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Cyano compounds - 577 entries found

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CIS 98-1312 Bernstein J.A.
Overview of diisocyanate occupational asthma
Topics: asthma; tolylene diisocyanate; diagnosis; epidemiological aspects; immunology; isocyanates; pathogenesis; transfer to other work.
Toxicology, 1996, Vol.111, p.181-189. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 98-1310 Lummus Z.L., Rafeul A., Bernstein J.A., Bernstein D.I.
Characterization of histamine releasing factors in diisocyanate-induced occupational asthma
Topics: asthma; tolylene diisocyanate; histamine release; immunobiological changes; immunology; isocyanates; sensitization.
Toxicology, 1996, Vol.111, p.191-206. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 98-233
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Topics: 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile; criteria document; eczema; ILO; IPCS; literature survey; sensitization; toxic effects; toxicology; UNEP; WHO.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1996. 145p. 235 ref. Price: CHF 35.00 (CHF 24.50 in developing countries).

CIS 98-134 Lemière C., Cartier A., Dolovich J., Chan-Yeung M., Grammer L., Ghezzo H., L'Archevêque J., Malo J.L.
Outcome of specific bronchial responsiveness to occupational agents after removal from exposure
Topics: asthma; autoimmunization; immunology; inhalation tests; isocyanates; serological reactions; transfer to other work.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Aug. 1996, Vol.154, p.329-333. 22 ref.

CIS 97-768 Acetone cyanohydrin
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. May irritate the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause weakness, headache, confusion, nausea, vomiting and pounding of the heart. May cause the thyroid gland to enlarge.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-765 Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. It is a carcinogen and should be handled with extreme caution. May irritate the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause pulmonary oedema, memory and concentration problems and an asthma-like allergy.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-764 Toluene-2,6-diisocyanate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. It is a mutagen and a possible carcinogen and should be handled with extreme caution. May irritate the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause pulmonary oedema and an asthma-like allergy. May cause dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting, memory and concentration problems.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-747 Methyl isocyanate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. May burn the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. May cause permanent eye damage, lung oedema and an asthma-like allergy. It is a flammable and highly reactive chemical.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-922 Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Rivas R.D.
Exposure to isocyanates and organic solvents, and pulmonary-function changes in workers in a polyurethane molding process
Short-term changes in pulmonary function were determined in a group of urethane mould operators exposed to isocyanates and solvents, and in a control group of nonexposed workers. Measured concentrations of airborne chemicals, including hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and HDI polyisocyanate, were below recommended exposure criteria; no daily or weekly reduction in pulmonary function was observed. In a long-term study (2.5 years), isocyanate/solvent exposed subjects showed significant reduction in forced vital capacity and expiratory volume in 1 second. No such changes were observed in the non-exposed subjects or in those exposed only to organic solvents. Long-term exposure to isocyanates, even in very low concentrations, may contribute to impaired pulmonary function.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.38, No.12, p.1205-1212. 36 ref.

CIS 97-558 Simpson C., Garabrant D., Torrey S., Robins T., Franzblau A.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reaction and occupational asthma associated with 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl) cyclohexane pre-polymer
Twenty three of 34 workers who had worked in the injection moulding operation making polyurethane foam parts at an automobile manufacturing plant developed respiratory symptoms and/or systemic symptoms over a 2-month period following the full production use of a new diisocyanate paint that contained 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl)cyclohexane pre-polymer (BIC). At 3 months, all subjects underwent an interview, physical examination, pre- and post-shift pulmonary function tests and either methacholine challenge test or bronchodilator challenge. The most frequently cited symptoms were dyspnoea, cough, chest tightness, chills, wheezing and myalgias, arthralgias and nausea. Thirteen subjects had either a positive methacholine challenge test or a positive response to bronchodilator challenge, making the overall prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness 38%. The overall prevalence of hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reactions among line operators in the injection moulding process was 27%. The results suggest that BIC may cause asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reactions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.48-55. 26 ref.

CIS 97-187 Banks D.E., Tarlo S.M., Masri F., Rando R.J., Weissman D.N.
Bronchoprovocation tests in the diagnosis of isocyanate-induced asthma
This study reviews work performed over the past 25 years to improve the approach to non-irritant exposures for the accurate diagnosis of isocyanate-induced asthma. Although the technology used in testing has become more sophisticated, the requirements of the physician have remained unchanged. Direct physician involvement in the testing procedure remains critical to the worker's safety and for the accurate diagnosis of isocyanate-induced asthma.
Chest, May 1996, Vol. 109, No. 5, p.1370-1379. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 97-168 Rudzinski W.E., Norman S., Dahlquist B., Greebon K.W., Richardson A., Locke K., Thomas T.
Evaluation of 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine for the analysis of isocyanates in spray-painting operations
A new reagent, 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine (MAP), was evaluated for the derivatization of airborne 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and polyisocyanates generated during spray-painting operations. The reagent, which offers enhanced sensitivity and uniformity of response to both the monomeric and oligomeric forms of HDI, was compared with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MOP). The validity of the side-by-side sampling protocol was also evaluated. HDI monomer concentrations were below the limit of detection. For polyisocyanates, there was no significant difference in the results as determined by two impingers containing MAP and a third containing MOP when these were positioned in a side-by-side arrangement.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.10, p.914-917. 20 ref.

CIS 97-167 Streicher R.P., Arnold J.E., Ernst M.K., Cooper C.V.
Development of a novel derivatization reagent for the sampling and analysis of total isocyanate group in air and comparison of its performance with that of several established reagents
A novel derivatization reagent, 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine (MAP), was developed for the sampling and analysis of total isocyanate group in air. Derivatives were prepared by reacting five mono- and difunctional isocyanates with MAP and with three other established isocyanate derivatizing reagents. The reactivity and the intensity and variability of detector response were compared for all reagents. Reaction rates with phenyl isocyanate are discussed. The favourable performance of MAP warrants its further study as a reagent for the determination of total isocyanate group in air.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.10, p.905-913. 30 ref.

CIS 96-2089 Alberts W.M., do Pico G.A.
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome
This review outlines the condition known as reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS), which has been recognized in recent years as a distinct subset of occupational nonimmunologic asthma. It may be induced by different irritants (e.g. frequently by tolylene diisocyanate). The diagnostic criteria are reported together with several published cases of patients with RADS. The epidemiology, controversial aspects, pathology and mechanisms of this syndrome are also discussed.
Chest, June 1996, Vol.109, No.6, p.1618-1626. 72 ref.

CIS 96-1773 Cullen M.R., Redlich C.A., Beckett W.S., Weltmann B., Sparer J., Jackson G., Ruff T., Rubinstein E., Holden W.
Feasibility study of respiratory questionnaire and peak flow recordings in autobody shop workers exposed to isocyanate-containing spray paint: Observations and limitations
In a questionnaire survey of shop owners and workers at 23 autobody shops, data were collected on the characteristics of the shop and the spray paint systems in use, industrial hygiene practices, and workers' respiratory symptoms. Peak expiratory flow measurements were collected for 24 workers. The approach met with limited success. While a high rate of respiratory symptoms consistent with occupational asthma was identified (19.6%), validation of the questionnaire by use of peak expiratory flow recordings was limited by poor worker participation and inadequate data collection. Further studies are required to document rates of occupational asthma among these workers.
Occupational Medicine, June 1996, Vol.46, No.3, p.197-204. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 96-1769 Avashia B., Battigelli M.C., Morgan W.K.C., Reger R.B.
Effects of prolonged low exposure to methyl isocyanate
Data on pulmonary function, smoking history and occupational history were obtained for 431 workers at a large chemical plant. Routine and special sampling data were used to classify jobs according to methyl isocyanate exposure. No specific or consistent pulmonary impairment was evident. Long-term, low-level exposure to methyl isocyanate at the levels existing at this plant could not be shown to be producing detectable effects on lung function.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1996, Vol.38, No.6, p.625-630. 11 ref.

CIS 96-528 Isocyanates
Isocianatos [in Spanish]
Isocyanates are chemical substances used in many industrial processes. They form the basis for different products: foams, varnishes, paints, resins, flexible and rigid artificial fibres, etc. The products obtained are generically known as polyurethanes. This video shows some of the better-known processes and comments on the risks arising from exposure to isocyanates and the preventive measures for their control.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, ediciones y Publicaciones, C/ Torrelaguna, 73-28027 Madrid, Spain. PAL videotape (9min). Price: ESP 3000 + VAT. ###

CIS 96-923 NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing asthma and death from diisocyanate exposure
This data sheet describes the health effects of diisocyanates (irritation, sensitization and asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, cancer) and current exposure limits. Seven case reports of disease and death following occupational exposure to diisocyanates are presented. Recommendations to reduce worker exposure include product substitution, closed systems and ventilation, worker isolation, protective clothing and equipment, respiratory protection, worker and employer education, and exposure monitoring.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Mar. 1996. 13p. 33 ref.

CIS 96-797 Maître A., Leplay A., Perdrix A., Ohl G., Boinay P., Romazini S., Aubrun J.C.
Comparison between solid sampler and impinger for evaluation of occupational exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate polyisocyanates during spray painting
Two air sampling methods were used to monitor the level and variability of a painter's exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) polyisocyanates while spraying Tolonate-based paints in a paint booth. Personal air samples were collected by midget impingers containing 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MPP) absorber solution and by MPP-impregnated filters. Potential exposure to HDI polyisocyanates measured by impinger devices ranged from 0.25 to 3mg/m3. Impregnated filters significantly underestimated atmospheric concentrations of HDI polyisocyanates in the painter's breathing zone. Use of an appropriate half-face mask with 90% efficiency is recommended to reduce residual exposure to below the recommended STEL (1mg/m3).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.2, p.153-160. 36 ref.

CIS 96-487 Acrylonitrile
Acrilonitrilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes and skin; hypoxia; chemical burns; dermatitis; probable human carcinogen.
Noticias de seguridad, Feb. 1996, Vol.58, No.2. 5p. Insert.

CIS 96-783 Dharmarajan V.
Evaluation of personal continuous paper-tape monitors for toluenediisocyanate
The performance of nine personal continuous monitors (PCMs) was evaluated in dynamically generated toluenediisocyanate (TDI) atmospheres at two concentrations and at five relative humidities. The TDI concentrations were also measured using an OSHA reference method. Results are tabulated for each PCM. Compared with the reference method, the PCMs generally underestimated the higher TDI concentration at higher humidities; the lower TDI concentration was underestimated by a wider margin by the PCMs. There were significant inter-PCM differences when measuring simultaneously the same atmosphere with constant TDI concentration.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.68-71. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 02-1554 o-Phthalodinitrile
o-Phtalodinitril [in German]
Intoxications following percutaneous absorption and dust inhalation have been reported. Symptoms, which were delayed, included dizziness, nausea, vomiting, headache, sudden unconsciousness and convulsive attacks. Irritation of the skin and mucous membranes have been observed. Animal experiments show toxicity upon acute oral exposure, as well as intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 31p. 35 ref.

CIS 99-252
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Chlorothalonil health and safety guide
This document provides practical guidance on the application of exposure limitation guidelines contained in Environmental Health Criteria 183 (CIS 98-233). Includes a summary of chemical safety information for workplace display. Topics: 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile; containment of spills; disposal of harmful waste; eczema; fire protection; first aid; health engineering; health hazards; IPCS; irritants; legislation; permissible levels; sensitization; storage; toxic effects.
World Health Organization (WHO), Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1995. 30p. 28 ref. Price: CHF 5.00 (CHF 3.50 in developing countries).

CIS 97-199 Dahlqvist M., Tornling G., Plato N., Ulfvarson U.
Effects within the week on forced vital capacity are correlated with long term changes in pulmonary function: Reanalysis of studies on car painters exposed to isocyanate
Study to examine if car painters who work with polyurethane paints that contain hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) and hexamethylenediisocyanate biuret trimer (HDI-BT) develop acute as well as chronic impairment of lung function. Data were reanalyzed from two earlier studies on a group of car painters. Data on changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) within the week were available for 20 car painters who were also examined six years later. Ten men showed a decline in FVC within the week. A significant correlation was found between the change in FVC within the week and the long term (six year) change in FVC, standardized for the effects of aging and smoking and adjusted for the number of peak exposures. The results suggest that the decrease in FVC within the week might serve as a guide to identify car painters at risk of a further decrement in lung function above the effects of aging, smoking and exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.52, No.3, p.192-195. 17 ref.

CIS 96-2095 Mastrangelo G., Paruzzolo P., Mapp C.
Asthma due to isocyanates: A mail survey in a 1% sample of furniture workers in the Veneto Region, Italy
A cross-sectional survey was performed by means of a questionnaire mailed to a sample of 1430 workers in the wooden furniture industry in northern Italy, which uses large quantities of isocyanate paints. The aim was to ascertain the prevalence of isocyanate-induced asthma in the work place. Completed questionnaires represented about 1% of the total number (70,000) of these workers in the region under consideration (Veneto). A significantly higher asthma prevalence with increasing duration of exposure to isocyanates was observed in the workers (ranging from 2.2% in workers with 11-20 years of exposure to 27.3% in those with over 20 years of exposure). Other factors such as smoking habits and the lower prevalence of asthma observed in larger enterprises are also discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1995, Vol.86, No.6, p.503-510. 14 ref.

CIS 96-1267
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidelines for health surveillance
These guidelines are intended for appointed medical practitioners when planning and implementing a programme of health surveillance within enterprises. Such programmes should be instituted when a workplace assessment of health risks, conducted according to the National Model Regulations for the Control of Workplace Hazardous Substances (NOHSC 1005: (1994), see CIS 95-274), has determined that workplace exposure represents a significant risk to health. Contents of the 18 booklets: 1 - Introduction (basic aspects of health surveillance, extracts from the Model Regulations and the National Code of Practice (NOHSC: 2007 (1994), see CIS 95-274 as well), list of substances subject to control, criteria for determining whether a substance should be scheduled as requiring health surveillance). 2 - sample respiratory questionnaires to be administered to workers. 3-18: Specific substances (for each substance: information on health surveillance at time of employment, during exposure to a process where the substance is present and at termination of employment; data sheet with information on substance in question). The substances are: acrylonitrile, inorganic arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, inorganic cadmium, creosote, isocyanates, inorganic mercury, MOCA, organophosphate pesticides, pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, crystalline silica, thallium, vinyl chloride.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1995-1996. 18 booklets in a ring binder. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 96-1409 Fusion adhesives. Health protection during work with fusion adhesives
Schmelzklebstoffe. Gesundheitsschutz beim Arbeiten mit Schmelzklebern [in German]
Fusion adhesives, applied in the molten state, bond materials while they harden. They are widely used in the paper and cardboard converting industry, for example in the manufacturing of boxes. Some of these adhesives, such as the polyurethane fusion adhesives, contain isocyanates. These are toxic, may lead to allergies and some (such as the diphenylmethane diisocyanate) are carcinogenic. Exposure to diphenylmethane diisocyanate has been limited in Germany to 0.05mg/m3. In order to keep the exposure to harmful substances during heating and application of fusion adhesives low, the use of exhaust hoods for drawing off all fumes at the point of origin, of covers and of lower temperatures for melting the adhesives are recommended.
Tag für Tag, 1995, No.5, p.18-21. Illus.

CIS 96-1400 Rother
Hazards of stopping cracks in concrete structures by injection
Gefahren bei der Injektion von Rissen in Betonbauwerken [in German]
Cracks in concrete buildings are stopped by injection of sealants containing epoxy resins or polyurethanes as the main component. The hazards posed by this type of work are caused by the high-pressure pumps needed for application of the sealant and by the toxic substances contained in the sealant. The epoxy resins and hardeners are flammable and can cause skin and respiratory diseases. The polyurethanes contain toxic isocyanates and amines. Both groups of substances can cause skin diseases. Outlined protective measures include: the supply of overalls, safety gloves, safety spectacles and respirators, the avoidance of smoking and other ignition sources, periodic inspections of the equipment and efficient ventilation.
BAU, June 1995, No.2, p.72-75. Illus.

CIS 96-732 Rudzinski W.E., Dahlquist B., Svejda S.A., Richardson A., Thomas T.
Sampling and analysis of isocyanates in spray-painting operations
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.284-289. 26 ref. ###

CIS 96-730 Goyer N.
Performance of painting booths equipped with down-draft ventilation
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.258-265. Illus. 14 ref. ###

CIS 96-492 o-Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile
O-Clorobencilideno malononitrilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; tear drawing; eye injuries; chemical burns; dermatitis.
Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 1995, Vol.57, No.2. 4p. Insert.

CIS 96-894
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Acetone cyanohydrin: Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the consequences of occupational exposure to acetone cyanohydrin (ACNH) and recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for this substance. Attention is given to: identity, physical and chemical properties, monitoring; sources of exposure; environmental levels and human exposure; guidelines and standards; effects in animals and man (acute toxicity, short-term toxicity, long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproduction toxicity); previous evaluations by national and international bodies; evaluation of human health risk. Based on the data available the committee recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for acetone cyanohydrin of 3.5mg/m3 (1ppm) as an eight-hour TWA. For short-term exposure a fifteen minute health-based occupational exposure limit of 35mg/m3 (10ppm) is recommended. A skin-notation is recommended. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1995. 96p. Illus. 88 ref.

CIS 96-525 Rossinelli L.
Health protection during pulverization with spray guns - Two-component polyurethane varnishes
Gesundheitsschutz beim Spritzen: Zweikomponenten-Polyurethanlacke [in German]
Protection de la santé lors de la pulvérisation au pistolet - Vernis polyuréthane à deux composants [in French]
Practical guide to protective measures during the use of spray guns using two-component polyurethane varnishes. Isocyanate-based hardeners are used for the treatment of this kind of varnish. These hardeners are highly reactive chemicals that can cause serious health damage in the case of exposure. Main points covered: polyurethane varnishes; health hazards; protective measures; observations (in particular, legislation in effect in Switzerland, respecting warning labels, first-aid measures in case of accidental exposure).
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1st ed., Nov. 1995. 7p. Illus.

CIS 96-827 Koo D., Goldman L., Baron R.
Irritant dermatitis among workers cleaning up a pesticide spill - California 1991
Among a group of 42 county jail inmates who removed dead fish from a river following a spill of metam sodium, 27 had dermatitis involving the feet and ankles. Dermatitis was associated with lower extremity water contact; attack rate increased with time spent in the water. Workers who changed to dry clothing after the clean-up did not report dermatitis. The river concentration of methylisothiocyanate (the decomposition product of metam sodium and a known skin irritant) measured 20-40ppb at the time of exposure. It is suggested that prolonged wetness, occlusive boots, friction and heat contributed to the irritation at this low concentration.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1995, Vol.27, No.4, p.545-553. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 96-247 Levine S.P., Hillig K.J.D., Dharmarajan V., Spence M.W., Baker M.D.
Critical review of methods of sampling, analysis and monitoring for TDI and MDI
A review of widely-used methods for the sampling, analysis and monitoring of toluene diisocyanate and methylene bisphenyl diisocyanate (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) is presented. Basic definitions and principles and procedures of quality control and metrology are discussed followed by a critical review of specific air sampling and analysis methods and air monitoring instruments. Recommendations for future work are included.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1995, Vol.56, No.6, p.581-589. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 95-2189
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document, translation of a report finalized in Aug. 1993: occupational exposure to acrylonitrile causes irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose. There are also reports of nausea, lower abdominal pain, diarrhoea, jaundice and bronchitis. In contrast to animal studies, epidemiological studies provide no clear evidence of a carcinogenic effect in humans.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1995. xxi, 262p. approx. 420 ref. Price: DEM 102.00.

CIS 95-2136 Durand K.T.H., Egilman D.S.
The DuPont Imron® studies: An example of possible misrepresentation of data in the industrial hygiene literature
Opinion article (not peer reviewed) commenting on a 1985 article by Vasta J.F. in the same journal ("Respirator cartridge evaluation for isocyanate containing Imron® and Cantari® enamels", see CIS 85-785). It is claimed that the original article contained intentionally misleading information suggesting that air-purifying respirators provided adequate protection against isocyanate-based paints (data suggesting the opposite are claimed having been suppressed). The manufacturer employing the researcher in question stood to gain significantly from results supporting this hypothesis. The Editor's comments preceding the article discuss the ethical issues involved. The rebuttal by Krivanek N.D. (p.826-829) defends the integrity of the original research article and its author and questions the motives of the authors of the present article.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1995, Vol.56, No.8, p.817-825. 33 ref. Editor's comments, p.815-816; rebuttal on p.826-829.

CIS 95-1752 Key-Schwartz R.J.
Analytical problems encountered with NIOSH method 5521 for total isocyanates
A recent analysis for total isocyanates in air using NIOSH Method 5521 (adaptation of the British HSE Method MDHS 25, see CIS 88-955) presented two problems in the identification of an oligomeric isocyanate species: 1) a false negative response in the high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogramme was seen in a majority of field samples, and 2) an anomalous peak served to give a false positive in some of the field blanks and in some of the field samples. By supplementing the ratio criterion of Method 5521 using the complete ultraviolet absorption spectrum from a photodiode array (PDA) UV detector, the two peaks were successfully identified. However, this need for additional data to identify an oligomeric isocyanate species raises the question whether the ratio criterion (ratio of the electrochemical detector response to the ultraviolet detector response) of Method 5521 allows the qualitative identification of isocyanate oligomers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1995, Vol.56, No.5, p.474-479. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 95-1751 Streicher R.P., Arnold J.E., Cooper C.V., Fischbach T.J.
Investigation of the ability of MDHS Method 25 to determine urethane-bound isocyanate groups
Method 25 for the Determination of Hazardous Substances (MDHS 25, see CIS 88-955) was developed by the Health and Safety Executive of the United Kingdom for the identification and quantification of all isocyanates in an air sample. This investigation sought to determine if this Method was capable of the identification and quantification of intermediates possessing free isocyanate groups created during polyurethane formation. Model compounds derived from 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and ethylene glycol were prepared. These urethanes contained two ("dimer") and three ("trimer") TDI units and terminal MOPP-derivatized isocyanate groups. Neither the ultraviolet nor the electrochemical response of the Method is proportional to the number of isocyanate groups present in the model compounds. Therefore MDHS 25 is neither capable of correctly identifying TDI-urethane intermediates possessing MOPP-derivatized isocyanate groups nor is it capable of accurately identifying these isocyanate groups. The proposed way to overcome this problem is to use a derivatizing reagent yielding derivatized isocyanates whose detector responses come more exclusively from the derivatized isocyanate moiety and therefore are more proportional to the number of derivatized isocyanate groups.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1995, Vol.56, No.5, p.437-442. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 95-1812 Simonsen L., Midtgård U., Lund S.P., Hass U.
Nordic Council of Ministers
Occupational neurotoxicity: Evaluation of neurotoxicity data for selected chemicals
Previously determined criteria for evaluating published data on the neurotoxicity of chemicals (see CIS 95-000) were applied to the literature on 79 common industrial chemicals. Data were too sparse to permit classification of 28. Of the rest, eight were classified as probably and 16 as possibly neurotoxic, and the following 27 as definitely neurotoxic: acrylamide, acrylonitrile, aluminium, arsenic, sodium azide, borax, boric acid, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, potassium cyanide, ethanol, ethylene oxide, hexachlorophene, manganese, mercury, methanol, methyl bromide, methyl butyl ketone (2-hexanone), methyl chloride, methyl methacrylate, n-hexane, nitrous oxide, styrene, thallium, toluene, trichloroethylene, triorthocresyl phosphate.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 119p. Bibl.ref.


CIS 97-939 Lundberg P.
Criteria Group for Occupational Standards
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards XV
Vetenskapligt underlag för hygieniska gränsvärden. 15 - Criteria Group for Occupational Standards XV [in Swedish]
Critical evaluation of those scientific data which are relevant as background for discussion of Swedish occupational exposure limits. This volume consists of the consensus reports submitted by the Criteria Group at the Swedish National Institute of Occupational Health between July 1993 and June 1994. They cover: ethylene glycol monopropylether (propoxyethanol) and its acetate (2-propoxyethanol acetate), hexachloroethane, some metal stearates, some stearates, hexylene glycol, barium and barium compounds, strontium and strontium compounds, dicyclopentadiene, N,N-dimethylacetamide, indium and inorganic indium compounds, o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile and thioglycolic (mercaptoacetic) acid.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1994. 72p. (Eng.); 79p. (Swe.). 298 ref.

CIS 96-813 Sulotto F., Romano C., Chiesa A., Piolatto G., Coggiola M., Botta G., Serra A., Scarselli R., Palmi S., Scansetti G.
Short and long-term respiratory effects of exposure to low concentrations of diphenylmethane diisocyanate in the production of expanded polyurethane
Effetti respiratori, a breve e lungo termine, della esposizione a basse concentrazioni di MDI, difenilmetan diisocianato, nella produzione di manufatti in poliuretano espanso [in Italian]
Spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75) readings were assessed in a group of 27 foam skimmers with a low environmental exposure level to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (DMD) at the beginning and at the end of their work shifts. A control group consisted of workers not exposed to DMD of similar age. The observed decrease in the parameters at the end of the shift overlapped in the two groups, but a greater weekly decrease in FEF25-75 was observed in the skimmer group. In 11 of the 27 skimmers, for whom previous spirometric data were available, a higher decrease was observed for FVC. Smoking in either group did not have a clear influence on the results.
Prevenzione oggi, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.6, No.4, p.163-175. 17 ref.

CIS 96-807 Baur X., Marek W., Ammon J., Czuppon A.B., Marczynski B., Raulf-Heimsoth M., Roemmelt H., Fruhmann G.
Respiratory and other hazards of isocyanates
Isocyanates have various applications including those in the production of plastics, polyurethane foams and insecticides. Recent results of experimental, immunological and clinical studies of the respiratory diseases caused by isocyanates are summarized. Special consideration is given to findings among 1,780 workers exposed to isocyanates. The case histories and clinical data of 625 of these workers who were exposed during the production of polyurethanes revealed that 247 had respiratory symptoms. The majority of these were diagnosed as suffering from bronchial asthma. Chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and allergic alveolitis followed. The risk of developing chronic airway disorders such as bronchial asthma was found to depend on the concentration of isocyanates. Immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization and irritative effects were identified as the main pathophysiological mechanisms.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.66, No.3, p.141-152. Illus. 131 ref.

CIS 95-2070 Rothman K.J.
Cancer occurrence among workers exposed to acrylonitrile
A MEDLINE search identified 12 published epidemiological studies that have reported incidence or mortality experience among workers exposed to acrylonitrile. Though many of the studies had design flaws, it was possible to use meta-analytical techniques to show that there is little evidence for carcinogenicity among such workers. The combined information from these studies is insufficient, however, to support confidence about a lack of carcinogenicity at all sites. Nevertheless, despite the flaws in some of the individual studies, the summarized findings offer reassurance that workers exposed to acrylonitrile face no striking increases in mortality for all cancers or for respiratory cancer.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1994, Vol.20, No.5, p.313-321. 18 ref.

CIS 95-977 Rando R.J., Poovey H.G.
Dichotomous sampling of vapor and aerosol of methylene-bis-(phenylisocyanate) [MDI] with an annular diffusional denuder
A dichotomous sampler was developed for separation of airborne methylene-bis-(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) into vapour and aerosol fractions. The sampler consisted of an impactor inlet, two "denuder" sections in which a ring-shaped space was formed between two concentric glass tubes, and a final glass fibre filter. The denuders and filter were coated with N-4-nitrobenzyl-N-1-propylamine to trap MDI, which was then determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The sampler was evaluated in the laboratory with test atmospheres of MDI over a range of 24 to 355µg/m3 at an average temperature of 26°C. The total amounts of MDI collected by the dichotomous sampler were not significantly different from a reference sampler over the entire range of MDI concentrations. While this work was done with condensation aerosol, appropriate modification of the sampler inlet should allow use of the device for sampling atmospheres containing larger aerosols.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1994, Vol.55, No.8, p.716-721. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 95-581 Ameille J., Villoingt L.
Prognostic value of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in car painters exposed to isocyanates
Valeur pronostique de l'hyperréactivité bronchique chez des peintres automobiles exposés aux isocyanates [in French]
Thirty five painters exposed to HDI and HDI prepolymers underwent two respiratory examinations consisting of a standardized questionnaire and measurement of pulmonary function including a methacholine challenge over a 2-year period. Non specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (NSBH) was present initially in 11 workers and was associated with a higher tobacco consumption, a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lower baseline values of lung function tests. Compared with car painters without NSBH, those with NSBH had a greater, though not significant, reduction in FEV (76mL/year versus 37mL/year). No case of asthma was diagnosed neither in car painters with NSBH, nor in those without. So, despite the weak number of patients in our study, it appears that the presence of NSBH in car painters exposed to isocyanates is not a good predictor of asthma. On the other hand, performing a test of bronchial hyperreactivity might be used as means of identifying subjects at risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.317-321. 34 ref.

CIS 95-279
Health and Safety Executive, Occupational Medicine and Hygiene Laboratory
Organic isocyanates in air
This revised guidance note (see CIS 88-955 for previous edition) describes a laboratory method for the determination of organic isocyanates in air. Principle: a measured volume of air is drawn through a glass impinger containing 1-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine absorbing solution; organic isocyanates react to form non-volatile urea derivatives; the resultant solution is concentrated and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and electrochemical detection. Scope: the method is suitable for sampling over periods of 10min to 8h for both personal and fixed location monitoring. Analytical range: 7 to 140µg NCO/m3 for a 10L sample volume; for an 8h (30L) air sample the detection limit is 2µg NCO/m3. Aromatic amines will produce interference. Guidance is also given on properties, uses and toxicity of organic isocyanates and first aid following significant exposure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1994. 8p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 2.50.


CIS 96-2200 Persson P., Dalene M., Skarping G., Adamsson M., Hagmar L.
Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate: Measurement of toluenediamine in hydrolysed urine and plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) was studied during 48 hours and biological samples were taken in a factory producing flexible polyurethane (PUR) foam. Five PUR workers, two white-collar workers and two volunteers were studied. The concentrations of TDI in air were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urine and plasma samples were collected, and TDI-related amines, 2,4-toluenediamine (2,4-DTA) and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,6-TDA) were determined by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The environmental concentration of TDI was within the range of 1-10% of the Swedish TLV (40mg/m3). The relationship between 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI varied in atmospheric samples from 3:2 to 1:19. The PUR workers showed TDA plasma concentrations in the range of 1-8ng/mL, significantly higher than the concentration of 0.2-1ng TDA/mL plasma seen in the white-collar workers only rarely exposed to TDI. The concentration of 2,4-TDA and 2,6-TDA in PUR workers' plasma was stable. No relationship could be established between urinary excretion and TDA plasma concentration. It seems to be possible therefore to monitor TDI exposure by measuring TDA plasma concentration.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.50, No.12, p.1111-1118. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 96-1584 Ioxynil
International Chemical Safety Card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritates the eyes and skin.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 96-1567 Dichlobenil
International Chemical Safety Card. Synonym: 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile. Short-term exposure effects: irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 96-1251 Cyclohexyl isocyanate
International Chemical Safety Card. Short-term exposure effects: irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; tear drawing; severe deep burns on the eyes; bronchitis. Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization; asthma; affects acetylcholinesterase.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

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