Acrylates - 171 entries found
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General and occupational health problems in workers producing acrylic fibres
Voprosy obščej i professional'noj patologii rabočih proizvodstva nitrona [in Russian]
Immunological and bioclinical studies over 8 years in 820 workers in the acrylic fibre industry are reported. There was a relation between acrylate exposure and health impairments. Chronic poisoning and allergies were largely related to immunological changes, the early signs of which permit prognosis of the future course.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1980, No.4, p.18-21. 4 ref.
Björkner B., Dahlquist I., Fregert S.
Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in ultraviolet curing inks.
6 cases are reported from 4 printing plants. Contact allergy occurred to the multifunctional acrylate monomers pentaerythritol triacrylate and trimethylolpropane triacrylate, and to the epoxy acrylate and polyesteracrylate prepolymers. There were no reactions to bisphenol A dimethacrylate or to trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1980, Vol.6, No.6, p.405-409. 9 ref.
Bosserman M.W., Ketcham N.H.
An air sampling and analysis method for monitoring personal exposure to vapors of acrylate monomers.
The vapour is adsorbed on activated silica gel, desorbed in acetone, and analysed by gas chromatography. Concentrations down to 0.05ppm can be measured, and 0.01ppm in the case of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. Selection of the column is discussed. Accuracy and precision limits are well within OSHA standards. Other parameters investigated were the effects of humidity, flowrate, adsorption capacity, and storage effects. The method was applied to: 2-ethylhexyl, hydroxyethyl, isodecyl, methylcarbamoyloxyethyl, and 2-phenoxyethyl acrylates, esterdiol-204 diacrylate, and esterdiol-204, 4-ethoxydiacrylate.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1980, Vol.41, No.1, p.20-26. 7 ref.
Lomonova G.V., Klimova Ė.I.
Toxicological data on methyl and ethyl acrylates
Materialy k toksikologii metilovogo i ėtilovogo ėfirov akrilovoj kisloty [in Russian]
Animal experiments resulted in these acrylates being classified among toxic substances of category 3. They have weakly narcotic effects and are highly irritant. General toxicity of the 2 compounds is virtually identical. An exposure limit of 5mg/m3 is recommended in each case.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1979, No.9, p.55-56.
Makarov I.A., Makarenko K.I., Salmin A.A., Ermakova G.A.
Carbohydrate metabolism regulation in chronic occupational methyl methacrylate poisoning
Osobennosti reguljacii uglevodnogo obmena pri hroničeskoj profintoksikacii metilovym ėfirom metakrilovoj kisloty [in Russian]
Studies in 84 workers engaged in the synthesis, casting and moulding of this plastic. All had chronic poisoning. Provoked hyperglycaemia tests and liver function studies revealed hyperfunction of the islands of Langerhans. The body reacts to overproduction of insulin by developing insulin resistance in the tissues. The unusual blood sugar curves so often observed in methyl methacrylate poisoning appear to be due to increased intestinal glucose absorption.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1979, No.6, p.25-27. 5 ref.
Malten K.E., Bende W.J.M.
2-Hydroxyethyl - methacrylate and di- and tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate - Contact sensitizers in a photoprepolymer printing plate procedure.
The platemaking process is described. Five workers developed allergic contact dermatitis in spite of previous testing of the photoprepolymer mixture for contact sensitisation by the manufacturer. The cases are contrasted with another department where no dermatological problems occurred, and differences in working conditions and methods are pointed out. Preventive measures (working methods limiting exposure) are proposed. A list of 25 acrylic compounds that have caused sensitisation reactions is given, with references.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1979, Vol.5, No.4, p.214-220. Illus. 24 ref.
Malten K.E., Den Arend J.A.C.J., Wiggers R.E.
Delayed irritation: Hexanediol diacrylate and butanediol diacrylate.
Brief topical contact with these substances may cause delayed irritant dermatitis. No contact sensitisation was seen in 4 years' observation of 20 workers using them in the coating department of a door factory. Results of investigations are reported, and the ways in which the condition differed from allergic contact dermatitis are enumerated. The most important preventive measure in the case of contamination appears to be immediate removal by blotting off with a paper cloth, and then blotting off twice with methyl ethyl ketone. Wiping spreads the substance over the skin and should be avoided.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1979, Vol.5, No.3, p.178-184. 11 ref.
Five case reports are given in which workers at an electronics factory using a cyanocrylate glue displayed irritant dermatitis as a result of vaporisation of the monomer under conditions of low relative humidity. The composition of the glue is given. When the humidity of the working environment was raised above 55% no further outbreaks occurred.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1979, Vol.5, No.3, p.165-167. 1 ref.
Uses, hazards (fire; explosion; low flash point; heavier than air, accumulates in basements; flash back; polymerisation and rupture of container at high temperatures; highly toxic), fire fighting, precautions (storage tanks, drum storage, flame arresters, ventilation, use of electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres and fireproof enclosure of electrical apparatus, with reference to pertinent British standards), source of further information, relevant British regulations, physical and chemical properties.
Fire Prevention, H 73, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Protection Association, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJ. London, United Kingdom, Oct. 1978, No.127, p.47-48. 13 ref.
Sokal J., Knobloch K., Majka J., Sapota A., Szendzikowski S.
Toxicity of acrylic compounds used in industry
Toxicita akrylových sloučenin užívaných v průmyslu [in Czech]
Report of animal experiments from the Occupational Medical Institute, Lodz, Poland: on the basis of the LD50 for various acrylic compounds, the substituent of the vinyl group had a significant effect on the toxicity of these compounds; acrylic acid was a powerful local irritant; exposure to acrylonitrile reduced effort tolerance; after oral administration of 14CN-acrylonitrile, 9% of the activity was excreted in the urine and 7% in the exhaled air; methyl, ethyl and 2-ethylhexyl acrylates had a neurotoxic effect in preliminary studies.
Pracovní lékařství, June 1977, Vol.29, No.4-5, p.157-161. Illus. 14 ref.
Contact dermatitis from polyfunctional acrylic monomers.
Report on 5 of 26 men formulating radiation drying printing ink, who developed eczematous dermatitis. Positive patch tests were obtained with pentaerythritol triacrylate and trimethylolpropane triacrylate. All cases showed cross-sensitisation to dipentaerythritol pentaacrylate. One employee appeared to have developed irritant dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1977, Vol.3, No.5, p.245-248. Illus. 8 ref.
Cromer J., Kronoveter K.
A study of methyl methacrylate exposure and employee health.
A study of 91 exposed workers and 43 controls: clinical examination, blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory function tests, urinalysis, extensive haematological tests. No significant acute effects developing over the work shift were detected. The data suggest, however, that chronic effects may occur in the higher concentration exposure groups with regard to serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, albumin and total bilirubin values. Other data, not of statistical significance, suggest possible alterations in skin and nervous system symptomatology, urinalysis findings and serum triglycerides. Extensive workplace air samplings revealed mean 8h time-weighted average exposures, by job category, of 4-49ppm for the workers studied, at the plants surveyed.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-119, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Nov. 1976. 54p. 32 ref.
Lomonova G.V., Klimova Ė.I.
Toxicology of higher aliphatic alcohol acrylates
K toksikologii ėfirov akrilovoj kisloty i vysših alifatičeskih spirtov [in Russian]
Animal experiments to determine the toxicity of heptyl acrylate (HA) and nonyl acrylate (NA), used in the plastics industry. HA is much more toxic than the (presumed) hydrolysis products, acrylic acid and heptyl alcohol, and is extremely toxic on acute administration. Chronic exposure to HA and NA affects the oxidation-reduction processes and produces nervous, renal and myocardial toxicity. Proposed TLV for these substances, on the basis of acute and chronic exposure tests: 1mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1976, No.11, p.41-44. Illus. 6 ref.
Blagodatin V.M., Smirnova E.S., Dorofeeva E.D., Golova I.A., Arzjaeva E.Ja.
Establishment of the maximum allowable concentration of methyl methacrylate in workplace air
Obosnovanie predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii metilovogo ėfira metakrilovoj kisloty v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments with a view to modifying the TLV for methyl methacrylate. Concentrations around 50mg/m3 produce hepatotoxic effects and raise the blood pressure. There is also a narcotic effect. A survey of 90 exposed workers (3-6 years exposure, mainly to 4-20mg/m3 concentrations) showed ECG changes and disturbance of liver proteinogenic function. On the basis of data obtained the authors recommend a Soviet TLV of 10mg/m3 for this substance.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1976, No.6, p.5-8. 10 ref.
Internal changes in workers exposed to methyl methacrylate
Nekotorye izmenenija vnutrennyh organov u rabotajuščih v kontakte s metilovym ėfirom metakrilovoj kisloty [in Russian]
Results of medical examinations (duodenal probe, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, biochemical blood analysis) in 225 workers exposed to methyl methacrylate during bulk or suspension polymerisation. A number of pathological changes were observed in proportion to the length of service: a) peripheral blood (tendency to anaemia and leukopenia, lymphocytopenia and monocytosis); b) hepatic functions (disturbed protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, toxic lesions in severe cases); c) cardiovascular system (extracardiac disturbances or cardiac activity, toxic myocardial dystrophy).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1976, No.8, p.31-35. 17 ref.
Incidence of dermatitis in the polyacrylic fibre industry
Zabolevaemost' dermatozami u rabočih, kontaktirujuščih s akrilatami [in Russian]
An occupational hygiene study in a nitron (a polyacrylic fibre) manufacturing plant revealed a hazard of contact with acrylates during cleaning and repair of machines, release of filter-press plates, removal of samples, etc. Acrylates can be absorbed by the intact skin and by the mucosae of the upper respiratory tract; prolonged contact produces allergic dermatitis and eczema. Percentages of disorders in exposed workers and after skin tests with drops of acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and sodium thiocyanate solutions.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1976, No.1, p.40-41. 6 ref.
Dmitrieva V.N., Kotok L.A.
Polarographic determination of methyl methacrylate and styrene in workplace air
Poljarografičeskoe opredelenie metilmetakrilata i stirola v vozduhe proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij [in Russian]
Description of a polarographic process for the determination of methyl methacrylate and styrene. The monomers were sampled by absorption in dimethylformamide. The concentrations determined with an electronic polarograph were calculated by using a calibration curve. Comparison of the polarographic results with colorimetric determination indicated that the styrene concentrations were equivalent, while for methyl methacrylate the colorimetric values were lower than the polarographic ones. The latter technique is more direct and simpler than the colorimetric.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1976, No.4, p.59-61. 8 ref.
Šustov V.Ja., Mavrina E.A.
Clinical picture of chronic poisoning in workers employed in nitron production
K klinike hroničeskoj intoksikacii v proizvodstve nitrona [in Russian]
Examination of 390 workers in the synthetic fibre industry exposed to acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and sodium thiocyanate brought to light functional disorders of the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, liver, cardiovascular system and haematopoietic function. In some cases these disorders were accompanied by symptoms such as nystagmus, olfactory impairment, etc., and characteristic signs of diencephalic disturbance. Prolonged exposure to acrylates inhibits enzyme activity, with resulting biochemical disturbances. Recommendations for treatment.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1975, No.3, p.27-29. 7 ref.
Lenzi R., Cerroni A., Tria M.
Toxicological aspects of an adhesive (methyl 2-cyanoacrylate) used in work with precious stones
Aspetti tossicologica di un particolare collante (metil 2 cianoacrilato) usato nella lavorazione di oggetti preziosi [in Italian]
After details of the operations involved in setting stones (the fine nature of the work requires it to be performed without gloves) and chemical analysis of the adhesive, this article reports the results of 5 years' observation of 12 exposed workers and 6 controls. Contact dermatitis of the hands and inflammation of the nasal, pharyngeal and conjunctival mucosae were found. Introduction of an exhaust system with a closed hood, and of semi-automatic working methods, completely eliminated the irritative symptoms. Determinations in a simulated work environment yielded an atmospheric concentration of 2mg/m3 (0.44ppm). The authors recommend limiting exposure to a level of 1mg/m3.
Folia medica, 1974, Vol.57, No.1-2-3, p.30-40. Illus. 3 ref.
Myocardial changes in chronic intoxication by the methyl ester of methacrylic acid, detected by electrocardiography and polycardiography
Izmenenija miokarda pri hroničeskoj intoksikacii metilovym ėfirom metakrilovoj kisloty po dannym ėlektro- i polikardiografii [in Russian]
The author observed electrocardiographic changes and a disturbance in the phasing of cardiac contractions in 50 workers suffering from chronic poisoning by methyl mathacrylate (MM). These changes are attributed either to an indirect action of MM, or to toxic dystrophy of the myocardium caused by the latter. When exposure to MM ceases there is first a normalisation of the contraction phases, followed by a slow recovery of myocardial bioelectric activity. Suggestions for therapy.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.23-25. 9 ref.
Cohen S.R., Maier A.A., Flesch J.P.
Occupational health case report No.3 - Ethyl acrylate.
A report of an investigation carried out by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at the request of an authorised representative of employees concerning exposure to dust of an emulsion containing ethyl acrylate polymer at a facility manufacturing synthetic textile products. It was concluded that this dust cannot be considered inert because of its acidic character and that exposure to it at the concentrations prevailing in the plant in question constitutes a hazard. The institution of engineering improvements to control overspray and a good programme of general housekeeping would significantly reduce the hazard.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1974, Vol.16, No.3, p.199-200.
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