 13 years (95% CI 8-18). Cumulative dose and induction time were not associated. The rate for the exposed workers peaked between 7 and 13 years after the start-up of the chloromethylation process, and was still above background in 1986, the end of the study period.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1 Jan. 1993, Vol.137, No.1, p.31-42. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 94-1225 Franco G., Fonte R., Ghittori S.
Drinking habits and occupational exposure to inhalation anesthetics at low doses
The aim of this study was to evaluate certain indicators of hepatic (serum aminotransferase activities) and haematological (erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume) changes among health care personnel exposed to inhalation anaesthetics (nitrous oxide and isoflurane). Workers (172) in a hospital were divided into four groups according to exposure and drinking habits: (1) non-drinkers and unexposed subjects; (2) drinkers and unexposed subjects; (3) non-drinkers and exposed subjects; (4) drinkers and exposed subjects. Aminotransferase activity or mean erythrocyte size were not affected by anaesthetics exposure. Increased aspartateaminotransferase (AST) values among unexposed drinkers were related to alcohol intake. This observation was confirmed by the relationship between AST behaviour and quantitative alcohol intake. Thus, when studying any effect involving functions related to the biotransformation of xenobiotics, in which the liver plays a primary role, the importance of establishing the exact daily amount of ethanol intake is stressed.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.463-472. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 94-1017
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane)
The sensitizing properties of epichlorohydrin have been demonstrated in animal experiments as well as in cases of occupational contact dermatitis. Direct contact of the substance with the skin or mucous membranes can cause strong irritation or burns. An epidemiological study of exposed workers revealed an increased incidence of skin diseases. Animal studies have shown epichlorohydrin to be carcinogenic; no firm conclusions on human carcinogenicity can be drawn from available epidemiological studies.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1993. xviii, 132p. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 88.00.

CIS 94-982 Ganière-Monteil C., Pineau A., Souron R., Boiteau H.L.
Halothane and enflurane in operating rooms: Exposure and preventive safety measures
Halothane et enflurane dans les blocs opératoires: exposition et prévention [in French]
The risk of intoxication due to the exposure of medical staff to volatile anaesthetics in operating blocks is still little known. Some studies show chromosomal aberrations in exposed staff, leading to a significantly increased risk of spontaneous abortion, while other studies conclude that there is no risk. Clearly there is a need for close monitoring of exposed staff. Measurements of levels of exposure were carried out in two operating blocks in a French teaching hospital: one in ophthalmology and the other in oto-rhino-laryngology (ORL). Accurate interpretation of the results is difficult because of the variations in maximum exposure levels from one country to another, but the staff is exposed, on certain days, to quite high levels. Levels of exposure to halothane were classified according to the presence or absence of anti-pollution systems. The very much higher levels recorded in the latter case (average: 10.4ppm; n=20) compared with the former (average: 2.8ppm; n=25) demonstrate how essential it is to have anti-pollution systems for the protection of exposed staff.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.563-568. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 94-303 Buratti M., Pellegrino O., Valla C., Colombi A.
Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inhalation anaesthetics - Determination of urinary nitrous oxide, halothane and isoflurane
Monitoraggio biologico dell'esposizione professionale a gas e vapori anestetici - Determinazione di protossido d'azoto, alotano e isofluorano nell'urina [in Italian]
A gas-chromatographic method is described for measuring the urinary concentrations of nitrous oxide, halothane and isoflurane. The detection limit (ranging from 0.03µg/L for halothane to 1µg/L for nitrous oxide), between-day precision (CV<6%) and working linear range (up to 100µg/L for halothane and 2000µg/L for nitrous oxide) were determined. A two-year experience in biological monitoring of occupationally exposed surgical staff with the proposed method is reported and confounding factors are discussed. The method is easy to perform, free from interferences and suitable for use in routine analysis in toxicological laboratories.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1993, Vol.84, No.1, p.66-73. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 93-1788 n-Butyl glycidylether (BGE)
N-Butilglicidileter (BGE) [in Spanish]
Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; sensitisation dermatitis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); pulmonary oedema; possible mutagenic effects.
Noticias de seguridad, Oct. 1993, Vol.55, No.10, 5p. Insert.

CIS 93-1959 Wong O., Trent L.S.
An epidemiological study of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide
This epidemiological study was of 18,728 employees at 14 United States facilities producing sterilised medical supplies and spices, who were potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) for at least 90 days. The mortality of the cohort was studied to the end of 1988. A total of 1353 deaths was identified. The cohort had a significantly lower mortality than the general population from all causes, all cancers, and non-malignant diseases. In the entire cohort, mortality was not significantly increased from any of the cancer sites examined. In particular, no significant increase in mortality was found in the cancer sites of interest based on previous studies - namely, stomach, leukaemia (including major specific cell types), pancreas, and brain. Among the men, a statistically significant increase in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found. There was no indication for a dose-response relation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and no specific job categories seemed to be responsible for the increase. Among the women, a deficit of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found, which was not consistent with the finding in the men. Therefore, the increase among the men did not seem to be related to exposure to EO.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.50, No.4, p.308-316. 17 ref.

CIS 93-1656 Delic J., South D., Brown R.
Health and Safety Executive
Epichlorohydrin. Criteria document for an occupational exposure limit
The few reports available on the toxic effects of a single exposure to epichlorohydrin (ECH) indicate that it is irritating to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract and that skin contact may result in chemical burns. One report suggests that inhalation of the vapour may lead to persistent bronchitis and liver damage. It may produce skin sensitisation. A number of epidemiological studies indicate no apparent relationships between any specific health effect and repeated occupational exposure to ECH. No firm conclusions may be drawn regarding carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. The proposed maximum exposure limits are 0.5ppm (2mg/m3 (8-hour TWA)) and 1.5ppm (6mg/m3 (15 minutes reference period)).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. vi, 49p. Illus. 126 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 93-1301 Elvestad K., Hansen L.E., Jelnes J.E.
Commission of the European Communities
Occupational exposure limits. Criteria document for diethyl ether
Review of the available literature on the toxicology of diethyl ether. The substance has a very low acute toxicity in animals and humans. Direct exposure to concentrations of about 100,000ppm induces human anaesthesia, and about 15,000ppm is the lowest anaesthetic concentration. Human volunteers exposed to 200ppm claimed irritation of the nose but not of the throat or eyes. Prolonged contact with the liquid may cause skin or eye irritation.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1993. v, 20p. Illus. 51 ref. Price ECU 6.00.

CIS 93-1312 Arvidson B.
NEG and NIOSH basis for an occupational health standard - Ethyl ether
A survey of the literature relevant to the discussion of occupational exposure limits for ethyl ether is presented. The acute and chronic toxicity of ethyl ether is low, the principal routes of occupational exposure being inhalation and skin contact. The critical effect is irritation of the upper respiratory passages while long-term exposure to low concentrations may result in central nervous system disorders. It is a mild skin irritant and repeated exposures may cause dermatitis.
Publications Dissemination, DSDTT, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Feb. 1993. vi, 39p. 173 ref.

1992

CIS 02-1072 Ethylene oxide
Oxyde d'éthylène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 89-1121. Acute and subacute toxicity: eye and respiratory tract irritation; cyanosis; dyspnoea; pulmonary oedema; digestive disorders; neurological disorders; chemical burns; sensitive motor polyneuritis; cataract; genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects. Exposure limits: TWA (France) = 10mg/m3 (5ppm); ceiling value = 20mg/m3 (10ppm); TWA (USA) = 1ppm (ACGIH 1991). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.603-023-00-X; F+, T, R45, R46, R13, R23, R36/37/38, S53, S3/7/9, S16, S33, S44. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 5p. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 97-1606 Mazzella di Bosco M.
Ethylene oxide pathology
In tema di patologia da ossido di etilene [in Italian]
This literature review on the effects of ethylene oxide (EO) exposure covers the following topics: acute intoxication; adverse reactions in patients undergoing dialysis with equipment sterilized with EO; neurological disorders; workplace environmental levels; dermatological, ophthalmological, reproductive and genetic effects; possible carcinogenicity.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, July-Oct. 1992, Vol.79, No.4-5, p.375-387 40 ref.

CIS 94-82 Epichlorohydrin
Epichlorohydrine [in French]
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: toxic. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitization; asthma; may have effects on kidneys, liver, adrenals and reproductive system; probably carcinogenic in humans; may cause heritable genetic damage; temporary male antifertility effects. EC identification number and labelling codes: 603-026-00-6; T; R45-10-23/24/25-34-43; S53-9-44. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2023 (6.1: II).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-80 1,4-Dioxane
Dioxane-1,4 [in French]
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: highly flammable, harmful. Short term exposure effects: irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; chemical pneumonitis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; brain; hepatic and renal damage; suspected human carcinogen. EC identification number and labelling codes: 603-024-00-5; F, Xn; R11-36/37-40; S16-36/37. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 1165 (3.2; II).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 93-2007 Lundberg P.
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards - XIII
Vetenskapligt underlag för hygienska gränsvärden. 13 [in Swedish]
Consensus reports of the Criteria Group of the Swedish National Institute of Occupational Health on diethanolamine, ethanolamine, catechol, resorcinol, acetamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethyl chloride, dioxane, chloromethane, methylhydrazine, hydrazine, cadmium and pyridine. An appendix lists consensus reports appearing in previous volumes of Arbete och Hälsa.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 85p. (Eng.); 152p. (Swe.). 496 ref.

CIS 93-2004 Arvidson B.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
NEG and NIOSH basis for an occupational health standard. Ethyl ether
Survey of the literature relevant to the discussion of occupational exposure limits for ethyl ether (synonym: diethyl ether). Ethyl ether has many uses in the chemical industry. It is used mainly as a solvent and as an extraction medium. It has been used as an inhalation anaesthetic for surgery but to a large extent has now been replaced. The acute and chronic toxicity of ethyl ether is low. The principal routes of exposure to ethyl ether in occupational situations are inhalation and skin contact. The critical effect of ethyl ether is irritation of the upper respiratory tract. Long-term exposure to low concentration of ethyl ether in air may affect the central nervous system, producing sleepiness, dizziness, irritability, headache and psychic disturbances. Ethyl ether is a mild skin irritant, especially after repeated exposure.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 41p. 181 ref.

CIS 93-1978 Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Priority Substances List Assessment Report No. 5 - Methyl tertiary-butyl ether
Loi canadienne sur la protection de l'environnement. Liste des substances d'intérêt prioritaire. Rapport d'évaluation n°5: Oxyde de tert-butyle et de méthyle [in French]
This report reviews the environmental and toxicological data on methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Data on the toxicity of MTBE to humans are restricted to case reports of mild adverse effects (nausea, vomiting, drowsiness) following its use in medical treatment. The acute toxicity of MTBE in experimental animals is low; data on chronic toxicity or carcinogenicity are not available. MTBE is not considered to be toxic as defined under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.
Canada Communication Group - Publishing, Ottawa, Canada K1A 0S9, 1992. v, 19p. 55 ref.

CIS 93-1613 Gardiner T.H., Waechter J.M., Wiedow M.A., Solomon W.T.
Glycidyloxy compounds used in epoxy resins - A toxicology review
Although extensive toxicological data are available on glycidyloxy compounds, use and understanding of the data have been hampered by two major problems: (1) proper identification and complexity of the epoxy systems in question; and (2) absence of meaningful classification of epoxy materials. This paper provides a classification scheme with CAS numbers and reviews published and proprietary information on the mammalian toxicology of the most common glycidyloxy derivatives used in epoxy resins. Although the toxicity of many glycidyloxy compounds can be characterised as low, the diversity of compounds found within this group precludes broad generalisations for the class.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Apr. 1992, Vol.15, No.2, Part 2, p.S1-S77. Approx. 300 ref.

CIS 93-1314
Japan Industrial Hygiene Association
Criteria for tentative safe exposure levels on the 1992 exposure limit list [Japan]
Kyoyō nōdo zanteichi (1992) no teian riyū [in Japanese]
Review of relevant primary literature on arsine, silver and its compounds, chloromethyl methyl ether, cobalt and its compounds and toluene diisocyanate. Exposure limits established in other countries are discussed.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, July 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.385-396. 114 ref.

CIS 93-769 Propylene oxide
Oxido de propileno [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 08731, USA. Health hazards: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; corrosive to the eyes and skin; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system).
Noticias de seguridad, Aug. 1992, Vol.54, No.8. 4p. Insert.

CIS 93-605 Styrene toxicology investigations on the potential for carcinogenicity
New toxicokinetic data on styrene and the metabolic occurrence of styrene oxide are presented along with information on macromolecular binding in vivo. Based on experimental data, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for styrene and styrene oxide was developed, validated and used to calculate the body burden of these compounds for man in relation to animals. From results of these studies and DNA binding studies, it is concluded that the carcinogenic potential of styrene, if one exists at all, must be so low that occupational or environmental exposure to styrene is unlikely to present any genotoxic or carcinogenic hazard for man.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Nov. 1992. 61p. ca. 180 ref.

CIS 93-278
Worksafe Australia
Safe use of ethylene oxide in sterilisation/fumigation processes
This national code of practice addresses the hazards and risks of the use of ethylene oxide for sterilisation and fumigation, and the procedures recommended for its safe handling. It covers the responsibilities of employers and employees, compliance with the exposure standard, control measures, personal protective equipment, emergency procedures, first aid, maintenance, examination and testing of control measures, atmospheric monitoring and health surveillance. The accompanying guidance note covers health effects of ethylene oxide and conditions under which exposure may occur.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Apr. 1992. vii, 67p. 45 ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/FC8CF74C-01B6-4166-92D2-571FCB53DC79/0/CoP20081992EthyleneOxide.pdf (NOHSC: 2008) [in English]
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8B51C47-571C-40EA-B19B-321C5D899D2D/0/EthyleneOxideGN.pdf (NOHSC: 3016) [in English]

CIS 93-212 Schwartz B.S., Ford D.P., Yodaiken R.
Analysis of OSHA inspection data with exposure monitoring and medical surveillance violations
US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspection data from the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) enforcement database are presented for lead, ethylene oxide, and formaldehyde for fiscal years 1985, 1987, and 1989, and are discussed with emphasis on exposure monitoring or medical surveillance section violations. These data suggest that the exposure monitoring section of these standards is more commonly used to cite workplaces below these standards than is the medical surveillance section. Medical surveillance violations more commonly resulted in fines, but there were no differences in the magnitude of the fines for exposure monitoring or for medical surveillance violations. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.272-278. 12 ref.

CIS 92-1998
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Health-based recommended occupational exposure limit for allyl glycidyl ether and isopropyl glycidyl ether
Evaluation of the health hazards of exposure to allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) and isopropyl glycidyl ether (IGE). Attention is given to: identity, physical and chemical properties, monitoring; sources of exposure; environmental levels and human exposure; guidelines and standards; toxicokinetics; effects in animals and man (acute toxicity, long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity); previous evaluations by national and international bodies; evaluation of human health risks. Analysis of the data available led to a recommended health-based occupational exposure limit of 0.5mg/m3 (0.1ppm) as an 8h-TWA concentration for both AGE and IGE. Detailed summary in Dutch.
Directorate-General of Labour (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, 1992. iii, 33p. 34 ref.

CIS 92-1152
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Ethylene oxide
Illustrated brochure usable for the safety training of workers on the handling of ethylene oxide (particularly in health care establishments).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1992. 4p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 92-409 Diglycidyl ether
Diglicidil éter [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Synonyms: bis(2,3-epoxypropyl) ether; DGE. Short-term toxic effects: chemical burns; severe irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term toxic effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; suspected human carcinogen.
Noticias de seguridad, Feb. 1992, Vol.54, No.2, 4p. Insert.

1991

CIS 00-642 Allyl-2,3-epoxypropyl ether
Alil-2,3-epoxipropil éter [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0096. International Chemical Safety Card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive for the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; chemical burns; pulmonary oedema (may be delayed); neurological effects (central nervous system depression). Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitization; genetic damage; serious effects on the reproductive system. Threshold limit value: 1ppm.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus.

CIS 98-1124 2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol
2,3-Epoxipropan-1-ol [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0159 (CIS 92-746). International Chemical Safety Card. Topics: antifertility effects; carcinogenic effects; glycidol; central nervous system; chemical hazards; data sheet; delayed effects; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; IPCS; irritation; labelling; neurotoxic effects; pulmonary oedema; respiratory impairment; sensitization; skin absorption; Spain; storage; threshold limit values; translation; unconsciousness; waste disposal.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 98-1117 1,4-Dioxane
1,4-Dioxano [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0041 (CIS 91-381). International Chemical Safety Card. Topics: carcinogenic effects; dioxane; central nervous system; chemical hazards; data sheet; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; gastric disorders; health hazards; hepatic damage; IPCS; irritation; labelling; neurotoxic effects; renal damage; skin absorption; Spain; storage; threshold limit values; translation; unconsciousness; waste disposal.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 98-1111 Diethyl ether
Dietileter [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0355 (CIS 93-380). International Chemical Safety Card. Topics: diethyl ether; central nervous system; chemical hazards; chemical pneumonitis; data sheet; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; gastric disorders; health hazards; IPCS; irritation; labelling; narcotic effects; neurotoxic effects; Spain; storage; threshold limit values; translation; waste disposal.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 98-484 Dibutyl ether
Dibutil eter [in Spanish]
Spanish version of future IPCS ICSC 1150. International Chemical Safety Card. Topics: dibutyl ether; chemical hazards; data sheet; elimination of spills; environmental pollution; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; hepatic damage; IPCS; irritation; labelling; neurotoxic effects; Spain; storage; waste disposal.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 95-1600 Metaldehyde
2,4,6,8-Tetrametil-1,3,5,7-tetraoxociclooctano [in Spanish]
Spanish version of future IPCS ICSC 0765. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; hepatic damage; neurotoxic effects.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 95-1461 Reber E., Jost M., Rüegger M., Liechti B.
Use and applications of ethylene oxide in cold sterilization - Prevention of occupational diseases in hospitals
Emploi et applications de l'oxyde d'éthylène dans la stérilisation à froid - Prévention des maladies professionnelles dans les hôpitaux [in French]
Einsatz und Verwendung von Ethylenoxid bei der Kaltsterilisation - Berufskrankheitenverhütung in Spitälern [in German]
Impiego e applicazione dell'ossido di etilene nella sterilizzazione e freddo: Protezione delle malattie professionali negli ospedali [in Italian]
This manual identifies the risks associated with the use of ethylene oxide or mixtures of ethylene oxide and inert gases for cold sterilization in hospitals and outlines appropriate safety measures. Main contents: definitions; physical properties; chemical and biochemical properties; health hazards and exposure limit values (VLE in Switzerland: 1ppm); safety of the sterilization process; air contamination; measurement methods; results of measurements; other sterilization processes; check-list for sterilization installations using ethylene oxide; legislation and regulations applicable in Switzerland.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1991. 52p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 95-1067 Rosell Farrás M.G., Guardino Solá X.
Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. Updating of NTP-157
Oxido de etileno: exposición laboral. Actualización de la NTP-157 [in Spanish]
Information note on the monitoring of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide (EO). Though EO is not mentioned in Directive 91/322/EEC (CIS 92-1427) concerning indicative exposure limits within the Community, a STEL value of 5ppm over 15min has been given by OSHA. Tables indicate various determination methods for EO (NIOSH, OSHA, other methods, direct-reading methods), with their respective advantages. Validation criteria are also given.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 4p. 7 ref.

CIS 93-1618 Hagmar L., Welinder H., Lindén K., Attewell R., Osterman-Golkar S., Törnqvist M.
An epidemiological study of cancer risk among workers exposed to ethylene oxide using hemoglobin adducts to validate environmental exposure assessments
Cancer morbidity was investigated in a cohort of 2,170 ethylene oxide (EO)-exposed workers from 2 plants producing disposable medical equipment. The subjects had been employed for at least 1 year during the periods 1970-1985 and 1964-1985, respectively. The exposure to EO was assessed for each of six job categories in the plants with respect to each calendar year, on which basis values for individual cumulative exposure to EO (ppm-years) were calculated. The levels of hydroxyethyl adducts to N-terminal valine (HOEtVal) in haemoglobin fitted well with the values estimated for airborne exposure to EO. No increased cancer incidence was found (standardised morbidity ratio (SMR), 0.78; 95% CI, 0.49-1.21). No leukaemia was observed, but one case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, one case of myeloma, and one case of polycythaemia vera were diagnosed as compared with two expected haematopoietic and lymphatic tumours (SMR, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.32-4.5). No stomach cancer was detected as compared with the 0.5 case expected. There were no significant exposure-response associations between estimates of exposures to EO and cancer morbidity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1991, Vol.63, No.4, p.271-277. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 93-380 Diethyl ether
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of eyes and upper respiratory tract; chemical pneumonitis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long-term exposure effects: liquid defats the skin; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-2004 Bohne-Matusall R., Rasmussen H.U.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Anaesthetic gases in hospitals - Exposure, protection
Narkosegase in Krankenhäusern - Belastungen, Massnahmen [in German]
The concentration of anaesthetic gases was determined in the breathing zone of personnel in 102 operating theatres and 16 recovery rooms of 28 hospitals in northern Germany. The tentative limit for nitrous oxide of 50mL/m3 was exceeded by 26% of the values measured in the breathing zone of 250 anaesthetists. The maximum permissible concentration for halothane (5mL/m3) was exceeded by 8% of the measured concentrations. The tentative limits for enflurane and isoflurane of 10mL/m3 were not exceeded in any case. Far lower concentrations were measured in the breathing zones of 260 nurses than for anaesthetists. The results as well as published data of similar studies and the quality of presently available equipment were used to propose recommendations for maximum permissible levels (90mg/m3 for nitrous oxide, 40mg/m3 for halothane and 16mg/m3 for enflurane and isoflurane). Detailed summaries in German, English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1991. 93p. Illus. 60 ref. Price: DEM 21.00.

CIS 92-1457 Chloromethyl methyl ether
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: delayed effects; irritation of eyes and respiratory tract; corrosive to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; corrosive on ingestion; pulmonary oedema; chemical pneumonitis. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; effects on lungs.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1456 bis(Chloromethyl)ether
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; chemical pneumonitis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long term exposure effects: effects on liver and kidneys; carcinogenic to humans; may cause genetic damage in humans.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1124 Triethylene glycol diglycidyl ether
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes and skin; hypotension and lethargy; nausea and vomiting. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; may impair male fertility.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1113 Resorcinol diglycidyl ether
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, and skin; neurotoxic effects. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; possibly carcinogenic in humans.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1110 1,2-Epoxy propane
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long term exposure effects: skin sensitisation; probably carcinogenic in humans; may cause genetic damage in humans.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-968 Safe use of ethylene oxide in health care facilities: A manual of standard practice
Safe work procedures in ethylene oxide gas sterilisation are described. Criteria for the design and ventilation of sterilisation facilities are also presented with a focus on facilities such as acute care hospitals. Glossary.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, 6951 Westminster Highway, Richmond, British Columbia V7C 1C6, Canada, 1991. 62p. Illus.

CIS 92-775 Phenyl glycidyl ether
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; possibly carcinogenic in humans; may impair male fertility.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-769 Neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes and skin; neurotoxic effects. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-758 Isopropyl glycidyl ether
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; may affect the lungs.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-746 2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol
International chemical safety card. Synonym: glycidol. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); possibly carcinogenic in humans.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

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