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Cyano compounds - 577 entries found

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  • Cyano compounds

1983

CIS 83-885 Decree No.83-71 of 2 Feb. 1983 to amend and complement the occupational disease schedules attached to Decree No.46-2959 of 31 Dec. 1946
Décret n°83-71 du 2 février 1983 révisant et complétant les tableaux de maladies professionnelles annexés au décret n°46-2959 du 31 déc. 1946 [in French]
Two new schedules have been added: No.72 relates to diseases caused by exposure to nitrate derivatives of glycol and glycerol; No.73 to occupational diseases caused by antimony and its compounds. Modifications were made to: schedule No.2 (mercury and compounds); No.31 (aminoglycosides); No.32 (fluorine, hydrogen fluoride and its mineral salts); No.33 (beryllium and compounds); No.52 (diseases due to vinyl chloride polymerisation processes); No.62 (organic isocyanates); No.65 (eczematous lesions with an allergic mechanism of action).
Journal officiel de la République française, 6 Feb. 1983, p.495-499.

1982

CIS 87-841 Methyl isocyanate
Metyyli-isosyaniitti [in Finnish]
Methyl isocyanate is a toxic liquid (LD50 = 71mg/kg; TLV = 0.05mg/m3). The liquid severely irritates and corrodes the skin and the eyes, and it can cause eczema. The vapour irritates the respiratory tract and the eyes and it causes pulmonary oedema at high concentrations. Reactive with water. Forms toxic nitric oxides at high temperatures. Mandatory European labelling: F, T, R12, R23, R24, R25, R36, R37, R38, R101, S9, S30, S43, S44, S101.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 84-1009 Amines and isocyanates in the workplace - Research needs as regards analysis and sampling
Aminer och isocyanater i arbetslivet - FoU-behov av analys och provtagning [in Swedish]
Proceedings of a seminar (Lund, Sweden, 25-26 Aug. 1982), dealing with the topics: industrial uses of amines and isocyanates; rules for their proper handling; health hazards; amines and skin diseases; sampling and analysis (isocyanate determination in air using liquid chromatography and gas chromatography with electron capture; gas chromatography with mercury-phosphorus detection; isotachophoresis; sampling and analysis of TDI on filter tape; photoacoustic and Fourier-transform spectroscopy; sampling methods); special problems of the polyurethane, paint, varnish, rubber and epoxy resin industries.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, Nov. 1982. 102p. Illus. 62 ref.

CIS 84-707 Vigueira Rubio J.
Determination of TDI in the air in the presence of MDI by dual wavelength spectrophotometry
Determinación de TDI en aire en presencia de MDI por espectrofotometría de doble longitud de onda [in Spanish]
The method is described. The wavelengths used are 540.5 and 580nm. The differences in absorbance read directly by the spectrophotometer between the 2 wavelengths allow determination of the TDI concentration without interference by the presence of MDI. The limit of detection of TDI is 0.05mg/m3 in 20l air.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1982, Vol.30, No.119, p.172-176. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 84-457 Perocco P., Pane G., Bolognesi S., Zannotti M.
Increase of sister chromatid exchange and unscheduled synthesis of desoxyribonucleic acid by acrylonitrile in human lymphocytes in vitro
Acrylonitrile was toxic starting from a concentration of 5 x 10-3M, caused a small but significant increase in sister chromatid exchanges compared with controls at 5 x 10-4M with metabolic activation, and elicited reparative (unscheduled) DNA synthesis as determined by tritiated thymidine uptake, particularly at a concentration of 5 x 10-1M. The toxic and mutagenic actions of acrylonitrile were observable only at very high concentrations, which are not comparable with those occurring at the workplace. Given the massive production and use of acrylonitrile, genotoxic effects could be produced in man by prolonged continuous exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1982, Vol.8, No.4, p.290-293. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 83-1986 Šaronova Z.V., Penkovič A.A., Dorofeeva E.D., Kryžanovskaja N.A., Mel'nikova N.D., Volkova I.D., Golova I.A, Arzjaeva E.Ja., Klimova Ė.I., Maze Ė.N.
Cardiovascular changes in workers in tolylene diisocyanate production
Izmenenija serdečno-sosudistoj systemy u rabočih proizvodstva toluilendiizocianata [in Russian]
The cardiovascular function of 92 workers in an old tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) plant was compared with that of 148 workers in a more modern plant producing a number of isocyanates. Workers in the older plant, where TDI concentrations were commonly 0.1-0.5mg/m3, had higher frequencies of head and chest pain, arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease that did workers in the newer plant, with TDI concentrations of 0.021-0.031mg/m3 (the MAC for TDI is 0.05mg/m3). Abnormalities in the ventricular complex of electrocardiograms were also more frequently encountered in workers from the older plant. The frequency and severity of complaints was correlated with length of service in contact with TDI.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1982, No.1, p.16-19. 6 ref.

CIS 83-1348 Lipski K.
Liquid chromatographic determination of dimethylformamide, methylenebisphenyl isocyanate and methylenebisphenylamine in air samples
For sampling of the mixture, silica gel coated with diethylamine was used. Since isocyanate is highly reactive, it must be rapidly converted into a stable derivative. This was achieved by reaction with diethylamine. After desorption of the mixture, compounds are separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Spectrophotometric detection was used for determination of the mixture components.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1982, Vol.25, No.1, p.1-4. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 83-1403 Game C.J.A.
Australian TDI workers' sera assayed for IgE against a p-tolyl-isocyanate-human serum albumin conjugate
The sera of 20 blood donors, 70 factory workers, and 1 casualty patient were assayed for IgE which bound to a p-tolyl-isocyanate-human serum albumin conjugate. 3 factory workers had abnormally high assay values in association with active tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) disease, as indicated by asthma or measurement showing chronic airway obstruction. One factory worker had an exceptionally high assay value without clinical evidence of TDI disease. Hapten inhibition studies indicated possible heterogeneity of the IgE detected by the assay. Clinical histories suggest that TDI disease can include susceptibility to asthma triggered by events other than TDI exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1982, Vol.43, No.10, p.759-763. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 83-1371 Diem J.E., Jones R.N., Hendrick D.J., Glindmeyer H.W., Dharmarajan V., Butcher B.T., Salvaggio J.E., Weill H.
Five-year longitudinal study of workers employed in a new toluene diisocyanate manufacturing plant
Respiratory health of 277 TDI workers was studied prospectively. Peak and 8h TWA concentrations were determined in over 200 samples. Smoking had a significant effect on spirometric tests and lung volumes. After adjustment for smoking, the 74 men in the high TDI exposure group had significantly larger declines in FEV1, %FEV and FEF25-75 than the 149 men in the low exposure category. Annual change in FEV1 is analysed in 6 smoking/exposure categories. The results support the NIOSH standard 8h TWA of 5ppb TDI.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Sep. 1982, Vol.126, No.3, p.420-428. 21 ref.

CIS 83-736 Belegaud J.
Nitrogen and compounds
L'azote et ses dérivés [in French]
The toxicity of nitrogen and nitrogen oxides under normal and hyperbaric conditions are studied: physical and chemical properties, natural and technical exposure hazards, pulmonary and haematic effects, clinical aspects of lung diseases due to acute or chronic exposure, prevention; anionic oxygenated nitrogen derivatives (nitrates and nitriles): physical and chemical properties, conditions of exposure, modes of action, clinical aspects of acute poisoning, characterised by methaemoglobin formation and vasodilation, chronic poisoning where a possible carcinogenic effect is mooted, preventive measures (biological testing, monitoring of NO3 levels in food and water); hydrogenated compounds (ammonia): caustic effects on the mucosae of the lungs and eyes, toxicity, preventive measures.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France, 1982. 4p. 6 ref.

CIS 83-566 Bjurström R.
Exposure to isocyanates in six polyurethane-processing industries
Exposition för isocyanater vid sex polyuretantillverkande industrier [in Swedish]
Contents of this industrial-hygienist examination paper: uses of tolylene diisocyanates (TDI), diphenylmethane diisocyanate and phenyl isocyanate, their effects on health and occupational health problems involved; processing techniques (casting of polyurethane, block foaming); measuring equipment and methods of analysis used for this industrial hygiene survey; sampling with the aid of personal and stationary samplers; ventilation systems in the casting and foaming shops visited; reproduction and discussion of results: whereas the average exposure to isocyanates during casting was below the TLV of 0.01ppm under normal operating conditions, block foaming may give rise to exposures exceeding by far 0.01ppm of TDI.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 39p. 14 ref.

CIS 83-138
Criteria Group for Occupational Standards (Sweden)
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards II
A collection of consensus reports which bring together and evaluate the relevant scientific data on substances which may present an occupational health risk; these consensus reports are intended for use as background material by the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health in the preparation of its occupational standards (exposure limits). Substances considered are: chlorine and chlorine dioxide; inorganic arsenic (excluding arsenic hydride); benzene; synthetic inorganic fibres; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; diisocyanates; oil mist; wood dust.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 solna, Sweden, 1982. 97p. Illus. 160 ref.

CIS 83-217 Delzell E., Monson R.R.
Mortality among rubber workers: VI. Men with potential exposure to acrylonitrile
Report of an analysis of mortality experience among 327 employees of a rubber chemicals plant who had potential exposure to acrylonitrile. 9 deaths from lung cancer were found in comparison to 5.9 expected based on mortality rates for US white males and 4.7 expected based on mortality rates for other rubber workers from the same city. The excess lung cancer mortality was greatest among men who worked 5-14 years in the plant and who died 15 or more years after starting work in the plant (4 deaths observed, 0.8 expected).
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1982, Vol.24, No.10, p.767-769. 6 ref.

CIS 83-215 Musk A.W., Peters J.M., Di Berardinis L., Murphy R.L.H.
Absence of respiratory effects in subjects exposed to low concentrations of TDI and MDI
Report of a 5-year follow-up study of 107 workers in a polyurethane manufacturing plant using FEV1 measurements and questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. Toluene diisocyanate and diphenylmethane diisocyanate exposure levels were monitored. Mean FEV1 was higher than that predicted for healthy subjects and the 5-year change in FEV1 did not exceed that expected from ageing. No acute change in FEV1 was observed on a Monday either before or after a 2-week vacation and no ventilary function improvement was observed during vacation. Low-level isocyanate exposure (time-weighted average concentrations around 0.001ppm) is not associated with chronic respiratory symptoms or effects on ventilatory capacity.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1982, Vol.24, No.10, p.746-750. 23 ref.

CIS 83-124 Rosenberg C., Pfäffli P.
A comparison of methods for the determination of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) in air samples
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), colorimetric, and continuous tape monitoring methods were compared in the determination of concentrations of MDI in the air of 2 different industrial environments and a laboratory exposure chamber. Neither the colorimetric nor the tape monitoring methods were sensitive enough to determine concentrations of MDI < 0.2 x 10-2 and < 1 x 10-2mg/m3 respectively. Determinations made with the HPLC method at different rates of sampling yielded similar results on simultaneous sampling even at concentration levels of 0.2 x 10-2mg/m3, indicating that this method is useful for both sampling and analysis. The volumes during sampling were in the 5-150l range. The flow rate chosen was 2.5-3.0l/min. The concentration of MDI in the atmospheres of the workplaces was below the current threshold limit value of 0.2mg/m3.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1982, Vol.43, No.3, p.160-163. 16 ref.

CIS 82-1950 Malo J.L., Zeiss C.R.
Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis after exposure to diphenylmethane diisocyanate
A foundry worker developed dyspnoea and a restrictive breathing defect after exposure to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). His symptoms and lung function impairment subsided after he left foundry work. Specific inhalation challenges with MDI induced general malaise, a significant increase in body temperature and leukocyte count, and a decrease in forced vital capacity and transfer factor. Total antibody activity to a MDI human serum albumin conjugate was detected by ammonium sulfate precipitation and specific IgG antibodies were demonstrated by the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent technique.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Jan. 1982, Vol.125, No.1, p.113-116. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 82-1378 Pacheco Y., Vergnon J.M., Grosclaude M., Biot N., Perrin-Fayolle M.
Case study of bronchoalveolitis due to isocyanate
A propos d'un cas de bronchoalvéolite à l'isocyanate [in French]
Case study of mixed bronchial and alveolar disease in a worker exposed to isocyanate, with considerations on the aetio-pathogenic mechanisms of poisoning by this substance. Results of analysis of clinical signs and tests showed bronchial reactions due to a twofold mechanism (irritant and immunological), with parieto-alveolar reactions due to type-III hypersensitivity reaction.
Revue française d'allergologie, 1982, Vol.22, No.1, p.15-17. 11 ref.

CIS 82-1050 Woolrich P.F.
Toxicology, industrial hygiene and medical control of TDI, MDI, and PMPPI
The isocyanates used in the manufacture of polyurethanes cause sensitisation responses and also causes fire and explosion hazards. This review covers: chemical identifiers; chemical and physical properties; toxicological effects on animals; industrial hygiene and medical controls; first aid.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1982, Vol.43, No.2, p.89-97. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 82-443 Morel C., Gendre M., Cavigneaux A., Protois J.C.
Isophorone diisocyanate
Diisocyanate d'isophorone [in French]
Synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology (irritation of skin, mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract; release of toxic substances in the event of fire; ACGIH TLV: 0.01ppm or 0.09mg/m3). References to relevant French safety and health regulations, and the French and international transport safety regulations. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1982, No.106, p.151-154. 12 ref.

CIS 82-440 Mur J.M., Meyer-Bisch C., Cavelier C., Pham Q.T., Lacube P.
Isocyanates and lung function. A study of workers exposed to isocyanates on a polyurethane foam injection station
Isocyanates et fonction respiratoire. Etude d'ouvriers exposés à un poste d'injection de mousse polyuréthanne [in French]
Study carried out in an automobile plant on 51 workers exposed to isocyanates and on 14 workers subsequently removed from exposure as a result of pathological findings. The study included an interview, a clinical examination and a series of lung function tests. The sensitising effect of isocyanates on the respiratory system was confirmed. Since many of those who had been withdrawn from exposure continue to present lung function anomalies, it is not possible to exclude the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to isocyanates may, over the long term, induce pulmonary fibrosis.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1982, No.106, Note No.1366-106-82, p.83-88. 17 ref.

1981

CIS 88-1101 Butyronitrile
n-butyronitriili [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information shhet. Flammable liquid; LD50 = 500mg/kg. Toxic if inhaled, ingested or in contact with skin. Is absorbed through skin. Irritates the skin. Mandatory European labelling: T, F, R10, R23, R24, R25, S44.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1981. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 86-1056 Basic safety rules for the handling of acrolein
Reglas básicas de seguridad para el manejo de acroleína [in Spanish]
This illustrated guide provides information on the hazards and safe handling of acrolein used for the production of acrylonitrile. A summary in comic strip form is included.
Petróleos Mexicanos, Av. Marina National No.329, Edif. A. Colonia Huasteca, México D.F., C.P.11311, Mexico, 1981. 29p. Illus. suppl.

CIS 83-1328 Kaznina N.I., Zinov'eva N.P.
Gas-chromatographic method for determining acrylonitrile in air
Gazohromatografičeskij metod opredelenija akrilonitrila v vozduhe [in Russian]
Acrylonitrile is separated from other organic compounds on a 3mm-by-3m column of Chromaton N-AW with 15% Apiezon L and detected with a flame ionisation detector. Air to be sampled is drawn through a chilled U-tube containing a portion of the chromatographic medium. After a sufficient volume of air has been passed through the tube, the tube is connected to the chromatograph, heated and swept with carrier gas. As little as 0.025mg/m3 acrylonitrile can be detected. Other compounds typically present in workplace air in the plastics industry (styrene, ethyl acrylate, dimethylformamide, chloroprene and carbon tetrachloride) do not interfere in the determination.
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1981, No.7, p.51-52. 5 ref.

CIS 82-1918 Benson G.B., Boyce G.E.
A thermally-desorbable passive dosimeter for personal monitoring for acrylonitrile
Description of the Monsanto passive dosimeter in which the collection medium is a porous polymer contained in a removable element that is analysed by thermal desorption/gas chromatography. Details are given of the laboratory evaluation of the dosimeter's performance in measuring atmospheric concentrations of acrylonitrile (effects of orientation, air velocity, concentration, sampling duration, high concentrations, short exposure times and profiled exposure). Results of field trials in a manufacturing chemical plant environment are also reported. Application of the dosimeter to the measurement of other organic pollutants is also considered.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1981, Vol.24, No.1, p.55-75. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 82-1915 Warwick C.J., Bagon D.A., Purnell C.J.
Application of electrochemical detection to the measurement of free monomeric aromatic and aliphatic isocyanates in air by high-performance liquid chromatography
1-(2-Methoxyphenyl)piperazine is used as the electrogenic reagent in the determination. It forms electrochemically active derivatives with all of the isocyanates of occupational hygiene interest that are readily oxidised at carbon electrodes. These derivatives are strongly absorbing in the ultraviolet region, enabling a combination of electrochemical and ultraviolet detectors to be employed to provide additional qualitative information if required. Comparison is made between the electrochemical detection method and high-performance liquid chromatography - ultraviolet detection methods for isocyanate analysis. The electrochemical detection method was significantly more sensitive than UV detection methods for the determination of phenyl isocyanate, toluene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate and (4,4'-diisocyanatodiphenyl)methane in air.
Analyst, June 1981, Vol.106, p.676-685. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 82-1703 Gallagher J.S., Ted Tse C.S., Brooks S.M., Bernstein I.L.
Diverse profiles of immunoreactivity in toluene diisocyanate (TDI) asthma
Possible immunoreactivity to mono- and diisocyanate protein conjugates was evaluated in 15 workers with TDI asthma and 17 normal (non-exposed) volunteers. Leucocyte migration tests and measurement of specific IgE by RAST suggest that isocyanates have the potential for eliciting heterogeneous immune responses in certain subpopulations of exposed workers. Continued contact with isocyanates may be necessary for maintenance of specific immunity.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1981, Vol.23, No.9, p.610-616. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 82-1620 Acrylonitrile in air - Laboratory method using porous polymer adsorption tubes, and thermal desorption with gas chromatographic analysis
This data sheet provides information on the properties and toxicity of acrylonitrile and on associated hazards and first aid methods. In the determination method described, the upper limit of the useful range is set by the adsorption capacity of the porous polymer used and by the linear range of the gas chromatograph electrometer, and the lower limit is set by the thermal desorption blank of the adsorption tube. For 0.5g Porapak N, a maximum sample volume of 5l is recommended for concentrations ≤10ppm and relative humidity ≤90% at 20°C, and the blank should be better than the equivalent of 1l containing 10ppb acrylonitrile.
Directorate of Information and Advisory Services, Baynards House, 1 Chepstow Place, London W2 4TF, United Kingdom, Mar. 1981. 4p. 5 ref. Price: £0.50.

CIS 82-1684 Willhite C.C.
Inhalation toxicology of acute exposure to aliphatic nitriles
Mice were exposed for 60min to toxic air concentrations of acetonitrile (AN), proprionitrile (PN), or n-butyronitrile (BN), and were maintained for the following 14 days. The LC50 values for AN, PN, and BN were 2693, 163, and 249ppm respectively. Pre-treatment with sodium thiosulfate or sodium nitrite, 2 common inorganic cyanide antogonists, provided significant protection against the mortality associated with these exposures. Administration of the thiosulfate consistently provided greater protection than the nitrite. Pre-treatment with a hepatotoxic dose of carbon tetrachloride also provided protection. Inorganic cyanide antagonists can be administered to individuals poisoned by inhalation of AN, PN, or BN.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.8, p.991-1003. 36 ref.

CIS 82-1609 Purnell C.J., Walker R.F.
Methods for the determination of atmospheric isocyanates
Reported methods for the determination of aliphatic and aromatic isocyanates are discussed. Spectrophotometric methods provide a total isocyanate figure, but for mixtures of the monomer and prepolymer a calibration graph using similar standard mixtures is required. These methods are simple and inexpensive. Chromatographic methods are necessary to resolve the concentrations of individual isocyanates present in a mixture. High-performance thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography are the preferred techniques.
Analytical Proceedings, Nov. 1981, p.472-478. 35 ref.

CIS 82-1598 Karol M.H.
Survey of industrial workers for antibodies to toluene diisocyanate
Screening programme of 103 workers exposed 6-24 months to tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) concentrations <0.02ppm; 20 of the workers had acute exposures to TDI as a result of spills or splashes. Antibody responses by radioallergosorbent (RAST) test were observed only in some of the workers with an acute exposure history, and particularly in those whose acute exposure was accompanied by immediate respiratory symptoms and a decrease in FEV1 of 20% or greater. RAST test may be of value in routine serologic screening as an early warning of developing TDI hypersensitivity.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1981, Vol.23, No.11, p.741-747. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 82-1329 Acrylonitrile in air - Laboratory method using charcoal adsorption tubes and gas chromatography
This data sheet provides information on the properties and toxicity of acrylonitrile and on associated hazards and first-aid methods. The determination method described is suitable for long and short term sampling of acrylonitrile at concentrations of 1-50ppm in 20l samples of air at normal humidity taken on NIOSH charcoal tubes.
Directorate of Information and Advisory Services (IAS 5), Baynards House, 1 Chepstow Place, London W2 4TF, United Kingdom, Mar. 1981. 4p. 6 ref. Price: £0.50.

CIS 82-1363 Arslanian G.
Pathogenicity of isocyanates: Cross-sectional study of 38 workers exposed to diphenylmethane diisocyanate
Pathogénicité des isocyanates à propos d'une enquête transversale sur trente huit personnes exposées au diisocyanate de diphénylméthane (M.D.I.) [in French]
This MD thesis gives the results of an investigation carried out following the occurrence of 3 cases of occupational asthma due to isocyanates, comparing the results of clinical examinations and spirographic tests in 38 exposed workers and 38 worker controls from a nearby workshop, with considerations on the state of the art concerning the harmful effects of isocyanates, especially as regards lung disease. Stress is on OSH rules (wearing of personal protective equipment, periodic monitoring of diphenylmethane diisocyanate concentration in air), and the necessity to screen predisposed workers by pre-employment medical examinations, with regular medical examinations (clinical, lung function tests) of exposed workers.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Broussais Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1981. 55p. 31 ref.

CIS 82-1350 Weill H., Butcher B., Dharmarajan V., Glindmeyer H., Jones R., Carr J., O'Neil C., Salvaggio J.
Respiratory and immunologic evaluation if isocyanate exposure in a new manufacturing plant
Report of a study in which 168 wokers were examined prior to the start of work in a new toluene diisocyanate (TDI) plant and followed up together with newly recruited workers for a 5.5 years; the final study population was 277. TDI exposure was determined by personal monitors using the paper tape stain method for 8h measurement. Exposure levels were above current US TLV of 0.02ppm for 3% of exposure time. Detailed job histories gave cumulative exposure as a product of time and concentration. Pulmonary function changes for spirometric measurements, lung volumes and diffusing capacities were computed. Average annual FEV1 decline was 24ml/year. The effect of TDI exposure on FEV1 annual change was manifest in those who never smoked cigarettes. Clinically important bronchial hypersensitivity to TDI developed in 4.3% of the study population. TDI acts as a partial agonist on lymphocytes to stimulate adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels; lymphocytes of TDI sensitive individuals have decreased ability to respond to cyclic AMP stimuli.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 1981. 152p. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 82-1004 Hosein H.R., Farkas S.
Risk associated with the spray application of polyurethane foam
Exposure to isocyanate vapour and to dust and overspray of polyurethane foam was evaluated using personal and area sampling at sites where insulating foam was applied by spraying in confined spaces. Exposure to tolylene diisocyanate vapour was frequently ≥ 0.08ppm for personal samples and 0.148ppm for area samples. Organic vapour cartridge respirators used by the sprayers were covered with overspray. Helpers used protective plastic bags over the head which posed an oxygen-starvation hazard. Workers' necks, faces, hair and clothing were contaminated with polyurethane particles and dust. Recommendations are made for reductions of significant health hazards existing at these work sites.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1981, Vol.42, No.9, p.663-665. 14 ref.

CIS 82-998 Benson G.B., Boyce G.E., Haile D.M.
Industrial hygiene measurements for organic pollutants (acrylonitrile) using passive dosimeters and automated thermal desorption
Laboratory evaluation showed that at face velocities ≤24ft/min (7m/min) the response of the dosimeter, developed by Monsanto, was independent of orientation and face velocity, linear with respect to atmospheric concentrations, linear with respect to exposure time from 5min to 8h and not significantly affected by the presence of moisture. Response to step changes in concentrations of 30min duration agreed well with the theoretical values and no loss of acrylonitrile (AN) was observed when a previously exposed dosimeter was exposed to a flow of pure air for 16h. In plant evaluations, the dosimeter, used with a nitrogen-specific detector, gave results comparable with those obtained with the standard pump-and-tube method and had an acceptable precision in the range 0.5-2ppm. The dosimeter is being evaluated with an automatic thermal desorption system.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1981, Vol.24, No.4, p.367-373. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 82-734 Goldberg P.A., Walker R.F., Ellwood P.A., Hardy H.L.
Determination of trace atmospheric isocyanate concentrations by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using 1-(2-pyridyl)piperazine reagent
Aliphatic and aromatic isocyanates are determined in air by drawing a test atmosphere through a 2x10-4M solution of 1-(2-pyridyl)piperazine in toluene at a rate of 1l/min for 5-20min. The sample solution, in which the isocyanates form urea derivatives, is evaporated to dryness and an acetonitrile solutin of the residue is chromatographed using a column packed with ODS-Hypersil 5µm silica gel and eluted with an acetonitrile-0.1M ammonium acetae mobile phase at 2.0ml/minflow rate. The lower limit of detection for MDI and TDI is 0.5µg/m3 for a 10l air sample.
Journal of Chromatography, 1981, Vol.212, p.93-104. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 82-791 Israeli R., Smirnov V., Sculsky M.
Symptoms of intoxication due to dicyclohexyl-methane-4,4'-diisocyanate exposure
Vergiftungserscheinungen bei Dicyclohexyl-Methan-4,4'-Diisocyanat-Exposition [in German]
Dicyclohexylmethane 4,4'-diisocyanate (DMDI) is used for coating glass bottles to prevent injuries among bottle users. The production process is described and 3 cases of poisoning are studied. Eleven of 15 workers who were first exposed to DMDI showed allergic and non-allergic skin reactions. Six suffered from vertigo with or without headaches and 4 showed obstructive ventilatory disorders, tachycardia, and hypotension (ECG normal). All were treated with oral antihistamines and local steroid application. The signs of the intoxication disappeared after 10-14 days from the beginning of the treatment. There was no difference in the clinical syndrome between the atopic and the non-atopic workers. It seems that DMDI does not affect the respiratory tract as strongly as TDI. The chronic effects of DMDI and the organic isocyanates are discussed. The difficulties of measuring DMDI in air are explained (TLV = 0.003ppm).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.2, p.179-184. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 82-613
Fire Protection Association (UK)
Acetonitrile
Uses, hazards (highly flammable liquid; toxic; decomposition products are highly toxic); precautions (storage, marking; explosion venting; no smoking; prohibition of naked flames or hot elements; electrical equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres, with reference to British Standard Code of Practice); fire fighting; U.K. regulations; physical and chemical properties).
Fire Prevention, Dec. 1981, No.145, p.49-50.

CIS 82-748 Innocenti A., Franzinelli A., Sartorelli E.
Longitudinal study of workers suffering from polyurethane asthma
Studio longitudinale in lavoratori affetti da asma da resine poliuretaniche [in Italian]
In 37 polyurethane production workers with isocyanate asthma, examinations carried out 40 months after exposure had ceased showed that asthmatic symptoms had disappeared in 32 workers but that chronic bronchitis had developed in 6. The progressive impairment of ventilatory function was evaluated by measuring the decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1 after exposure had ceased. Mean annual decreases of 86.3 and 67.7ml, respectively, were observed. Tolylene diisocyanate induces chronic and irreversible lung damage even after exposure is discontinued and impairment of FVC is greater than that of FEV1.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1981, Vol.72, No.3, p.231-237. 43 ref.

CIS 82-439 Walker R.F., Pinches M.A.
Chemical interference effects in the measurement of atmospheric toluene diisocyanate concentrations when sampling with an impregnated paper tape
The effect of toluenediamine (TDA), and a range of solvents and catalysts, on the measurement of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) concentrations using a commercially available impregnated paper tape was evaluated. Low concentrations of TDA occurs as a hydrolysis product of TDI in polyurethane-producing factory atmospheres, produced a significant attenuation in the stain intensity formed by a given TDI concentration on MCM 4000 TDI paper tape. No interference effects were observed for the solvents and catalysts studied.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1981, Vol.42, No.5, p.392-397. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 82-434
National Board for Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen)
Isocyanates
Isocyanater [in Swedish]
Amended version of the directive AFS 1980:10 (CIS 80-1980). The amendments relate to the scope (does not apply to quantities of ≤250g isocyanates per year and per person), medical supervision (workers with pulmonary disorders and with an allergic predisposition should not be given work involving exposure to isocyanates). An appendix contains a medical questionnaire about the worker's lungs and smoking habits. A subsequent amendment (AFS 1981:20 of 10 Dec. 1981) limits the scope: the provisions do not apply where exposure to the isocyanate-containing substance does not exceed 1h per week, provided the product contains no gaseous propellant and is not under pressure, that mixing takes place in a sealed container and that operators wear disposable gloves. Duplicate of CIS 80-1940.
Publikationsservice, Fack, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 19 Feb. 1981. 20 + 5p. Gratis.

CIS 82-416 Hobara T., Kobayashi H., Higashihara E., Hirota H., Sakai T.
Health hazards due to exposure to low levels of toluene diisocyanate
Tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) concentrations in the workplace air of a plant producing polyurethane foam were measured. The serum IgE of 39 workers, and leucograms and pulmonary function tests in 20 workers showed: TDI workplace air concentrations were 0.017-0.021ppm, which was lower than the TLV. Serum IgE was significantly higher in TDI workers than in controls. Some of the workers with less than 1 year exposure to TDI showed significantly high serum IgE values. All these TDI-exposed workers with high serum IgE levels had symptoms of eosinophilia and obstructive ventilatory impairment. Summary and wording of all tables (serum IgE levels, leukograms, pulmonary function tests by flow-volume curve) in English.
Yamaguchi Igaku (Yamaguchi Medical Journal), Mar. 1981, Vol.30, No.1, p.87-91. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 82-412 Morel C., Gendre M., Cavigneaux A., Protois J.C.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité
Hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate
1,6-diisocyanate d'hexaméthylène [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards (low flammability, open-cup flashpoint: 135°C) and extinguishing agents, pathology and toxicology (inflammatory skin reaction, eye irritation, respiratory disorders, NIOSH TLV: 0.035mg/m3). Reference to the French occupational safety and health legislation and French and international transport regulations. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1981, No.105, p.633-636. 13 ref.

CIS 82-127
National Safety Council
Acetonitrile
Contents of this data sheet: properties; uses; hazards (toxicity by ingestion, inhalation, skin absorption; decomposition products are highly toxic; flammable liquid and vapours); flammability; reactivity; electrical installations for explosive atmospheres required; firefighting; shipping, handling and storage; tank entry; tank ventilation; work permits for tank entry; rescue, first aid; TLVs (OSHA: 70mg/m3; ACGIH: 70mg/m3 for 8-h TWA, 105mg/m3 short-term exposure limit); personal protective equipment; symptoms of exposure; medical precautions and treatment; pre-employment and annual medical examinations; handling spills; waste disposal; safety training.
444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1981. 6p. 24 ref.

CIS 82-215
Health and Safety Executive
Acrylonitrile: Personal protective equipment
Industrial uses of acrylonitrile; toxic effects (dermal and inhalation toxicity); UK TLV (2ppm for 8-h TWA); personal protective equipment to be worn by users, but not to be regarded as a substitute for proper engineering controls: protective clothing; eye and face shields - compliance with British Standard BS 2092; head protection and full body protection; respiratory protective equipment (canister type); source of further information. Appended: properties of acrylonitrile; policy statement by Health and Safety Commission.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Apr. 1981. 4p. Price: £0.50.

CIS 81-1933 Morel C., Gendre M., Limasset J.C., Cavigneaux A., Protois J.C.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut National de recherche et de sécurité)
Methyl isocyanate
Isocyanate de méthyle [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards (open-cup flashpoint: -7°C), pathology and toxicology (strongly irritant to skin, conjunctival tissue, respiratory tract; U.S. TLV: 0.05mg/m3). French OSH regulations; French and international regulations concerning transport. Recommendations for technical and medical prevention.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1981, No.104, p.451-454. 11 ref.

CIS 81-1622
Comité technique national des industries chimiques, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie
Health hazards of acrylonitrile
Risques pathologiques de l'acrylonitrile [in French]
This recommendation of the National Joint Technical Committee for the Chemical Industry (of the French National Health Insurance Fund), to remain provisionally in force for 2 years, was adopted on 11 Dec. 1980. It prescribes the measures to be taken by management to achieve zero exposure conditions: locating and eliminating acrylonitrile emissions; preventive maintenance of installations; personnel information on acrylonitrile hazards; wearing of personal protective equipment during operations where there is a significant risk of emissions occurring; informing the plant physician about the acrylonitrile hazard.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1981, No.103, Note No.1324-103-81 (Recommendation No.183), p.305-307.

CIS 81-1327 Mahieu J.C.
Production and use of polyurethane foams
Mise en oeuvre des mousses polyuréthanes. [in French]
This fact sheet gives a summary of basic information: succinct data on properties, uses and production methods; table of hazards and safety measures (poisoning, fire, chemical and thermal burns, explosions); relevant French legislation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1981, No.102, Note No.1304-102-81, p.69-72.

CIS 81-1088 Lob M., Boillat M.A.
Delayed asthma due to diphenylmethane diisocyanate
Asthme retardé au diphénylméthane-diisocyanate (MDI). [in French]
See CIS 72-2260 for a case study (Lob M.) on delayed asthma with fever due to this substance. The present article gives a more recent similar case study (following exposure while welding polyurethane belts) and 3 others which turned up in the course of an investigation in the various plants where these belts were used. In all these cases the workers concerned had been exposed to fumes given off during welding of the belts, using a hot plate. The fumes did not contain tolylene diisocyanate. Follows a review of the pyrolysis of polyurethanes and theories on the mechanism of respiratory disorders due to diisocyanates, emphasing the hazards of inhalation tests and the importance of occupational anamnesis in the case studies described.
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift - Journal suisse de médecine, 31 Jan. 1981, Vol.111, No.5, p.150-154. Illus. 23 ref.

1980

CIS 86-429 Toluene diisocyanate (TDI)
Diisocianato de tolueno (TDI) [in Portuguese]
Data sheet on toluene diisocyanate (TDI), containing information on: chemical composition, properties, main hazards, emergency measures, first-aid measures, handling and storage, and treatment of residues. The TLV in Brazil is: 0.016ppm (0.11mg/m3).
Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, CEP 05499 São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1980. 2p. Bibl.

CIS 84-773 Mazzella di Bosco M., Tarducci G., Esposito Iacenna V.
Health effects of hydrocyanic acid, cyanides, cyano compounds, cyanic acid and its esters
Contributo alla conoscenza della patologia da acido cianidrico, cianuri, composti del cianogeno, acido cianico e suoi esteri [in Italian]
Aspects reviewed are: pathogenesis (toxicological profiles of hydrocyanic acid; organic compounds such as nitriles; isocyanates), symptoms of acute poisoning, long-term exposure, first aid, prevention and biological monitoring. Conclusions: knowledge of the occupational pathology is relatively sparse, especially as regards the clinical picture of prolonged exposure; medical supervision of exposed subjects is not without difficulties even when methods of biological monitoring are available.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, Sept.-Dec. 1980, Vol.6, Nos.5-6, p.685-700. 60 ref.

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