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Cyano compounds - 577 entries found

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1986

CIS 87-279 Grenouillet P., Lavenant D., Picot A., Bertin O.
Bhopal: fault-tree analysis
Bhopal: l'arbre des causes [in French]
Fault-tree analysis of the circumstances and known facts connected with the Bhopal disaster.
Préventique, Aug.-Sep.-Oct. 1986, No.10, p.17-24. Illus.

CIS 87-96 Isocyanates
Chemical identity; potential exposure; exposure limits; properties; health effects; industrial hygiene practices and control; personal protective equipment; fire, explosions, dangerous combinations; storage, spillage, disposal, transport.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, Aug. 1986. 2p.

CIS 87-64 Acrylonitrile
Chemical identity; potential exposure; exposure limits; properties; health effects (carcinogen); industrial hygiene practices and control; personal protective equipment; fire, explosions, dangerous combinations; storage, spillage, disposal, transportation.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, Aug. 1986. 2p.

CIS 86-1893
(Arbeidsinspectie)
Acetonitrile - Safe handling in ports
Acetonitril - Veilige behandeling in de haven [in Dutch]
Contents of this data sheet: physical and chemical properties; hazards (toxicity and health damage, symptoms, high flammability); rules for transport and containers; declaration on docking and preparations for unloading; safety measures (tanks, barrels, etc. containing acetonitrile should be kept well away from any source of heat; detection and repair of leaks; elimination of spills; fire fighting; prevention of poisoning incidents, use of respirators; storage of acetonitrile in containers; slinging of barrels and cans; loading and unloading by pumping; first aid in case of contact with skin or eyes, or of ingestion or inhalation); marking of containers; extracts from relevant Netherlands regulations.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 2nd edition 1986. 14p. Price: Glds.0.50.

CIS 86-1610 Wu W.S., Huang L.K., Gaind V.S.
High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of airborne isophorone diisocyanate and the authentication of analytical standards
Determination of airborne isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) has been achieved by drawing air through solutions of 1-(o-methoxyphenyl) piperazine, p-nitrobenzyl-N-n-propylamine and dibenzylamine. With each of the three solutions, IPDI yielded a stable derivative suitable for reverse-phase HPLC-UV detection. In situ derivatisation of IPDI during sampling conferred stability to the samples collected. The structures of the derivatives were authenticated by IR, NMR and elemental analysis. All derivatives were purified. Their use is proposed for calibration purposes in preference to that of extremely unstable IPDI.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1986, Vol.47, No.8, p.482-487. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 86-1671 Anderson D., Blowers S.D., Nemery B.
Investigation by the Ames test of urine samples from rats exposed to methyl isocyanate
Evidence from this animal experiment shows that metabolites of methyl isocyanate (MIC), even when exposure to MIC is high enough to produce respiratory distress, either do not reach the urine, or if they do, they are not mutagenic.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.43, No.8, p.566-567. 11 ref.

CIS 86-1546 Alexandersson R., Gustafsson P., Hedenstierna G., Rosen G.
Exposure to naphthalene-diisocyanate in a rubber plant: Symptoms and lung function
Twenty-three subjects exposed to naphthalene diisocyanate (NDI, (mean air concentration 0.002-0.007mg/m3)) were examined with regard to symptoms and pulmonary function. Irritation of the eyes, cough, and exertion dyspnoea were more common in exposed subjects than in unexposed controls. Closing volume, as a percentage of vital capacity (CV%), was 6% higher than the reference value (P=0.01) on Monday morning after 2 days with no exposure to NDI. The other lung function variables were normal. Two days of industrial exposure caused no further change in any lung function variable. The difference between measured and expected CV% increased with age in the exposed subjects. Five employees who had complained of severe symptoms during NDI exposure and who, therefore, had been transferred to other tasks with no exposure to NDI, displayed marked increases in CV% and a reduction in the forced vital capacity by an average of 0.6L. Smokers and non-smokers displayed similar lung function changes.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1986, Vol.41, No.2, p.85-89. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 86-1351 Dharmarajan V., Lingg R.D., Hackathorn D.R.
Evaluation of air-purifying respirators for protection against toluene diisocyanate vapors
Two brands of air-purifying organic vapour cartridges and a disposable respirator were tested against calibrated atmospheres containing toluene diisocyanate (TDI) at concentrations of 0.2 and 1.5ppm. A breathing pump was used to test the valveless disposable mask. There was no significant breakthrough (<0.5%) of TDI in any of the respirators tested for 40h at 0.2 ppm and 20h at 1.5 ppm. It is important to note that, at present, because the odour threshold for TDI is higher than the ceiling exposure limit (poor warning property), NIOSH and most of the respirator manufacturers do not recommend the use of air-purifying respirators in isocyanate-containing environments.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1986, Vol.47, No.7, p.393-398. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 86-1271 Brochhagen F.K., Schal H.P.
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate: The concentration of its saturated vapor
At a 50°C the concentration of the saturated vapour of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) is 1.7±0.2mg/m3. At 25°C, a concentration of 0.09mg/m3 (0.009ppm) can be expected. This is less than 50% of the exposure limit set for MDI in many countries. Application of the equation of the state of an ideal gas gave a vapour pressure of about 5-9x10-6mbar in the 20-25°C range.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1986, Vol.47. No.4, p.225-228. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 86-1029
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
o-Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile
o-Chlorobenzylidènemalononitrile [in French]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; uses; physical and chemical properties; storage; detection and determination in air; fire hazard; pathology and toxicology (acute and subacute toxicology, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, toxicokinetics and metabolism in animals, acute, subacute and chronic toxicity in man); exposure limits in the US (ACGIH TLV: 0.05ppm or 0.4mg/m3); French regulations concerning occupational health and safety, environmental protection and transport; international regulations concerning transport; technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1986, No.123, p.229-231. 20 ref.

CIS 86-1019 Blome H., Hennig M.
Performance data on selected passive samplers
Leistungsdaten ausgewählter Passivsammler [in German]
The 1st part of this report describes the principle of passive sampling with information from the manufacturers of 3 samplers (activated charcoal without direct read-out). The 2nd part contains a report on performance studies in the laboratory: methods of sampling and analysis, the reference gas installation, results (influence of position, humidity, mixtures of substances and sampling period; stability on storage; recovery by desorption; interaction of specific substances with activated charcoal). The 3rd part presents the results of workplace sampling of toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, styrene, acetone, butanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate and acrylonitrile. Correlation coefficients for the ketones were relatively low. The 3 samplers were judged good for toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene. Conditions required for proper sampling are noted.
Staub, 1985, Vol.45, No.11, p.505-508, No.12, p.541-546, and 1986, Vol.46, No.1, p.6-10. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 86-711 Hakes D.C., Johnson G.D., Marhevka J.S.
An improved high pressure liquid chromatographic method for the determination of isocyanates using "nitro reagent"
The chromatographic problems associated with the excess derivatising reagent, N-4-nitrobenzyl-N-n-propyamine in the commonly used HPLC method has been eliminated. An aqueous extraction removed the excess reagent without affecting the concentration of the urea derivatives. The combination of the extraction with the use of a fast LC column allowed separation and quantitation of 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediisocyanate and hexamethylenediisocyanate within 4min under isocratic conditions. Detection limits ranged from 2 to 5ng injected.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1986, Vol.47, No.3, p.181-184. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 86-709 Melcher R.G., Borders R.A., Coyne L.B., Gluck S.J., Sowle W.F.
Development and validation of personal monitoring methods for low levels of acrylonitrile in workplace atmosphere: I. Test atmosphere generation and solvent desorption methods. II. Thermal desorption and field validation
Among the various potential sorbents tested against calibrated atmospheres containing acrylonitrile in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 5ppm, a collection tube containing 600mg of Pittsburgh coconut base charcoal was found to be the optimum sampling device for a full 8h shift. No breakthrough was observed over the concentration and humidity (30 to 95% RH) ranges tested. The recovery was 91.3 ± 21% and was not affected by storage for up to 5 weeks. An alternative method using thermal desorption and collection devices including a dual-bed tube (Tenax GC + Carbosieve B) and a tube containing Ambersorb XE-348 gave good results during field testing.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1986, Vol.47, No.3, p.152-163. Illus. 12 ref.

1985

CIS 94-670 Abraham M.
The lessons of Bhopal
This book addresses issues raised by the Bhopal disaster and provides a resource manual for community action to prevent similar accidents or limit their consequences. Contents: the Bhopal tragedy and its aftermath; response of governments, industry, international agencies and community action groups; policy issues; conclusions; prevention of future Bhopals. Appendices include: profile of methyl isocyanate; unregulated air toxins identified by the chemical industry; statements and guidelines on controlling chemical hazards issued by various organizations following the disaster (OECD, World Bank and IFC, UNEP, ILO); FAO code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides.
International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU), Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, P.O. Box 1045, Penang, Malaysia, Sep. 1985. iv, 151p. 150 ref.

CIS 94-669 Bhopal: industrial genocide?
This book contains a compilation of documents from Indian publications on the Bhopal chemical plant disaster. Topics covered: alleged government indifference and union appeals for improved safety measures at the plant; investigations into causes of the pressure build-up leading to the release of methyl isocyanate; plant design deficiencies and other factors underlying the multiple failures that led to the accident; profile of the plant owners, Union Carbide, and suggestions of dubious practices; culpability of the government and Union Carbide; multinationals in developing countries; biological and environmental effects of methyl isocyanate; pesticide hazards; legal issues arising out of the disaster; lessons for the future.
ARENA Press, Rm A4, Blk G, 2/F, Hung Hom Bay Centre, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Mar. 1985. 222p. Illus.

CIS 88-1640 Approved code of practice for safe use of isocyanates
This directive covers: interpretation and definitions; related legislation; properties; hazards and hazard classification (toxic effects); plant design; plant operation, training and safety; application of polyurethane paints and lacquers; medical requirements; threshold limit values; spillage and decontamination; safe working methods; special work permit.
Department of Labour, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand, 1985. 40p.

CIS 88-959 Aromatic isocyanates in air
Guidance note on a field method using acid hydrolysis, diazotisation and coupling with N-2-aminoethyl-1-naphthylamine. Additional information on aromatic isocyanates: properties, uses, toxicity, first aid. Scope: suitable for sampling over periods of 10min-8h. Suitable for the measurement of airborne aromatic isocyanates in a concentration range of approximately 2-200µg NCO/m3 for samples of 10L of air. For an 8h (30L) sample, the detection limit is approximately 5µg NCO/m3. Under laboratory conditions the precision of the method is about 10%. The most likely interferent with the method is an aromatic primary amine. Additional information on aromatic isocyanates: properties, uses, toxicity, first aid.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 2QY, United Kingdom, Oct. 1985. 6p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: GBP 1.00.

CIS 88-73 Bromoxynil
Bromoksiniili [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: LD50 = 190mg/kg; is absorbed through the skin; irritates the eyes, the mucous membranes, the nose and the throat. Ingestion causes a rise in body temperature, sweating and faster breathing. Mandatory European labelling: T, R23, R24, R25, S2, S13, S44.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Mar. 1985. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 88-70 Bitoscanate
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: 1,4-diisothiocyanatobenzene. Toxicity: LD50 (oral, rat) = 21mg/kg; central nervous system and gastrointestinal toxin.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 87-810 Dichloroacrylonitrile
2-klooriakrylonitriili [in Finnish]
Dichloroacrylonitrile is an extremely flammable and toxic liquid (TLV 8h = 5mg/m3, TLV 15min = 10mg/m3). Is absorbed through the skin, irritates the skin and the eyes. Can cause eczema. The vapour is toxic. Mandatory European labelling: F, T, R11, R23, R24, R25, S9, S16, S27, S29, S44.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Mar. 1985. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 87-424 Methyl thiocyanate
Chemical safety information sheet. Incompatible with nitric acid. Highly toxic by ingestion. Absorbed through the skin. Principal systemic effect is depression of the central nervous system. Signs and symptoms of exposure are those of cyanide poisoning. Used as an insecticide and a fumigant. No specific exposure limit has been established.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 87-423 Methyl isothiocyanate
Chemical safety information sheet. Very toxic (minimum human lethal dose = 1g/kg). Highly irritant to the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Used as a soil fumigant. No established exposure limit.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 87-134 Toluene 2,4-diisocyanate
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazard data; use information; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemcial Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 87-109 Methyl isocyanate
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazard data; use information; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 87-97 Isophorone diisocyanate
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazard data; use information; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1873 Methacrylonitrile
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1870 Benzyl cyanide
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1637 Adiponitrile
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1633 Malononitrile
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1616 Isocyanic acid, 3,4-dichlorophenyl ester
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1595 Ėjtengon A.I.
Predicting the toxic effect of combustion products of polymers
Prognozirovanie toksičeskogo ėffekta produktov gorenija polymernyh materialov [in Russian]
Adequate mathematical models for predicting the toxicity of combustion products of polymers were developed on the basis of mathematical analysis of experimental data. The compounds contributing most to the lethal effect of burning polymers were determined: polyvinyl chloride gave hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide; aromatic polyamide and elastic polyurethane gave hydrocyanic acid; materials based on styrene-nitrile copolymers emitted carbon monoxide and hydrocyanic acid; fluorinated organic compounds gave hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1985, No.4, p.20-23. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 86-1592 Propionitrile
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1591 Acrylonitrile
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards (suspected human carcinogen); uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1589 Formaldehyde cyanohydrin
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1562 Toluene 2,6-diisocyanate
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1555 Ameille J., Brochard P., De Palmas J., Proteau J.
Toxicity of isocyanates in man - Analysis of the dose-effect relationship
Toxicité des isocyanates chez l'homme - Analyse de la relation dose-effet [in French]
Survey of the pathogenic effects of isocyanates on the respiratory system (irritation, asthma, chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies, hypersensitive pneumopathies). Study of dose-effect relationships based on the literature. The effectiveness of preventive efforts lies in the reduction of exposure levels and in research into less toxic substitutes.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, de médecine du travail et de sécurité sociale, 1985, Vol.46, No.6, p.385-391. 46 ref.

CIS 86-1554 Lactonitrile
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1349 Acetone cyanohydrin
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1348 Isobutyronitrile
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1342 Tabun
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-736 Nemery B., Dinsdale D., Sparrow S., Ray D.E.
Effects of methyl isocyanate on the respiratory tract of rats
Rats were exposed to methyl isocyanate at concentrations ranging 0.02/1mg/-L for a period of 1h, and at a concentration of 10mg/L for 15min. At all but the highest concentration, the effect of exposure was slow breathing, prostration, signs of eye and nose irritation, and - eventually - respiratory acidosis and moderate hypoxaemia. At the highest concentration level, 6 out of 8 rats died either during or shortly after the exposure, probably because of reflex inhibition of breathing. Animals surviving the exposure had signs of airway narrowing and development of haemorrhagic pulmonary oedema. The epithelial lesions were repaired rapidly, but residual peribronchial fibrosis and signs of renewed injury or inflammation were apparent.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1985, Vol.42, No.12, p.799-805. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 86-735 Salmon A.G., Kerr Muir M., Andersson N.
Acute toxicity of methyl isocyanate: a preliminary study of the dose response for eye and other effects
Acute toxic effects of methyl isocyanate in the rat were determined for 2h exposures to concentrations in the range 11ppm (very slight effect) to 65ppm (death due to pulmonary oedema). Non-respiratory effects included a narcotic or sedative effect producing unconsciousness at concentrations as low as 11ppm, with only minimal changes in the eyes or in the breathing rate. Effects in the eye (mostly epithelial erosions) were most pronounced at intermediate exposure levels. Following sublethal exposures, respiratory problems disappeared completely, but there was some evidence of residual neurological or pulmonary changes. When these observations are connected with those made in exposed people after the Bhopal incident, a clear relationship can be seen between animal and human data. Urinary thiocyanate concentrations in the exposed rats were lower than those in controls, indicating that conversion to cyanide did not take place.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1985, Vol.42, No.12, p.795-798. 8 ref.

CIS 86-683 Alexander J.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Threshold Limit Values - 55. Acrylonitrile
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 55. Akrylonitril [in Norwegian]
The acute toxicity of acrylonitrile is relatively high in tests on animals. The first acute symptoms produced at low concentrations include eye irritation, sneezing, headache, nausea, weakness and vomiting. Acute exposure to higher concentrations causes profound weakness, respiratory distress and asphyxia. Acrylonitrile can be absorbed through the skin. Metabolism of acrylonitrile liberates cyanide. Acrylonitrile is teratogenic in rats and hamsters. Acrylonitrile is mutagenic, induces breaks in DNA strands and causes unscheduled DNA synthesis, sister chromatid exchange and cell transformation. Acrylonitrile is carcinogenic in rats. Epidemiological studies of workers exposed to acrylonitrile supply limited, although consistent, evidence of carcinogenicity in human. Thus, the carcinogenic properties of acrylonitrile should be the biological effects used in establishing an occupational exposure limit.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 54p. Illus. 125 ref.

CIS 86-417 Serge W.F.
The toxicity of methylisocyanate for rats
The results of previous experiments on rats are used to derive a concentration-time mortality-response relationship. Contrary to gases such as chlorine or ammonia whose lethality depends on concentration, it seems that in the case of methylisocyanate, the duration of exposure is dominant in determining the mortality response. A prolonged exposure to MIC may have therefore been the cause of the high number of victims in Bhopal in India. One should consider in this connection that MIC does not have a well recognisable odour at concentrations up to 24mg/m3.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Dec. 1985, Vol.12, No.3, p.309-311. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 86-387 Swensson Å, Andersson K.
Nordic expert group for documentation of threshold limit values - 58. Diisocyanates
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 58. Diisocyanater [in Swedish]
A review of the literature disclosed that a hygienic standard for diisocyanates should be based on their effect on the respiratory organs. Their most serious effect is hyperreactivity in people exposed to them. This hyperreactivity produces serious symptoms, even when exposure is to low air concentrations. A threshold limit value cannot protect hyperreactive people but a low value will contribute to a reduction in the incidence of hyperreactivity.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 82p. 202 ref.

CIS 86-152 Venables K.M., Dally M.B., Burge P.S., Pickering C.A.C., Taylor A.J.N.
Occupational asthma in a steel coating plant
This is a report on the epidemiological investigation that lead to the identification of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) as the agent responsible for occupational asthma affecting 21 workers in a steel coating plant. The symptoms developed after a supplier had modified the coating, thereby allowing the liberation of TDI during the process. Removing TDI from the process led to the elimination or reduction of the symptoms in 17 of the workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1985, Vol.42, No.8, p.517-524. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 86-96 Acrylonitrile
This data sheet on acrylonitrile covers: synonyms (propenenitrile and vinyl cyanide); physical properties; occupational exposure limits (in the UK: 2ppm for 8h TWA, no short-term limits given); uses (manufacture of acrylic fibres and copolymer resins, other uses); fire hazards and extinguishants; hazardous reactions; toxicity and biological hazards; carcinogenicity; medical surveillance; handling and storage; safety precautions; leakage and spillage; first aid.
Safety Practitioner, Aug. 1985, Vol.3, No.8, p.16-17. 4 ref.

CIS 86-81 Toluene diisocyanate
This data sheet covers both the 2,4-isomer and the 2,6-isomer of toluene diisocyanate (TDI), used in the manufacture of polyurethane foam. Coverage: properties; occupational exposure limits (0.02mg/m3 for 8h TWA, 0.07mg/m3 for 10min TWA); fire hazards (even low vapour concentrations of combustion products can be lethal); extinguishant (preferably dry powder or carbon dioxide); toxicity and biological hazards (acute effects: skin and respiratory irritation, poisoning if ingested; chronic effects: respiratory sensitisation; carcinogenesis by the 2,4-isomer); handling and storage; medical surveillance; safety precautions; leakage and spills; first aid.
Safety Practitioner, May 1985, Vol.3, No.5, p.32-33. 1 ref.

CIS 85-1912 Liebowitz D.P.
Collection and determination of methyl carbamate in air
Methyl carbamate vapour is collected on silica gel tubes, desorbed with water and analysed by gas chromatography. An average collection efficiency of 96.3% was obtained at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 6.0mg/m3. There was no loss in collection efficiency at a relative humidity of 84%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1985, Vol.46, No.9, p.514-516. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 85-1673 Nielsen J., Sangö C., Winroth G., Hallberg T., Skerfving S.
Systemic reactions associated with polyisocyanate exposure
A spray painter suffered recurrent attacks of chills, fever, general malaise, dispnoea, headache, arthralgia and leukocytosis, a few hours after exposure to aerosols of varnishes containing polymers of hexamethylene and tolylene diisocyanate. Immunologic tests revealed an increase in serum immunoglobulin G level. Polyisocyanate levels in the workroom ranged from 1.5 to 7.4mg/m3 (5.4-30.0µmol NCO/m3).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1985, Vol.11, No.1, p.51-54. 16 ref.

CIS 85-1343 Johnson A., Chan-Yeung M., Maclean L., Atkins E., Dybuncio A., Cheng F., Enarson D.
Respiratory abnormalities among workers in an iron and steel foundry
A study of the health of 78 workers in an iron and steel foundry in British Columbia (Canada), and of 372 controls (workers in a railway repair yard). The foundry workers were exposed to the chemical binding system PepSet, consisting of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), phenol formaldehyde, and a catalyst containing a pyridine derivative. They were also exposed to silica particulates. The study included a questionnaire survey, chest radiography, allergy skin tests, pulmonary function tests, methacholine inhalation tests, and measurements of dust and MDI levels. The foundry workers had significantly more respiratory symptoms and significantly lower respiratory function indicators than did the controls. 3 of the workers had radiographic signs of pneumoconiosis and 12 had asthma, probably caused by sensitisation to MDI.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1985, Vol.42, No.2, p.94-100. 31 ref.

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