Cyano compounds - 577 entries found
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Johnson A., Chan-Yeung M., Maclean L., Atkins E., Dybuncio A., Cheng F., Enarson D.
Respiratory abnormalities among workers in an iron and steel foundry
A study of the health of 78 workers in an iron and steel foundry in British Columbia (Canada), and of 372 controls (workers in a railway repair yard). The foundry workers were exposed to the chemical binding system PepSet, consisting of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), phenol formaldehyde, and a catalyst containing a pyridine derivative. They were also exposed to silica particulates. The study included a questionnaire survey, chest radiography, allergy skin tests, pulmonary function tests, methacholine inhalation tests, and measurements of dust and MDI levels. The foundry workers had significantly more respiratory symptoms and significantly lower respiratory function indicators than did the controls. 3 of the workers had radiographic signs of pneumoconiosis and 12 had asthma, probably caused by sensitisation to MDI.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1985, Vol.42, No.2, p.94-100. 31 ref.
Rando R.J., Hammad Y.Y.
Modified Marcali method for the determination of total toluenediisocyanate in air
The Marcali method for measuring airborne toluenediisocyanate (TDI) was evaluated for its response to the 2 isomers of the compound. The absorbance of the chromophore obtained from 2,6-TDI is about 47% lower than that from the 2,4-isomer when measured at 550nm. A simple modification of the method involving changes in diazotisation time and temperature is proposed to eliminate the isomer effect.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1985, Vol.46, No.4, p.206-210. Illus. 7 ref.
Gee J.B., Morgan W.K.C.
A 10-year follow-up study of a group of workers exposed to isocyanates
The changes in the ventilatory capacity of 68 workers continuously exposed to toluene diisocyanate and diphenylmethane diisocyanate were determined during the period 1971-1981. No significant respiratory function decrement during workshifts was noted in any of the subjects. Isocyanate levels were below the exposure limits in use.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1985, Vol.27, No.1, p.15-18. 11 ref.
Respirator cartridge evaluation for isocyanate-containing Imron and Centari enamels
Imron and Centari enamels are spray painting formulations used widely in auto-body repair shops. The paint activator contains about 33% of a polyaliphatic isocyanate derived from hexamethylene diisocyanate. Organic vapour respirator cartridges were exposed to atmospheres containing the paints in spray form during laboratory tests. Breakthrough for the paint solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate) occurred after 10 to 15h. Isocyanate breakthrough did not occur for either paint, even after 25h exposure. The experiment suggests that organic vapour respirator cartridges could be used for protection against isocyanates during spray painting. The smell of the solvent breakthrough would serve as an alarm well before reaching the breakthrough time for the isocyanate.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1985, Vol.46, No.1, p.39-44. 5 ref.
Commission of the European Communities
Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals: Acrylonitrile, aluminium, chromium, copper, styrene, xylene, zinc
The available data on the human health effects, metabolism and biological indicators of these substances are reviewed. Conclusions reached: determination of the compound (or its metabolites) in urine may be used for evaluating exposure to acrylonitrile, water soluble chromium compounds, styrene and xylene; aluminium serum levels seem to be an indicator of the body burden and concentration in urine seems to be an indicator of current exposure; no sufficiently reliable biological indicators appear to be available for evaluating exposure to copper or zinc.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1984. 110p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Akrylnitril [in Norwegian]
Chemical safety information sheet. Irritates the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Rapidly assimilated by the body through inhalation, the skin or by swallowing. Carcinogenic. Exposure limit: Administrative standard (Norway, 1984) = 4mg/m3. Acute poisoning hinders the oxygen uptake of the cells.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, Rev. ed., Jan. 1984. 4p.
Asetonisyanohydriini [in Finnish]
Acetone cyanohydrin is a very toxic liquid (LD50 = 17mg/kg). It is absorbed through the skin. It irritates the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Symptoms of acute poisoning are headache, nausea and respiratory paralysis. Can inhibit cell respiration, which can be fatal. Mandatory European labelling: T, R26, R27, R28, S7, S9, S27, S45.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Oct. 1984. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Two-year observation of pulmonary function in workers exposed to low concentrations of toluene diisocyanate
Pulmonary effects were investigated in 106 workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 39 referents in 1980 and in 64 exposed workers and 21 referents in the 2-year follow-up study ending in 1982. Individual, time-weighted average (TWA) exposure concentrations measured by personal monitors averaged approximately 0.001ppm in each year. No differences were observed in the means of the pulmonary functions and their individual daily changes between the TDI workers and the referents. The incidence of respiratory symptoms in the TDI workers was not significantly higher than in the referents, but there was irritation of the eyes and throat probably due to peak exposure to TDI and/or co-existing irritants. These results suggest that TDI exposure at the 0.001ppm level does not produce adverse pulmonary effects except in cases of hypersensitivity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.55, No.1, p.1-12. 26 ref.
Koerselman W., van der Graaf M.
Acrylonitrile: A suspected human carcinogen
Review of the literature on the carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile (an important intermediate in the chemical industry). Main conclusions: acrylonitrile has genotoxic effects in various tests in microorganisms and in mammal cells, chronic exposure to acrylonitrile causes tumours in rats; results of epidemiological studies indicate that acrylonitrile may be a human carcinogen. Acrylonitrile is very probably carcinogenic to humans. Therefore a reduction of acrylonitrile standards to the lowest practicable limit and frequent personnel monitoring are recommended.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.54, No.4, p.317-324. 41 ref.
Regulation respecting acrylonitrile made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act
The regulation prescribes acrylonitrile as a designated substance under the 1980 Occupational health and safety act of Ontario. The regulation includes codes for respiratory equipment, the measurement of airborne acrylonitrile, and medical surveillance of exposed workers. The time weighted exposure limit is set at 2ppm (4.3mg/m3) with a 10ppm (21.7mg/m3) ceiling limit.
Ministry of Labour, Occupational Health and Safety Division, Ontario, Canada, 1984. 53p.
Biological effect of exposure to carbon fibre dust (experimental data)
Izučenie biologičeskogo dejstvija pylej uglerodnyh voloknistyh materialov na organizm (ėksperimental'nye dannye) [in Russian]
In laboratory experiments, exposure of animals to dust of carbon fibre materials made on the basis of acrylonitrile and cellulose hydrate produced slight pulmonary fibrosis and irritation of the lung tissue and respiratory tract. The dust of carbon fibres obtained from acrylonitrile had a stronger fibrogenic effect than the dust of carbon fibres obtained from cellulose hydrate. The data provide a basis for establishing a MAC for both dusts, i.e. 4mg/m3. Preventive measures have been elaborated.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1984, No.3, p.30-32. 3 ref.
Sciarra G., Innocenti A., Bozzi N.
Comparison of three methods of sampling and analysis of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in air
Confronto di tre metodi di campionamento e analisi del toluen-diisocianato (TDI) in aria [in Italian]
High-performance liquid chromatography was slightly more sensitive and accurate in the determination of TDI concentration in a laboratory exposure chamber than were colorimetry and continuous-tape monitoring. When rapid response time is necessary (such as during a bronchial provocation test), continuous-tape monitoring is to be preferred.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1984, Vol.75, No.6, p.491-496. Illus. 13 ref.
Gončarova L.N., Čirkov V.V., Rudakova L.E.
Effect of acrylonitrile production on the function of some endocrine glands
Vlijanie proizvodstva nitrila akrilovoj kisloty na funkciju nekotoryh želez vnutrennej sekrecii [in Russian]
The functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system and the glucocorticoid function of the adrenals were determined in 123 workers with different lengths of exposure to acrylonitrile. Thyrotropic hormone, triiodothyronine and total and bound thyroxine were determined in the blood of the subjects, and the iodine-binding function of the thyroid was tested with the radioisotope iodine-131. Clinical examinations were also carried out. Acrylonitrile (and the prussic acid that is frequently present with it) apparently inhibits thyroid function, even at low levels. The effect increases with length of exposure. The reduced level of thyroid hormones stimulates the production of thyrotropin, which entails enlargement of the thyroid. Blood cortisol levels were highly variable, but tended to decrease with length of service.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1984, No.5, p.23-25. 7 ref.
Aspects covered in this data sheet: properties, uses and hazards; fire fighting; shipping, handling and storage; tank entry (preparation, entering the tank, ventilation, work permits, tank rescue); exposure limits, air sampling; ventilation; protective equipment; training; symptoms of exposure; medical precautions and first aid; specific medical procedures; medical examination; handling spills; waste disposal.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, Rev. 1984. 6p. Illus. 2 ref. Bibl.
Baruffini A., Cirla A., Pisati G., Sala C.
TDI-induced occupational asthma in workers touching up textile printing frames
Asma professionale da toluendiisocianato nei ritoccatori di quadri per la stampa dei tessuti [in Italian]
Case study of 3 workers in the textile printing industry who developed bronchial asthma. The workers' job involved touching up the printing frame using polyurethane paints containing low levels (below 0.7%) of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI). The symptoms and clinical diagnostic signs of the asthma were similar to those of TDI asthma in other industries. Diagnosis was on the basis of clinical examination and the specific bronchial challenge test. The airways reaction was non-immediate.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1984, Vol.75, No.5, p.393-398. Illus. 15 ref.
Collinson J.G., Rajhans G.S.
Automotive body repair shop hazards
Five auto body shops in Ontario were surveyed to determine the degree of hazard associated with the use of isocyanate-containing paints and hardeners. Free isocyanate levels ranged from <0.001ppm to 0.003ppm. However, the combined exposure to monomeric and polymeric forms of isocyanates in paints could reach levels >0.005ppm. Suggestions are made regarding other hazards (noise, solvents, pigments, body fillers), exhaust ventilation and personal respiratory protection.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Oct. 1984, Vol.5, No.4, p.156-171. Illus. 10 ref.
Candura F., Moscato G.
Do amines induce occupational asthma in workers manufacturing polyurethane foams?
12 workers occupationally exposed to polyurethane foams and with symptoms of wheezing and breathlessness were subjected to a bronchial provocation test with methacholine (to establish a dose-response curve), toluenediisocyanate (TDI) at 0.01ppm, and toluenediamine (TDA) at 1.31mg/m3 and at 3.21mg/m3. High sensitivity to methacholine (positive response below 1000g administered) was shown in 10 subjects. All the subjects had positive reactions to TDI, and none of them responded to TDA at either concentration. These data suggest that TDI is the agent for the respiratory symptoms, and that TDA does not produce asthma.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1984, Vol.41, No.4, p.552-553. Illus. 10 ref.
Holness D.L., Broder I., Corey P.N., Booth N., Mozzon D., Guirguis S., Nazar M.A.
Respiratory variables and exposure-effect relationships in isocyanate-exposed workers
Respiratory variables were compared in 95 workers exposed to tolylene diisocyanate in the production of plastic foam and 37 control workers. Exposed workers had a higher frequency of cough and shortness of breath and a significantly lower frequency of family history of asthma, hay fever and bronchitis. The exposed workers had slightly lower baseline lung function than the controls but demonstrated significantly larger declines in their pulmonary function over the work shift. Both groups showed some intraday and intraweek variation in lung function. Changes in lung function over the work shift varied with job category, with the largest occurring in finishing-area workers. A gradation of response was observed when exposure was categorised as nil, low, or high, but no exposure-effect relationship was demonstrated by regression analysis of area or personal results.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1984, Vol.26, No.6, p.449-455. 30 ref.
Paint products containing isocyanates
Verfprodukten die isocyanaten bevatten [in Dutch]
Introduction on the isocyanates contained in certain two-component paints (isocyanates + hydroxyacrylates, isocyanates + hydroxyesters or hydroxyethers, isocyanate-tar combinations) and in one-component wire enamels with blocked isocyanates, and on their nomenclature. The main health hazard is sensitisation, with differing effects according to whether a person is sensitised or not. Preventive measures include good natural ventilation and, if work is done indoors or when the paint is sprayed, mechanical ventilation and wearing of respiratory protective equipment. Other aspects covered are disposal of isocyanate spills, isocyanate-impregnated rags and empty containers, cleaning of work clothing, removal of old paint coats, welding and cutting of painted structures, soldering of enamelled wire, dealing with fires in stores and workshops, labelling of products, first aid, TLVs, medical surveillance, Dutch legislation and data sheets.
De veiligheid, Aug. 1984, Vol.60, No.8, p.391-399. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Isocyanates: Toxic hazards and precautions
This round-up of the health hazards posed by exposure to the isocyanates covers: toxic effects; the control limits adopted in the United Kingdom on 1 Feb. 1983 (8h TWA: 0.02mg/m3, 10min TWA: 0.07mg/m3, both expressed in terms of free isocyanate groups; medical supervision; first aid; protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment; legislative requirements; properties of commonly used isocyanates (toluene diisocyanate, diphenylmethanediisocyanate, isocyanate pre-polymers); storage and handling; toxic hazards and precautions associated with specific processes using isocyanates (flexible foams, rigid foams, other uses).
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, Mar. 1984. 10p. 11 ref. Price: £1.50.
Rosenberg C., Tuomi T.
Airborne isocyanates in polyurethane spray painting: Determination and respirator efficiency
Samples were collected on reagent impregnated glassfiber filters and analysed by HPLC. Average recoveries of the HDI monomer (hexamethylenediisocyanate) and the HDI oligomer were 97 and 92% respectively. Measured concentrations of HDI in air exceeded frequently the exposure limit of 0.07mg/m3 in use in Finland. The sampling technique was used to measure HDI levels inside various types of respirators worn by the painters. The respirators with only chemical cartridges were efficient in retaining the monomer but an average 40% penetration was measured for the oligomer. A combination of filter and chemical cartridge was efficient in retaining both contaminants.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.117-121. 21 ref.
Bagon D.A., Warwick C.J., Brown R.H.
Evaluation of total isocyanate-in-air method using 1-(2 methoxyphenyl)piperazine and HPLC
This high-pressure liquid chromatography method has been developped to meet the requirements of the "common control limit" for workplace exposure to all isocyantes recently promulgated in the United Kingdom (20µg NCO/m3 for an 8h TWA). It has been modified to measure both the monomer and prepolymer. A dual detection system (electrochemical and UV) is used to identify the isocyanate derivatives and quantify them by reference to a monomer standard. The precision of the method is >10% over the range 35 to 140µg(NCO)/m3 for a 10min sample. Accuracy is ±19%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1984, Vol.45, No.1, p.39-43. 6 ref.
Baur X., Dewair M., Römmelt H.
Acute airway obstruction followed by hypersensitivity pneumonitis in an isocyanate (MDI) worker
Case study of a man who had developed an acute asthmatic reaction followed by hypersensitivity pneumonitis after occupational exposure to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), used in the manufacture of polyurethane foam. Challenge testing by MDI and the detection of specific IgG antibodies to various isocyanate-human serum albumin conjugates suggest immunological cross-reactivity between different isocyanates.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1984, Vol.24, No.4, p.285-287. Illus. 11 ref.
Bertrand J.P., Wantz J.M., Heintz P., Zitter M.
Pathologic conditions related to the use of isocyanates in Lorraine coal mines
Pathologie liée à l'utilisation des isocyanates dans les mines de charbon de Lorraine [in French]
Diisocyanates of the type 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), used to consolidate brittle ground, cause acute skin contact problems, particularly in the upper part of the body, with frequent involvement of the eyes. Asthma-like respiratory problems also occur, accompanied by an obstructive syndrome or by alveolocapillary exchange impairment. An immunological mechanism is involved. An epidemiologic survey showed no evidence of significant differences between exposed and unexposed miners, or between affected workers and controls, as far as average vital capacity values, FEV1 values and the FEV1/VC ratio are considered. With the increasing use of polyurethane, phenol-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde resins, it is recommended that occupational health services extend their preventive measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, no.1, p.3-9. 16 ref.
Presently known occupational hazards of acrylonitrile
Risques professionnels actuellement connus concernant l'acrylonitrile [in French]
This MD thesis summarises the physical and chemical properties, methods of analysis, means of production, industrial uses, possibilities of occupational exposure, metabolism, mechanism of action, fire hazards, and pathological effects of acute, subacute and chronic exposure in man and animals, as well as the methods of detection and determination in the workplace, exposure limits (4ppm for an 8h day, 5 days per week), methods of treatment depending on types of contamination, technical and medical preventive measures, regulations and recommendations covering safety and health in the workplace, neighbourhood protection, transport and waste disposal. Acrylonitrile is a potential carcinogen, as suggested by long-term animal experiments, case studies and epidemiological data. Determination of urinary mercapturic acids seems to be a promising means of biologically monitoring exposed workers.
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de Médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1983. 176p. 58 ref.
Girard-Wallon C., Aubrun J.C.
Organic sulfur derivatives
Dérivés organiques du soufre [in French]
This general review, divided into 6 sections on the basis of functional groups, covers thiols (mercaptans), thiahydrocarbons, sulfides, disulfides, episulfides, hydroxymercaptans and derivatives, sulfoxides, sulfones, sultones, sulfonates, sulfates, thioamides, thio amino acids, sulfamides, thiocarbamides, thiocarbamates, thiocyanates, thiazoles, thiazines, and thiohalogenated and thiophosphorylated compounds, indicating for each class its physical and chemical properties, industrial uses and toxicity. A final section covers preventive and protective measures: exposure limits where these are defined, determination of concentrations in the workplace, compensation in industry and agriculture, and diseases defined as occupational.
Encycolpédie médico-chirurgicale, 18, rue Seguier, 75006 Paris, France, 1983. Intoxications, 16058 U10, 10-1983, 16p. 35 ref.
Akryylinitriili [in Finnish]
Acrylonitrile is a carcinogenic, extremely flammable and toxic liquid (LD50 = 82mg/kg; TLV = 43mg/m3). Can explode when reacting with peroxides, strong acids and bases, amines and bromine. Contact irritates the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Inhalation is toxic. Symptoms are nausea, vomiting, breathing difficulties. Mandatory European labelling: F, T, R11, R23, R24, R25, R103, S9, S16, S27, S29, S44, S103.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Jan. 1983. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Mavrina E.A., Žigalina V.N., Loginova L.A., Orlova L.I., Prošina O.V.
Biochemical criteria of exposure to acrylonitrile
Nekotorye biohimičeskie kriterii vozdejstvija nitrila akrilovoj kisloty na organizm [in Russian]
160 workers in the manufacture of polyacrylonitrile (nitron) fibre showed autosensitisation and allergic disorders, although the concentration of acrylonitrile in the workplace atmosphere was close to the MAC. Elevated blood levels of serotonin, adrenaline and noradrenaline were found. Concentrations of oxidised glutathione, of the anaerobic form of lactate dehydrogenase and of coeruloplasmin, and the activity of cholinesterase were higher than in a control group. Thus, the hypoxic and hepatotoxic effects of acrylonitrile are evident even at concentrations close to the MAC. Preventive measures should be implemented in nitron manufacture.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1983, No.3, p.23-25. 5 ref.
Regulation respecting isocyanates - made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act
This regulation presented in booklet form includes: the scope of the regulation in which the TWA exposure limit to all isocyanates is set at 0.005ppm or 0.2 micromole isocyanates/m3 with a ceiling value of 0.02ppm or 0.8 micromole isocyanates/m3 of air; a code of respiratory protective equipment for isocyanates; a code for sampling and analysing airborne isocyanates; a code of medical surveillance of workers.
Ontario Ministry of Labour, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 400 University Ave., Toronto, Ontario M7A 1T7, Canada, 1983. 79p.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Contents: summary and recommendations for further research; properties and analytical methods; sources and levels of industrial and environmental exposure; chemobiokinetics and metabolism; biological monitoring; effects on experimental animals and cell systems; effects on man; evaluation of health risks to humans. English version may be obtained from: World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1983. 125p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.12.00.
Andersson K., Gudéhn A., Hallgren C., Levin J.O., Nilsson C.A.
Monitoring 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate in air by chemosorption sampling
A sampling procedure in which 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is trapped on a chemosorption tube containing 9-(N-methylaminomethyl)anthracene adsorbed on Amberlite XAD-2 is described. Simultaneous sampling with a fritted-glass bubbler and by the chemosorption technique at 2 factories using HDI as a hardener in two-component paints showed equal collection efficiencies when 3.5-22l air samples were used. For samples >20l, the collection efficiency of the fritted-glass bubbler decreased. Additional peaks in the chromatogram from the solvent sampler are believed to be due to polymeric derivatives of HDI.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1983, Vol.9, No.6, p.497-503. Illus. 22 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Isocyanates - Medical surveillance
Contents of this guidance note: Clinical effects of exposure to isocyanates (effects on the eyes, skin, respiratory system); appropriate tests for the pre-employment examination and the periodic examination of workers exposed to isocyanates; interpretation of spirometric results; first aid instructions.
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, Aug. 1983. 3p. 6 ref. Price: £0.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Organic isocyanates in air - Laboratory method using 1-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine solution and high performance liquid chromatography
Contents of this guidance note: Properties, uses, toxicity and first aid in case of massive exposure to organic isocyanates; determination method (sampling through a glass impinger containing the absorbing solution of 1-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine; the organic isocyanates react to form urea derivatives; the resulting solution is concentrated and analysed with a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with an ultraviolet and an electrochemical detector; the total isocyanate concentration is calculated from the sum of all isocyanate-derived chromatograph peaks). Scope: suitable for measurement over periods in the range of 10min to 8h, both for personal and area sampling. Analytical range: 7-140µg NC0/m3 for 10l air samples. Precision: 10%. Aromatic amines and the presence of several isocyanate types will provide interference.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, Mar. 1983. 5p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: £1.00.
Andersson K., Gudehn A., Levin J.O., Nilsson C.A.
A comparative study of solvent and solvent-free sampling methods for airborne 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) generated in polyurethane production
The sampling systems evaluated in the field were: glass fibre filters; cellulose acetate filters; XAD-2 sorbent and natural sponge impregnated with 9-(N-methylaminomethyl)anthracene (MAMA); glass fibre filters impregnated with N-p-nitrobenzyl-N-n-propylamine (NBPA); impingers containing MAMA in toluene, NBPA in toluene, and dimethylformamide-HCl solutions. All the solvent-free methods were effective in trapping MDI in the gas or aerosol phase when tested in the laboratory, but collection efficiencies in the field were low. It seems that MDI produced by polyurethane production processes is not generated as a simple gas or aerosol. Further work is needed to identify the other isocyanate species generated.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1983, Vol.44, No.11, p.802-808. 20 ref.
Innocenti A., Paggiaro P.L.
A case of occupational asthma due to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)
Un caso di asma professionale da difenilmetano-diisocianato) (MDI) [in Italian]
The case history of a man producing polyurethane shoe soles is presented, together with the results of bronchial provocation tests in which no cross-reaction between MDI and toluene diisocyanate was found.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1983, Vol.74, No.5, p.391-393. Illus. 15 ref.
Belin L., Wass U., Audunsson G., Mathiasson L.
Amines: possible causative agents in the development of bronchial hyperreactivity in workers manufacturing polyurethanes from isocyanates
Environmental concentrations of amines and isocyanates and health investigations of 48 workers producing polyurethane foam are reported. They showed increased bronchial reactivity to inhaled methacholine compared with 2 control groups. This and visual disturbances were assumed to be caused mainly by volatile amines. Isocyanate concentrations were well below 0.005ppm, and the amine concentration was 1000-10,000 times higher. N-methylmorpholine was present in concentrations >10ppm. Thus not only isocyanates, but also amines, might be responsible for respiratory symptoms in polyurethane workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.251-257. Illus. 44 ref.
Conso F., Gibaud G., Girard-Wallon C., Alix M., Proteau J.
Occupational poisoning by a herbicide contanining ioxynil
Intoxication professionnelle par une préparation herbicide contenant de l'ioxynil [in French]
Case study of serious ioxynil poisoning in agriculture occurring after spraying with a herbicide. Problems of diagnosis and the recognition of such poisoning as a compensable disease in France are discussed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.8, p.585-586. 4 ref.
White I.R., Stewart J.R., Rycroft R.J.G.
Allergic contact dermatitis from an organic diisocyanate
Allergic contact dermatitis occurring in 6 of 7 women exposed to dicyclohexylmethane 4,4'-diisocyanate used to form a surface-coating polyurethane on car badges is reported. The chief problem was the need to apply resin to part of the badges by hand on account of their particular shape.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1983, Vol.9, No.4, p.300-303. Illus. 4 ref.
Johnsson M., Buhagen M., Leira H.L., Solvang S.
Fungicide-induced contact dermatitis
An epidemic of contact dermatitis in a wood products factory attributed to tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (TCPN) is related. 14 of 20 workers had work-related skin complaints, half of which were of allergic origin. TCPN appears to have strong irritant and allergenic properties.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1983, Vol.9, No.4, p.285-288. Illus. 7 ref.
Ameille J., Lebeau B., Tisnes J., Orvoen-Frija E., Rochemaure J., Proteau J.
Organic isocyanates and hypersensitivity pneumopathies
Isocyanates organiques et pneumopathies d'hypersensibilité [in French]
Case study of hypersensitivity pneumopathy due to inhalation of hexamethylene diisocyanate by a garage employee occasionally engaged in spray painting. Symptoms, radiological observations, and results of bronchial lavage and respiratory function tests are compared with data in the literature. The scarcity of reports on this response to isocyanates probably causes the true incidence to be underestimated. Greater awareness of the hazard should promote preventive measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.7, p.477-481. Illus. 28 ref.
Beving H., Malmgren R., Olsson P., Tornling G., Unge G.
Increased uptake of serotonin in platelets from car painters occupationally exposed to mixtures of solvents and organic isocyanates
12 car painters and a control group of 50 non-exposed subjects were studied. The mean platelet count in the exposed workers was markedly lower, and 3 had values below the 95% tolerance interval limit of the controls. In 9 workers the serotonin uptake rates were significantly elevated. The method can be used to reveal early organ damage before appearance of clinical symptoms.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1983, Vol.9, No.3, p.253-258. Illus. 30 ref.
Methods of sampling and analysis of amines and isocyanates
Provtagnings- och analysmetoder för aminer och isocyanater [in Swedish]
Methods of sampling and analysis of these substances are surveyed, for purposes of coordinating research: analytical methods for isocyanates (colorimetry, liquid-liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography - by electron-capture detection or by N,P detector, continuous analytical methods: filter tape, photoacoustic spectroscopy, Fourier-transform spectroscopy); analytical methods for amines (liquid-liquid chromatography, infrared spectrophotometry, isotachophoresis, gas chromatography, derivative-detection methods); sampling methods for isocyanates (adsorption, chemosorption, sorbent-free sampling) and for amines (absorption, chemosorption, adsorption). Suggestions for a plan of action during analysis. Description of the sampling method recommended by the Swedish OSH authorities in 1980. Current research projects are listed.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, Apr. 1983. 39p. Illus. 2 ref.
Silk S.J., Hardy H.L.
Control limits for isocyanates
The UK Health and Safety Commission has introduced (effective 1 Feb. 1983) a unified 2-part control limit for exposure to isocyanates (2,4 and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methylene 4,4'-diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), and related compounds such as hexamethylene-1,6 diisocyanate (HDI). The limits are an 8h TWA of 20µg NCO/m3 (0.005ppm) and a 10min TWA of 70µg NCO/m3 (0.02ppm) for the 3 compounds given. The development of exposure limits to these compounds are outlined and the calculation of the standards for the aliphatic prepolymer are explained.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1983, Vol.27, No.4, p.333-339. Illus. 13 ref.
Pontal P.G., Bismuth C.
Cyanides and toxic cyano compounds
Cyanures et toxiques cyanogéniques [in French]
This update of a medical encyclopaedia article covers the cyanides and toxic cyano compounds, including hydrocyanic acid, its salts (both dissociating and those that do not dissociate easily), the halogenated derivatives of cyanogen, the cyanogen glucosides and nitriles. Aspects covered: definitions, sources, absorption paths into the body, metabolism, physiopathology of cyanide poisoning. Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic cyanide poisoning are given.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 18, rue Seguier, 75006 Paris, France. Oct. 1983. Intoxications, maladies par agents physiques, 16048 C20, 4p. 29 ref.
Bishop R.W., Ayers T.A., Esposito G.G.
A gas chromatographic procedure for the determination of airborne MDI and TDI
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are collected in midget impingers containing 10cm3 of absorbing solution (3.5% HCl + 2.2% acetic acid in H2O). Total sampling volumes between 20 and 60l at 1l/min are recommended. The hydrolysed diisocyanates are converted to free diamines with caustic and extracted into toluene. The diamines are then derivatised with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, and the derivatives are analysed by gas-liquid chromatography using an electron-capture detector. The method is specific for the 2 diisocyanates; recoveries and coefficients of variation are respectively 102% and 3.8% for MDI and 70% and 4.3% for TDI. Detection limits in air for a 40l sample are 5µg/m3 for MDI and 3.5µg/m3 for TDI.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1983, Vol.44, No.3, p.151-155. Illus. 13 ref.
L'asthme aux isocyanates [in French]
Contents of this M.D thesis: (I) review of bronchial asthma: definition, physiopathology, clinical picture, differential diagnosis, respiratory function tests, treatment; (II) isocyanates: characteristics, identification, methods of determination in air, polyurethanes made from isocyanates; (III) pulmonary pathology due to isocyanates as illustrated by 9 case studies: symptomatology, action mechanism of the isocyanates, detection and progress of the disease, prevention (legal aspects, medical supervision, individual and collective protection).
Université Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Xavier-Bichat, Paris, France, 1983. 105p. 23 ref.
Andersson K., Gudéhn A., Hallgren C., Levin J.O., Nilsson C.A.
Sampling and analysis of organic substances on the threshold limit values list - XII. Chemisorption of gaseous diisocyanates
Provtagning och analys av organiska ämnen på gränsvärdeslistan - XII. Kemosorption av gasformiga diisocyanater [in Swedish]
Contents of this research report: evaluation of different methods used for the sampling and analysis of diisocyanatges; results showing the efficiency of desorption of different diisocyanates sampled by chemisorption; solvents, chemicals and solutions used; analytical technique; chemisorption and desorption technique; reproductions of chromatograms; descriptions of specific methods for hexamethylene, diphenylmethane, and tolylene diisocyanates.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 11p. Illus. 10 ref.
Experimental studies of the biological effects of TDI - An inhalation study in skin-sensitised mice
An investigation of the biological effects of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI), used in the polyurethane industry. Allergic dermatitis was developed in mice by sensitisation to TDI, following which the mice were exposed to TDI vapour to see if a delayed type allergy plays a role in lung disorders caused by TDI. At a concentration of 0.6ppm, inhaled for 2h, allergic dermatitis did develop, but without noticeable pathological change in the respiratory organs.
Journal of Tokyo Women's Medical College, Mar. 1983, Vol.53, No.3, p.237-246. Illus. 30 ref.
A case of occupational poisoning in an agricultural environment. Use of a herbicide containing Ioxynil. Parallel with other substances acting on cellular respiration.
A propos d'un cas d'intoxication professionnelle en milieu agricole. Utilisation d'une préparation herbicide contenant de l'Ioxynil. Parallèle avec d'autres substances agissant sur la respiration cellulaire. [in French]
A general review of occupational poisonings, the special features of agricultural poisonings and their prevention and compensation, this medical thesis studies the herbicide presumed responsible for the poisoning ("Belgran" which contains 3 active ingredients - isoproturon, mecoprop and ioxynil - each of which are studied separately); only ioxynil seemed to have been responsible for the toxic action of the product. A detailed clinical account is given of the case and the similarities with other known cases of ioxynil poisoning and of poisoning with nitro- or chloro-derivatives of phenol or cresol which have the same inhibiting action on oxidative phosphorylation. Following a chapter on the physiopathology of the poisoning, a comparison is made with other cases that have occurred during production of the same product. Discussion of various possible aetiologies of the varying symptomatology shown by the patient during the poisoning.
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Broussais - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1983. 114p. 45 ref.
Labour Inspectorate (Arbeidsinspectie)
Acrylonitrile - Technical and occupational hygiene provisions
Acrylnitril - Technisch-arbeidshygiënische voorzieningen [in Dutch]
Sections of this data sheet cover: physical properties, decomposition products and toxicity (first aid and emergency treatment in the event of acute poisoning); TLVs (4ppm TWA, 10ppm for a 15min peak exposure); monitoring of the exposure level (air sampling programme, recording and feed-back of results; measuring procedures for monitoring various exposure situations); determination of acrylonitrile concentrations in air using personal or stationary samplers; determination of potential peak exposures; leak detection; personal protective equipment; technical prevention (sampling systems, measures to be taken before carrying out cleaning or maintenance work or in the case of leaks through seals); storage and transfer; emergency organisation; occupational and personal hygiene.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1983. 52p. Illus. 15 ref.
Decree No.83-71 of 2 Feb. 1983 to amend and complement the occupational disease schedules attached to Decree No.46-2959 of 31 Dec. 1946
Décret n°83-71 du 2 février 1983 révisant et complétant les tableaux de maladies professionnelles annexés au décret n°46-2959 du 31 déc. 1946 [in French]
Two new schedules have been added: No.72 relates to diseases caused by exposure to nitrate derivatives of glycol and glycerol; No.73 to occupational diseases caused by antimony and its compounds. Modifications were made to: schedule No.2 (mercury and compounds); No.31 (aminoglycosides); No.32 (fluorine, hydrogen fluoride and its mineral salts); No.33 (beryllium and compounds); No.52 (diseases due to vinyl chloride polymerisation processes); No.62 (organic isocyanates); No.65 (eczematous lesions with an allergic mechanism of action).
Journal officiel de la République française, 6 Feb. 1983, p.495-499.
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