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Acrylates - 171 entries found

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  • Acrylates

1997

CIS 02-1065 Methyl methacrylate
Méthacrylate de méthyle [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 93-1460. Acute toxicity: skin absorption; moderate irritant of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Chronic toxicity: weak irritant of the skin; moderate sensitizer (allergic asthma); neurological effects (symptoms and peripheral disorders); cardiomyopathy; digestive disorders; changes in blood counts; carcinogenic effects; effects on reproduction. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 410mg/m3 (100ppm); ceiling value = 820mg/m3 (200ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.607-035-00-6; Xi, F, R36/37/38, R43, S9, S16, S29, S33, 201-297-1.The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 5p. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 99-605 Lundberg P.
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards XVIII
Vetenskapligt Underlag för Hygieniska Gränsvärden 18 [in Swedish]
This volume consists of the consensus reports submitted by the Criteria Group at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life between July 1996 and June 1997. Topics: 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane; 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; platinum chloride; potassium tetrachloroplatinate; ethoxyethoxyethanol; ethoxyethoxyethyl acetate; manganese dioxide; trimanganese tetraoxide; platinum tetrachloride; methyl cyanoacrylate; ammonium tetrachloroplatinate; ammonium hexachloroplatinate; potassium hexachloroplatinate; sodium hexachloroplatinate; hexachloroplatinic acid; potassium aluminium fluoride; ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate; manganese chloride; criteria document; cyanoacrylates; determination of exposure limits; ethylene; limitation of exposure; literature survey; manganese and compounds; platinum and compounds; Sweden; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1997. 78p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-1242 Spenser A.B., et al.
Control of ethyl methacrylate exposures during the application of artificial fingernails
Following six cases of occupational asthma in cosmetologists working with artificial fingernails, exposure conditions in nail salons and cosmetology schools were evaluated and various controls were examined. A commercially available recirculating downdraft manicure table with charcoal filters was modified and tested. Modifications included increasing the downdraft air volume, removal of the charcoal air filters, and installation of an exhaust system. Use of the modified table reduced personal exposure to ethyl methacrylate more than tenfold, compared to an unventilated table.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1997, Vol.58, No.3, p.214-218. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 97-1255 Muttray A., Schmitt B., Klimek L.
Effects of methyl methacrylate on the sense of smell
The prevalence of chronic smell disorders was studied in 175 acrylic sheet production workers exposed to methyl methacrylate (MMA) and in 88 non-exposed controls. Mean duration of exposure was 9.6 years; concentrations of MMA were up to 50ppm during the previous 6 years and up to 100ppm before then. Smell tests indicated no clinically relevant olfactory disorders in the exposed group. Data suggest that maintaining the current threshold limit value of 50ppm provides sufficient protection against irreversible olfactory disorders.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.1, p.58-66. Illus. 27 ref.

1996

CIS 05-255 n-Butyl methacrylate (CAS No.97-88-1), isobutyl methacrylate (CAS No.97-86-9)
Conclusions of this criteria document: no adverse systemic health effects of n-butyl methacrylate or isobutyl methacrylate have been reported in humans; their sensitization potential appears to be low. Animal studies indicate that the main effect is local irritation at the site of contact following inhalation exposure, the major route of occupational exposure. It is concluded that upper respiratory tract irritation is the most common effect of inhalation exposure to these substances.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 1996. 76p. Approx. 288 ref.

CIS 97-742 Ethyl methacrylate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. Irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting. May damage the nervous system and cause skin allergy. It is a flammable liquid.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-738 Ethyl acrylate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. It is a carcinogen and should be handled with extreme caution. May irritate and burn the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause lung oedema. May cause neurotoxic effects and skin allergy. It is a highly flammable and reactive chemical.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-392 Methyl methacrylate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. May irritate the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause teratogenic and neurotoxic effects, skin allergy and liver and kidney damage. It is a flammable and reactive liquid.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-68, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-169 Raymond L.W.
Pulmonary abnormalities and serum immunoglobulins in facsimile machine repair technicians exposed to butyl methacrylate fume
Seven repair technicians, repeatedly exposed to facsimile machine fume, developed recurring sore throat, fever, lymphadenopathy, chest tightness, dry cough and dyspnoea. The fume contained butyl methacrylate (BMA), a known skin sensitizer. Chest radiographs were normal, but three of the seven workers had lung crackles and spirometric abnormalities and increased serum levels of immunoglobulins IgE or IgM. Symptoms and most other abnormalities improved when exposure to BMA was stopped. Workers at two other sites were later evaluated. Six of them had daily contact with BMA fume. All had elevated serum IgE levels. Four had lung crackles, which cleared after substitution of a BMA-free paper, but IgE levels remained high. Twelve other staff members without fume exposure served as controls. The significance of the IgE elevations is uncertain. BMA was eliminated from the facsimile transceiver process. In a third group of workers (n=32), with no symptoms, IgE concentrations were elevated in 15 and remained so for 21 months, perhaps because of continuing exposure to residual low levels of BMA.
Chest, Apr.1996, Vol.109, No. 4, p.1010-1018. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 97-182 Kieć-Swierczyńska M.
Occupational allergic dermatitis due to acrylates in Lodz
Among 1619 suspected occupational dermatitis patients examined during 1990-1994 in Lodz, Poland, sensitivity to acrylates was diagnosed in nine individuals (four dental technicians, four dentists, and one textile printer). The most common sensitizers were ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. Compared to dental technicians, dentists were sensitive to a greater number of acrylate and methacrylate allergens and to other allergens including metals and rubber additives. Dental technicians were sensitive almost exclusively to methacrylates, and the textile printer only to acrylates.
Contact Dermatitis, June 1996, Vol.34, No.6, p.419-422. 11 ref.

CIS 96-901
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Existing chemicals of environmental relevance III - Priority setting and classified existing chemicals of the third priority list
This document, translation of a report finalized in June 1992, describes the German Chemical Society's procedure for the classification and priority setting of existing chemicals requiring toxicity evaluation and presents summary toxicity data for some 130 substances in the third priority list. The substances are arranged in four chemical groups: sulfonic acid compounds, phosphoric acid esters, acrylic acid and acrylic acid esters (acrylates), and methacrylic acid and methacrylic acid esters (methacrylates). Data relate to acute toxicity, irritation, sensitization, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1996. 119p. Price: DEM 72.00.

1995

CIS 01-354 Montelius J.
The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals - 118. Cyanoacrylates
Cyanoacrylate-based adhesives are widespread in many industrial and domestic as well as medical applications. The most apparent effect of exposure to their vapours is acute irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Cyanoacrylates cause skin sensitization and asthma. They are mutagenic in the Ames test and are suspected to be carcinogenic and to induce peripheral neuropathy. Exposure limits (2ppm = 8-10mg/m3 in most jurisdictions) are based on the irritant effect.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. v, 48p. 182 ref.

CIS 99-243 Methyl methacrylate CAS No.80-62-6
Topics: methyl methacrylate; chemical industry; containment of spills; criteria document; first aid; irritants; literature survey; sensitization; toxic effects; toxicology.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Feb. 1995. iii, 167p. Illus. approx. 820 ref.

CIS 96-870 Holmström M., Granstrand P., Nylander-French L.A., Rosén G.
Upper airway symptoms and function in wood surface coating industry workers
Respiratory and ocular symptoms were investigated in workers employed in the surface coating of wood products using either ultraviolet radiation curing (UV) or acid curing (AC). Symptoms were investigated by questionnaire and medical examination among surface coating line workers, finishing workers and a control group. Nasal, pharyngeal and ocular symptoms of discomfort were common among all exposed groups. Symptoms were most frequent in UV line workers and finishers of UV coated wood products. Mucociliary clearance was significantly slower in UV line workers. Low levels of organic solvents and coating dusts were measured in the workers' breathing zones.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.207-220. 55 ref.

CIS 95-2187
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Ethyl acrylate. n-Butyl acrylate
Conclusions of these criteria documents, translation of reports finalized in Dec. and Aug. 1992, respectively: no data are available on the acute effects of ethyl acrylate in humans; the substance acts as a sensitizer. An increased rate of cancer of the colon and rectum was observed among acrylate production plant workers with a high and prolonged exposure to a mixture of acrylates in the 1940s. Cases of skin irritation and sensitization have been reported in humans handling n-butyl acrylate. Epidemiological studies indicate a dose-dependent reduction in the sense of smell following exposure to these two substances.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1995. xxxi, 163p. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 88.00.

CIS 95-1812 Simonsen L., Midtgård U., Lund S.P., Hass U.
Nordic Council of Ministers
Occupational neurotoxicity: Evaluation of neurotoxicity data for selected chemicals
Previously determined criteria for evaluating published data on the neurotoxicity of chemicals (see CIS 95-000) were applied to the literature on 79 common industrial chemicals. Data were too sparse to permit classification of 28. Of the rest, eight were classified as probably and 16 as possibly neurotoxic, and the following 27 as definitely neurotoxic: acrylamide, acrylonitrile, aluminium, arsenic, sodium azide, borax, boric acid, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, potassium cyanide, ethanol, ethylene oxide, hexachlorophene, manganese, mercury, methanol, methyl bromide, methyl butyl ketone (2-hexanone), methyl chloride, methyl methacrylate, n-hexane, nitrous oxide, styrene, thallium, toluene, trichloroethylene, triorthocresyl phosphate.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 119p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-1443 Cary R., Morris L., Cocker J., Groves J., Ogunbiyi A.
Health and Safety Executive
Methyl methacrylate. Criteria document for an occupational exposure limit
No data are available on the acute effects of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in humans. Mild skin irritation has been reported and the substance is a potential skin sensitizer. No significant respiratory effects were observed at exposure levels of approximately 50ppm (8-hour TWA); at 'transient high levels' an increase of eye and respiratory tract irritation was observed. While a small number of cases of occupational asthma have been reported, there is no conclusive evidence that MMA is a respiratory sensitizer in humans. There is no conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity. Proposed occupational exposure standards are 50ppm (8-hour TWA) and 100ppm (15-minute reference period).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. v, 47p. Illus. 95 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 95-1006 Bruze M., Björkner B., Lepoittevin J.P.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl cyanoacrylate
A case study of an apprentice cobbler with an occupational allergic contact dermatitis from an ethyl cyanoacrylate glue is reported. Initial patch testing with the cyanoacrylate glue dissolved in acetone using the Finn chamber (aluminium) technique yielded false-negative reactions. Positive test reactions were obtained with the same preparations using the Van der Bend chamber (polypropylene) technique. With petrolatum as the vehicle for the glue, there was no difference between the two techniques. The role of aluminium in the false-negative reactions is discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1995, Vol.32, No.3, p.156-159. 10 ref.

1994

CIS 98-1400
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Ethyl methacrylate, n-butyl methacrylate and isobutyl methacrylate - Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
Topics: butyl methacrylate; ethyl methacrylate; isobutyl methacrylate; criteria document; eczema; limitation of exposure; Netherlands; threshold limit values; toxicology.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 Den Haag, Netherlands, 1994. 80p. 75 ref.

CIS 98-1398
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Methyl methacrylate - Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
Topics: allergic respiratory disorders; methyl methacrylate; criteria document; eczema; irritants; limitation of exposure; Netherlands; neurotoxic effects; sensitization; skin absorption; skin allergies; threshold limit values; toxicology.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 Den Haag, Netherlands, 1994. 113p. 217 ref.

CIS 95-671 Ethyl acrylate CAS No.140-88-5
Ethyl acrylate is irritant to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes and may cause skin sensitization in experimental animals and humans; cross-sensitization may also occur to other acrylic acid esters. It is of low to moderate toxicity and no systemic effects have been observed. There is no evidence of teratogenic, embryotoxic or mutagenic effects in laboratory studies. The substance is not considered to represent a human carcinogenic hazard.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte.6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 1994. ii, 61p. 168 ref.

CIS 95-670 n-Butyl acrylate CAS No.141-32-2
Butyl acrylate is irritant to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes and may cause skin sensitization in susceptible animals and humans; cross sensitization may also occur to other acrylic acid esters. Animal experiments have shown that the substance is of low to moderate toxicity; no systemic toxic effects have been reported following prolonged or repeated exposure. Butyl acrylate is maternally toxic and embryotoxic in mice and rats, but at the currently accepted occupational exposure limits, represents no reproductive risk to man. No evidence of genotoxic or carcinogenic potential has been reported.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte.6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Aug. 1994. ii, 47p. 112 ref.

1993

CIS 96-886 Marez T., Edmé J.L., Boulenguez C., Shirali P., Haguenoer J.M.
Bronchial symptoms and respiratory function in workers exposed to methylmethacrylate
This study aimed to investigate the pulmonary effects of methylmethacrylate (MMA) in a group of occupationally exposed workers. In the exposed group 20% had chronic cough compared with 1% in controls. Spirometric values at the beginning of the workshift were similar in both groups, but a mild airways obstruction appeared during the workshift. The maximum expiratory flow when 50% of the forced vital capacity remained to be exhaled (MEF50) and the ratio of MEF50 to maximal expiratory flow (MEF50/MEF) decreased significantly during the workshift among exposed workers compared to controls (p = 0.04 and 0.01 respectively). Results remained unaffected after adjustment for smoking. Exposure to MMA seems to be responsible for a mild airways obstruction but further study on a larger population would be useful.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.50, No.10, p.894-897. 21 ref.

CIS 95-397 Hardening plastics [Sweden]
Härdplaster [in Swedish]
This directive, which came into force 1 January 1994, applies to all work with hardening plastics. General requirements cover work with all hardening plastics, especially spraying, work with hot objects and control of hazardous substances in the air. Employers must provide workers with medical examinations before work is initiated, and again if a worker shows respiratory problems. Cleaning and general housekeeping are covered. Special chapters deal with epoxies, polyurethanes, esters, acrylates and amino- and phenoplastics. Comments and rules of application are included.
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 23 Aug. 1993. 78p.

CIS 95-425 Methyl acrylate
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization; may affect the liver, kidneys and lungs. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 10ppm; 35mg/m3 (skin) (ACGIH 1989-1990); PDK: 20mg/m3 (USSR 1980).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-460 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema (may be delayed). Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization. Occupational exposure limit: PDK: 1mg/m3 (USSR 1988).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 93-1865 Kanerva L., Estlander T., Jolanki R., Tarvainen K.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to acrylates during work with dental prostheses
Between 1974 and 1992, an orthodontist, 2 dental technicians and a dental worker developed occupational allergic contact dermatitis from working with dental prostheses. All patients had positive allergic patch test reactions to methyl methacrylate (MMA), the acrylate which is the most widely used in work with prostheses. All but the orthodontist also reacted to dimethacrylates, which are used in cross-linked dental prostheses. The last patient, investigated in 1992, had been exposed mainly to light-cured acrylics, which are similar in composition to dental composite resins. These acrylics, only recently introduced into prosthetic work, contain more potent acrylic sensitisers than MMA. Accordingly, dental personnel working with prostheses may face a higher risk of sensitisation than previously. To detect cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis, patients working with dental prostheses should be patch tested with MMA, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, dimethacrylates, epoxy acrylates and urethane acrylates.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1993, Vol.28, No.5, p.268-275. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 93-1460 Methyl methacrylate
Méthacrylate de méthyle [in French]
Chemical safety data sheet with model label. Acute toxicity: skin absorption; moderate irritant of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Chronic toxicity: weak irritant of the skin; moderate sensitiser; neurological effects (irritability, weakness, headaches); gastrointestinal effects (nausea). French exposure limits: ceiling value (VLE) 200ppm (820mg/m3), time-weighted average (VME) 100ppm (410mg/m3).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1993. 5p. 42 ref.

CIS 93-1542 Tomb R.R., Lepoittevin J-P., Durepaire F., Grosshans E.
Ectopic contact dermatitis from ethyl cyanoacrylate instant adhesives
Although allergic reactions to cyanoacrylates adhesives are extremely rare, they should not be considered impossible. The authors report on the case of a young hairdresser who developed an occupational allergic contact dermatitis to 2 "instant glues" used to attach false hair. The eczematous eruption involved the fingers and face slightly but mainly the eyelids. Patch test reactions were strongly positive to ethyl cyanoacrylate adhesives.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1993, Vol.28, No.4, p.206-208. 8 ref.

CIS 93-1205 Guerra L., Vincenzi C., Peluso A.M., Tosti A.
Prevalence and sources of occupational contact sensitization to acrylates in Italy
Acrylate-based products are widely used in the industrialised world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and sources of occupational contact sensitisation to acrylates in a selected population. Between January 1987 and April 1992, 82 patients suspected of occupational acrylic sensitisation were patch tested with the GIRDCA standard series and an extensive acrylate series. Over this five-year period, sensitisation to acrylates was detected in 13.4% of cases. Dental materials and anaerobic sealants were the most important sources of acrylate sensitisation. Among acrylic monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was the most frequent contact sensitiser in this study. Acrylate additives were also important sources of contact dermatitis. Although the clinical picture of airborne contact dermatitis due to acrylates has rarely been reported in the literature, it was commonly observed in patients included in the study.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1993, Vol.28, No.2, p.101-103. Illus. 26 ref.

1992

CIS 01-1619 Ethyl acrylate
Acrylate d'éthyle [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 83-1643. Synonym: ethyl-2-propenoate. Toxicity: irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 20mg/m3 (5ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.607-032-00-X; Xn, F, R11, R20/22, R36/37/38, R43, S9, S16, S33. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 93-1110 Butyl acrylate
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Effects of short-term exposure: irritation of the eyes, skin and mucous membranes of the nose, throat and respiratory tract. Effects of long-term exposure: skin sensitisation; eczema; may cause neurotoxic and neuropsychic effects.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1992. 7p. 22 ref.

CIS 93-960 Foussereau J., Cavelier C.
Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis due to constituents of plastics
Les dermites de contact par irritation et par allergie aux constituants de matières plastiques [in French]
This information note deals with skin irritation and allergies due to the constituents of plastics (monomers, oligomers, starting materials hardeners, additives); fully polymerised plastics are not allergenic. Constituents are classified by type and frequency of skin damage: irritants (cyanoacrylates and allylic polyesters); frequently allergenic products (epoxies, acrylates and methacrylates); rarely allergenic products (some aminoplasts and phenoplasts, polyurethanes, unsaturated polyesters, vinyl plastics, cellulosic polyethers, other resins and additives). The impact of these products on the skin is more a function of their chemical properties than of the amounts occurring in a given formulation. The observed broad distribution of dermatoses reflects the diversity of plastics manufactured and the number of subjects involved in their production.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.50, p.263-291. Illus. ca.340 ref.

CIS 93-245 Renard E.P., Goydan R., Stolki T.
Permeation of multifunctional acrylates through selected protective glove materials
The resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated. Tests were conducted with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), and two mixtures of HDDA with 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA). The rubber gloves tested consisted of butyl, natural, and nitrile rubber materials. None of the acrylate compounds nor mixtures was found to permeate the butyl or nitrile rubber under the test conditions. Permeation through the natural rubber was observed in tests with pure HDDA, a 50% HDDA/50% EHA mixture, and a 25% HDDA/75% EHA mixture. TMPTA permeation through the natural rubber was also detected, but only in one of the triplicate tests after the 360-480 minute sampling interval.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.117-123. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 92-1278 Acrylate compounds: Uses and evaluation of health effects
Acrylate, methacrylate and cyanoacrylate compounds are known to be irritating, allergenic, genotoxic, carcinogenic and foeto/embryotoxic in experimental animals, although compounds vary as to the spectrum of toxic effects and potency. There are reports of irritation dermatitis and allergic dermatitis in exposed workers and skin symptoms and mild local effects on the peripheral nerves caused by handling of methyl metacrylate have also been documented. Human studies on mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, or on embryo- and foetotoxicity are not available.
Finnish Advisory Board of Chemicals, Kimmo Louekari, National Agency of Welfare and Health, P.O. Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland, 1992. 60p. 95 ref.

1991

CIS 00-638 N-Butyl acrylate
Acrilato de N-butilo [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0400. International Chemical Safety Card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; inhalation may cause pulmonary oedema (effects may be delayed). Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization; experiments on animals show possible toxic effects on the reproductive system. Threshold limit value: 10ppm.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus.

CIS 98-65 Ethyl acrylate
Acrilato de etilo [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 4-0267. International Chemical Safety Card. Topics: chemical burns; chemical hazards; corrosive substances; data sheet; delayed effects; dermatitis; elimination of spills; environmental pollution; ethyl acrylate; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; hepatic damage; IPCS; irritation; labelling; pulmonary oedema; renal damage; sensitization dermatitis; skin absorption; Spain; storage; threshold limit values; translation; waste disposal.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 95-1977 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate
Acrilato de 2-etilhexilo [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 7-0478. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema (may be delayed). Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization. Occupational exposure limit: PDK: 1mg/m3 (USSR 1988).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 93-629 Maclaine Pont M.A.
DEC and NEG basis for an occupational health standard. Methylmethacrylate
Consensus report of the Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards and the Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits. Methyl methacrylte polymerises very readily. It is absorbed through the skin and is a sensitiser. It irritates the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Inhalation mainly affects the central nervous system. There is no evidence of carcinogenicity in animals. The critical effect is the induction of nasal lesions in the female rat at the lowest doses tested (1040mg/m3 = 250ppm for 102 weeks). Foetal resorption and gross abnormalities were seen in rats at exposures between 416 and 4160mg/m3. An exposure limit of 42mg/m3 (10ppm) 8h time-weighted average is recommended, with a "skin" notation on labels and data sheets.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 58p. Illus. 99 ref.

CIS 93-44 Methyl methacrylate monomer, inhibited
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of eyes and skin; pulmonary oedema. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; hepatic and renal effects.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1794 Ethyl methacrylate
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: skin sensitisation; liquid defats the skin.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1485 Ethyl acrylate
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; sensitisation. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; may affect the liver and kidneys.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1251 Walker A.M., Cohen A.J., Loughlin J.E., Rothman K.J., DeFonso L.R.
Mortality from cancer of the colon or rectum among workers exposed to ethyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate
Mortality from colon and rectum cancer was reviewed in three cohorts working in 1933-1982 in two plants manufacturing and polymerising acrylate monomers. The two cohorts with more recent dates of employment showed no excess mortality. In the earliest cohort, excess colon cancer seemed restricted to men employed extensively in the early 1940s in jobs entailing the highest exposures to vapour-phase ethyl acrylate (EA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer and volatile by-products of the EA/MMA polymerisation process. The excess mortality appeared only some two decades after the equivalent of three years' employment in jobs with the most intense exposures. A smaller elevation in colon cancer mortality also appeared in a low-exposure group in the early cohort. Rectal cancer mortality was elevated in the same categories that showed excess rates of colon cancer death. Because of the lower rates, the rectal cancer results are more imprecise.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1991, Vol.17, No.1, p.7-19. 2 ref.

1990

CIS 91-1237
Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter vaststelling van MAC-waarden (Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards)
Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for methyl acrylate
The health risks of exposure to methyl acrylate are discussed and evaluated. Persons with an impaired skin barrier function may bear a higher risk of irritation or sensitisation after exposure to methyl acrylate than others. The Committee recommends an occupational exposure limit of 18mg/m3 (5ppm), 8-hour TWA. Since dermal absorption can add to the inhalatory exposure an "H" (skin notation) is advised.
Department of Social Affairs and Employment, Directorate-General of Labour (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1990. 27p. 39 ref.

CIS 91-941
Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter vaststelling van MAC-waarden (Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards)
Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for ethyl acrylate
The risks to human health from exposure to ethyl acrylate are evaluated. Attention is given to sources of exposure, environmental levels and human exposure, guidelines and standards in various countries, toxicokinetics, and toxic effects (irritation and sensitisation, acute toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive effects). The experimental no-effect level is 20mg ethyl acrylate/m3. Exposure produces slight effects at 100mg/m3. The real no-effect level is between 20 and 100mg/m3. Therefore an occupational exposure limit of 20mg ethylacrylate/m3 TWA 8h is advised with the notation "H" (skin absorption possible).
Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1990. 32p. 51 ref.

CIS 91-913 Farli M., Gasperini M., Francalanci S., Gola M., Sertoli A.
Occupational contact dermatitis in 2 dental technicians
Two dental technicians, both with chronic eczema, reported worsening from the use of 2 products containing methyl methacrylate, employed in manufacturing acrylic prostheses. Patch tests in both patients gave positive reactions to methyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and products employed in manufacturing acrylic prostheses (2% and 5% pet.). On the basis of results subsequently obtained from patch tests carried out with pieces of glove interposed between the skin and the allergens (methyl methacrylate and products employed), we advised our patients still to use latex gloves during work. Follow-up after one year showed complete regression of the dermatitis in one case and considerable improvement in the other.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1990, Vol.22, No.5, p.282-287. 16 ref.

CIS 91-910 De Zotti R., Larese F.
Occupational asthma due to cyanoacrylic glues
Asma da collanti cianoacrilici [in Italian]
Cyanoacrylate-based glues have been reported as producing dermatitis and bronchial asthma. The paper describes the case of a patient occupationally exposed to Loctite 406, who developed irritation of the skin and mucosae of the face and late bronchial asthma. Preventive measures for subjects exposed to cyanoacrylic instant glues are discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1990, Vol.81, No.2, p.142-146. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 91-530 Nakazawa T.
Occupational asthma due to alkyl cyanoacrylate
A case of bronchial asthma induced by occupational exposure to Aron Alpha, a cyanoacrylate adhesive, occurred in an assembly operation. Provocative exposure testing induced immediate and delayed asthmatic responses. Alkyl cyanoacrylate seemed to act as an allergen or as an irritant, resulting in the development of asthma.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1990, Vol.32, No.8, p.709-710. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 90-1478 Methyl methacrylate
Méthacrylate de méthyle [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: strong irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; hepatic and renal damage; pulmonary oedema; skin sensitisation; suspected mutagen.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 1p. Illus.

1989

CIS 91-933 Björkner B.
Contact allergy to ultraviolet curable acrylate products in paints and varnishes
Kontaktallergi för ultraviolett härdande akrylatprodukter i färger och lacker [in Swedish]
Investigation of the sensitising capacity of the various acrylic compounds commonly used in paints and coatings using the Guinea Pig Maximisation (GPM) test. The polyester acrylate tested was classified as a moderate sensitiser. Tests of di(meth)acrylates based on bisphenol A or epoxy resin showed that allergenicity apparently diminishes when the acrylates have three or more methylene groups in the molecular chain. Impurities in some acrylate products are highly allergenic. Among the urethane acrylates, the aliphatic compounds appear to be more potent sensitisers than the aromatic equivalents. Most multifunctional di- and triacrylic compounds proved to be potent sensitisers. The purity of the tested acrylic compounds was analysed by HPLC. Guidelines for measures to minimise skin hazards are suggested.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 39p. 18 ref.

CIS 90-846 Kanerva L., Estlander T., Jolanki R.
Allergic contact dermatitis from dental composite resins due to aromatic epoxy acrylates and aliphatic acrylates
Seven patients were occupationally sensitised to dental composite resin products (DCR): 6 dental nurses and 1 dentist. All had a positive patch test to their DCR. Two independent types of allergy were seen: (a) aromatic epoxy acrylate and/or (b) aliphatic acrylates. Four out of 5 patients reacted to BIS-GMA, the most widely used aromatic epoxy acrylate in DCR, but not the dentist. She and 2 dental nurses were allergic to aliphatic acrylates, including triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA) and triethylene diglycol diacrylate (TREGDA). Four patients were allergic to epoxy resin (ER) (containing mainly MW 340), possibly an impurity in some DCR. Two patients were also allergic to methyl methacrylate (MMA): the dentist had been exposed to MMA but the nurse's exposure was uncertain. One patient was also allergic to rubber gloves, 2 to rubber chemicals but not their gloves, and 5 to disinfectants used. Diagnosis was delayed as long as 13yrs in spite of previous patch testing. Dermatologists need to use the patient's own DCR and the (meth)acrylate series for patch testing. Dental personnel need to know about the risks of DCR, and use no-touch techniques and protective gloves.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1989, Vol.20, No.3, p.201-211. Illus. 40 ref.

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