Cyano compounds - 577 entries found
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Sato M., Ishizu S., Momotani H.
Determination of acrylonitrile, cyanide and thiocyanate in blood and urine.
Procedures for determining the quantity of acrylonitrile, cyanide and thiocyanate in the blood and urine of humans and animals. Acrylonitrile was determined by gas chromatography with Porapak-Q as a filler, after distillation of acrylonitrile from biological media with the reagent methyl ethyl ketone. Cyanide in biological medium was distilled with the aid of bubbling into sodium hydroxide solution by adding sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and determined by Epstein's method. Thiocyanate was determined by Aldridge's method after injection of a sample into an ion-exchange column. The gas chromatogram and calibration curves, and tables with recovery rates are accompanied by English captions. Abstract in English.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Mar. 1975, Vol.17, No.2, p.99-105. Illus. 15 ref.
Porter C.V., Higgins R.L., Scheel L.D.
A retrospective study of clinical, physiologic and immunologic changes in workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate.
Following a description of the process and the plant, this study of 300 workers in a tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) plant, in operation since 1956, presents the diagnostic evaluation of 32 currently employed sensitivity cases, based on physical examination, and pulmonary function and immunologic tests. Sensitisation correlated with the frequency and severity of TDI exposures. Immunologic change can cause clinical symptoms at very low TDI concentrations, wherefore the term hypersensitivity is introduced. Some individuals exposed may have protective antibodies but still experience bronchoconstriction. Because of the complicated diagnosis the use of a composite battery of laboratory tests for physiologic and immunologic changes is required. On the basis of this evaluation the worker can be placed on the job most compatible with his health.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1975, Vol.36, No.3, p.159-168. 6 ref.
Peters J.M., Scheel L.D., Frensdorff H.K., Ferber K.H., Denenberg B.A., Miller R.W., Rye W.A., Beliczky L.S.
Proceedings of the symposium on isocyanates.
This symposium, held in Washington, D.C. on 17-18 Apr. 1974, was attended by manufacturers of TDI, users, production workers and scientists. Main subjects dealt with: immediate and long range respiratory effects of exposure to TDI; immunologic effects of isocycnate exposure; vapour pressure of TDI; industrial responses to isocyanate control; continuous monitoring of aromatic isocyanates; human reactions to isocyanate exposure; aspects of worker and environmental control regarding exposure to tolylene diisocyanate with regard to the criteria document "Occupational exposure to TDI, published in the USA by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) CIS 74-491).
Industrial Health Foundation Inc., 5231 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232, USA, 1975. 93p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: US-$15.00.
Šustov V.Ja., Mavrina E.A.
Clinical picture of chronic poisoning in workers employed in nitron production
K klinike hroničeskoj intoksikacii v proizvodstve nitrona [in Russian]
Examination of 390 workers in the synthetic fibre industry exposed to acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and sodium thiocyanate brought to light functional disorders of the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, liver, cardiovascular system and haematopoietic function. In some cases these disorders were accompanied by symptoms such as nystagmus, olfactory impairment, etc., and characteristic signs of diencephalic disturbance. Prolonged exposure to acrylates inhibits enzyme activity, with resulting biochemical disturbances. Recommendations for treatment.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1975, No.3, p.27-29. 7 ref.
Miller J.A., Mueller F.X.
Evaluation of a continuous instrumental method for determination of isocyanates.
A Dunlop/ICI continuous tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) monitor was evaluated against the NIOSH modified Marcali spectrophotometric method. These and other results suggest it to be a reliable alternative for determining atmospheric TDI in factory environments. When Marcali analysis is necessary, the use of 2 impingers in series is recommended. Use of a correction factor (division by 0.74) for diphenylmethane diisocyanate gave results in good agreement with the spectrophotometric technique.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1975, Vol.36, No.6, p.477-483. Illus. 14 ref.
Le di-isocyanate de toluylène. [in French]
Note describing the production and various applications of tolylene diisocyanate and the hazards encountered (associated with the raw materials used - toluene, nitric acid and oleum 20, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and chlorine, sulfuric and hydrochloric acids -, severe skin and respiratory tract irritation, fire). The U.S. threshold limit value is very low (0.02ppm); the olfactory perception threshold is approx. 0.4ppm. Detailed list of safety instructions applicable at the various phases of manufacture, transport and use (mainly local exhaust ventilation, wearing of protective clothing, gloves and safety spectacles).
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 11 Feb. 1975. 8p. Gratis.
Cirla A.M., Aresini G., Briatico G., Inzoli S., Nava C., Zedda S.
Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for occupational asthma due to isocyanates
Valutazione dei criteri di diagnosi nell'asma professionale da isocianati [in Italian]
Presentation and evaluation of 2 methods of diagnosis (intradermal reaction test by antigen TDI-HSA 40 (tolylene diisocyanate/human serum-albumin conjugate); controlled inhalation exposure to isocyanate). Evaluation is based on examination of 45 occupationally exposed workers (furniture varnishing, expanded plastics manufacture) and 5 controls. Allergic sensitisation to tolylene diisocyanate was observed in 40 of the exposed workers. The bronchospastic reactions may be immediate, delayed or diphasic, these differences probably being due to immunological factors. The value of both test methods for diagnosis and for medico-legal purposes was confirmed.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1975, Vol.66, No.1, p.5-23. Illus. 40 ref.
Long-term effects on the health of men engaged in the manufacture of tolylene di-isocyanate.
A study in 2 parts of workers exposed to tolylene di-isocyanate (TDI): (1) assessment of the symptoms and ventilatory function of asymptomatic workers; (2) assessment of the long-term effects in men who were removed from the plant because of respiratory symptoms. There was no significant difference in symptoms in 76 TDI workers compared with 76 control workers. Annual lung function tests carried out in 180 asymptomatic workers showed that exposure to small concentrations of TDI does not necessarily cause a fall in ventilatory capacity. 46 workers removed from the plants reported long-term symptoms. 61 workers who had developed symptoms showed that the FEV1 was on average 267ml lower than predicted, and the FVC 269ml lower.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1975, Vol.32, No.1, p.72-78. 14 ref.
Fantuzzi A., Consonni G., Locati G.
Development of a method for monitoring isocyanates
Messa a punto di una metodica per la determinazione degli isocianati [in Italian]
Description of a method for determining levels of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) and diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) in air, based on the Marcali reaction, from which it differs by having better colour stability, and by using a large-scale spectrophotometer-recorder. This method enables TDI and MDI monitoring to be done in laboratories having less sophisticated equipment.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1974, Vol.65, No.5-6, p.188-192. Illus. 2 ref.
Experience with isocyanates in the shoe industry
Zkušenosti s izokyanáty v obuvnickém průmyslu [in Czech]
The author measured concentrations of Desmodur T (tolylene diisocyanate) and Desmodur 44 (diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate) in workshops in which glues, granulates and shoe soles were produced, before and after hygiene measures had been taken. The analytical methods are described in detail. The annotated tables of the results show the efficacy of the measures taken (efficient ventilation, rational arrangement of equipment to avoid turbulence, personal hygiene).
Kožařství, Jan. 1974, Vol.4, No.1, p.20-22. 8 ref.
Schanche G.W., Hermann E.R.
Micrograms of TDI by chromatography.
A review of the toxic effects of tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and the methods available for its determination in air is followed by the description of an analytical method which permits easy determination of low concentrations of TDI impinger samples. The method uses electron capture gas chromatography and requires a 3-min sampling time for the determination of concentrations as low as 0.005ppm (one-fourth of the current TLV). The potential applications and the limitations of the method are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1974, Vol.35, No.1, p.47-52. Illus. 14 ref.
Neff J.E., Ketcham N.H.
A detector tube for the analysis of methyl isocyanate in air or nitrogen purge gas.
The need for a simple method to determine the level of methyl isocyanate (MeNCO) in vessels prior to entry or to locate leaks from process equipment led to the development of a detector tube. The useful range of the detector tube, the acceleration of the indicator reaction by increased temperature, the preparation of the detector tube and its calibration are described. The detector tube is based on the orange-to-yellow colour change obtained when MeNCO reacts with p-aminoazobenzene on silica gel. It is capable of detecting 1 to 30ppm MeNCO.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1974, Vol.35, No.8, p.468-475. Illus. 7 ref.
Properties and essential information for safe handling and use of acrylonitrile.
Physical and chemical properties and information on health hazards and fire and explosion hazards are followed by recommendations on environmental control measures, electrical equipment, employee education and training, personal protective equipment, fire fighting, shipping containers, labelling, handling and storage, tank and equipment cleaning and repairs, waste disposal, medical management and first aid.
Chemical Safety Data Sheet SD-31, Manufacturing Chemists' Association, 1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, USA, 1974. 19p.
Reinl W., Schnellbächer F.
Varying reactions to isocyanates - Case studies and occupational medicine investigations
Über die unterschiedlichen Reaktionen auf Isocyanate - kasuistische Beiträge und arbeitsmedizinische Untersuchungen [in German]
The authors quote 11 case histories to illustrate the extreme variations to be found in the clinical course of isocyanate poisoning, and point to the medico-legal consequences. They further report on medical examinations of 46 workers who were symptom-free after several years' exposure to concentrations of isocyanates that were higher, in some cases, than the threshold limit values. No correlation was found between exposure and any anomalies observed. They account for this state of affairs by the mode of selection of the subjects, or by an insensitivity of the respiratory tract due in some measure to cigarette smoking. The very diverse reactions noted - severe reactions to slight exposure, contrasted with tolerance over decades - appear to reflect individual variations in disposition. Routine medical supervision of personnel is thus mandatory.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Apr. 1974, Vol.24, No.4, p.106-118. 13 ref.
Cohen S.R., Maier A.A.
Occupational health case report No.2 - Toluene diisocyanate.
A report of an investigation carried out by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) regarding exposures to isocyanates, paint sprays, solvents and dust in a plant manufacturing articles made by moulding of plastics. It was concluded that under the present conditions, TDI (tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate) does not constitute a health hazard. However, symptomatic workers on the TDI line appear to be exposed to petroleum naphtha, a known irritant. It was found that the elevated environmental level of the solvent methyl ethyl ketone constitutes a borderline hazard and that no hazard exists in the paint spraying area. Recommendations are made concerning medical monitoring of workers exposed to TDI and the improvement of protective measures at the plant.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1974, Vol.16, No.2, p.114-118. 11 ref.
Wegman D.H., Pagnotto L.D., Fine L.J., Peters J.M.
A dose-response relationship in TDI workers.
111 workers exposed to TDI (toluene diisocyanate) were medically investigated. Examinations included a questionnaire which provided a history of work, pulmonary diseases, smoking habits and respiratory symptoms. Ventilatory capacity was measured before and after a workshift. Exposures ranged from 0.002 to 0.013 ppm TDI (i.e. below the current threshold limit value). Workers were divided into 4 groups over this exposure range. All 4 groups manifested a significant decline in FEV1.0, the magnitude of decrease correlating with the level of exposure. The data obtained support a dose-response relationship between exposure and acute respiratory effect.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1974, Vol.16, No.4, p.258-260. 8 ref.
Methods for the detection of toxic substances in air - Aromatic isocyanates.
Revised and enlarged edition of the booklet first issued in 1970. It provides information on the occurrence, industrial uses and toxic effects of aromatic isocyanates, and on appropriate first-aid treatment. It describes the test procedure (based on Marcali's method) and apparatus suitable for the determination of industrial organic aromatic isocyanates in air in concentrations of the order of 0.02ppm and in the presence or absence of aromatic primary amines.
Booklet No.20, H.M. Factory Inspectorate, Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1973. 13p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: £0.21.
Saia B., Rossi A., Mastrangelo G.
Epidemiological survey of respiratory function alterations in exposure to isocyanates
Indagine epidemiologica sulle alterazioni della funzionalità respiratoria nella esposizione a isocianati [in Italian]
Study of 46 workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate in a refrigerator factory. In the majority of cases, spirographic changes were found, characterised by a reduction in pulmonary volume directly proportional to the total duration of exposure to the hazard, and more frequent in those working at ovens where exposure is the most severe. The isocyanate may cause both an allergic asthma and direct respiratory lesions; in some cases, both mechanisms are combined. This is confirmed by the presence of anti-toluene diisocyanate antibodies in relation to the most significant changes in respiratory function, which are often an aggravating factor.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1973, Vol.64, No.3-4, p.143-150. 8 ref.
The health status of workers in contact with diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI)
Zdravotní stav pracujících s difenylmetan-4,4'-diisokyanátem (MDI) [in Czech]
The author studied the health status of 44 workers engaged in the manufacture of products from polyurethane foam based on MDI. After a mean exposure time of 16 months, 43.5% of the persons examined showed exertion dyspnoea which was not accompanied by any changes in the principal indices of pulmonary ventilation (VC, FEV). The author noted, in 70% of the cases, a simple hyperaemia of the conjunctiva and, in 50% of the cases, various abnormalities of the upper respiratory tract which could not be attributed to exposure to MDI. The pre-employment examinations of workers who are to be occupationally exposed to MDI should be completed by yearly ear, nose and throat examinations and spirometric tests. Lung disorders, disorders of the upper respiratory tract, skin diseases and allergies constitute counterindications for working with MDI.
Pracovní lékařství, June 1973, Vol.25, No.6, p.242-244. Illus. 6 ref.
Tanser A.R., Bourke M.P., Blandford A.G.
Isocyanate asthma: respiratory symptoms caused by diphenyl-methane di-isocyanate.
57 employees of a factory using diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI) were investigated. 4 employees had developed hypersensitivity to MDI, of whom 2 had severe and 1 moderate asthma. 10 other employees had experienced unpleasant, mainly respiratory irritant effects from MDI vapour. The finding indicate that there is a significant hazard from MDI but that this can be controlled if appropriate medical and technical precautions are taken.
Thorax, Sep.1973, Vol.28, No.5, p.596-600. 12 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of acute and chronic health disorders due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (8 hours) should not exceed 0.005 ppm (0.036 mg/m3); the concentration of TDI in air should not exceed 0.02 ppm (0.14 mg/m3) in any 20 min period. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices and control procedures, sanitation, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of the standard; work practices. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of TDI in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HSM 73-11022, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 10852. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1973. 97 p. 84 ref. Price: US-$1.25.
This note indicates the hazards involved in the industrial use of isocyanates and describes appropriate safety precautions to be taken. Chemical reactions of isocyanates; determination of environmental levels; toxic effects; handling of isocyanates; protective clothing; medical supervision of workers; first aid; statutory requirements; types of isocyanates compounds; uses of isocyanates. Toxic hazards and precautions in manufacturing processes: flexible foam (manufacture of foam block, flame bonding of flexible foam, manufacture of moulded articles, waste foam products, insulation, boats, other uses); rigid foam (insulation, moulded articles, packaging, other uses); urethane rubbers; surface coatings (urethane oils, blocked isocyanate coatings, polyisocyanate coatings); adhesives; and foundry core binders.
Technical Data Note No.41, Department of Employment, H.M. Factory Inspectorate, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1973. 7 p. Gratis.
Minister of State for Social Affairs, Paris, France.
Decree No.73-215 of 23 February 1973 to revise and supplement the schedule of occupational diseases annexed to Decree No.46-2959 of 31 December 1946
Décret n° 73-215 du 23 février 1973 revisant et compléant les tableaux de maladies professionnelles annexés au décret n°46-2959 du 31 décembre 1946. [in French]
This decree, which came into force on 2 Mar. 1973, adds to the statutory list of occupational diseases the following new tables (Nos.59 to 63): occupational poisoning due to hexane; occupational poisoning due to pentachlorophenol or sodium pentachlorophenolate; diseases due to cadmium and its compounds; diseases due to organic isocyanates; diseases due to proteolytic enzymes. Table No.34 is amended. [The text of this decree is also reproduced in Travail et sécurité, Paris, Mar. 1973, No.3, p.223-227, with comments, followed by the text of the administrative circular of 7 Mar. 1973 on this subject].
Journal officiel de la République française, 2 Mar. 1973, No.52, p.2321-2322.
Human responses to isocyanate exposure.
Isocyanates produce skin and eye reactions, but the most important human response is the respiratory one. 2 types of respiratory response occur: a direct irritant one, requiring supportive treatment only, and a truly allergic response necessitating steroid and bronchodilatory therapy. The importance of volatility is extremely relevant to the respiratory response since respiration of the fumes is necessary for its occurrence. The lower the molecular weight of the compound, the higher the volatility. Increasing volatility with temperature rises and dissipation of fumes in high humidity are hazards to be considered.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1973, Vol.15, No.3, p.306-307. 16 ref.
Morel C., Cavigneaux A.
Acrylonitrile. [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology. References to French regulations concerning occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations on technical and medical aspects.
Fiche toxicologique No.105, French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), 9 avenue Montaigne, 75008 Paris, France. Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Paris, France, 3rd quarter 1973, No.72, Note No.860-72-72, p.383-387. 23 ref.
Experiments with acrylonitrile - Fire extinction tests
Experimenten met acrylnitril - Blusproeven [in Dutch]
A series of large scale tests with acrylonitrile were carried out in Spring 1971. The results of these tests (which were published in a report abstracted on CIS 72-1161) brought to light the significant qualities of a synthetic extinguishant foam, Komeet Extract S. However, this foam has the disadvantage that it cannot be projected over long distances. Consequently, new tests were carried out to find suitable alternatives. This brochure gives a detailed description of these experiments with various extinguishants, and presents and comments on the results obtained. An English version of the report is contained in the second half of the brochure.
Directorat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1972. 48p. Illus.
Toluene diisocyanate in industry - Operating and medical codes of practice
The Codes recommend working procedures which will ensure maximum safety when using toluene diisocyanate and make detailed recommendations for the medical selection, screening, and supervision, of people who may be exposed to isocyanates, in order to protect them against possible health hazards. Individual sections are devoted to: the hazards of isocyanates; design and equipment of production premises and plant; physical and chemical characteristics of toluene diisocyanate; bulk and drum handling, discharge from drums and handling of small quantities; spillages; measurement of atmospheric concentrations; operator training; protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment; pre-employment medical examinations; periodic health checks; health checks on return to work after illness; and first aid. The questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and the lung function tests recommended for the pre-employment examination are detailed.
British Rubber Manufacturers' Association Ltd., Health Research Unit, Scala House, Holloway Circus, Birmingham 1, United Kingdom, 1971. 52p. Illus. Price: £2.00.
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