Cyano compounds - 577 entries found
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Liot F., Philbert M., Dessanges J.F., Hadengue P., Briotet A., Seitz B., Lemaigre D.
Respiratory allergy to polyurethanes - Usefulness of provocation tests - A case study
Allergie respiratoire aux polyuréthanes - Intérêt des tests de provocation - A propos d'une observation. [in French]
Case study of allergic asthma, finally diagnosed after much trial and error, in a subject indirectly exposed to a diisocyanate (Desmodur T), his office being adjacent to a motor car painting shop. The author makes use of this case study to stress the usefulness of provocation tests, which enabled the diagnosis to be made, and to recommend the examination and interviewing of the patient on the work site itself. Medico-legal aspects are considered.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1978, Vol.39, No.12, p.713-719. Illus. 14 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to nitriles.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational disease due to mono- and dinitriles and cyanohydrins. The time-weighted average concentrations for up to a 10h workshift, 40h work week or ceiling concentrations based on a 15min sampling period are (mg/m3, ppm, type of limit given): acetonitrile (34, 10, TWA); propionitrile (14, 6, TWA); n-butyronitrile (22, 8, TWA); isobutyronitrile (22, 8, TWA); acetone cyanohydrin (4, 1, ceiling); glycolonitrile (5, 2, ceiling); malononitrile (8, 3, TWA); adiponitrile (18, 4, TWA); succinonitrile (20, 6, TWA); tetramethylsuccinonitrile (6, 1, ceiling). Other recommendations relate to medical surveillance, labelling and posting, personal protective equipment and clothing, information of personnel, work practices and control procedures, sanitation, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects (literature review, dose-response relations); environmental data; exposure control; development of standard; research needs. Procedures for sampling and analysis and first aid are given in appendices.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-212, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1978. 155p. 127 ref.
Sansone E.B., Tewari Y.B.
Penetration of protective clothing materials by 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, ethylene dibromide, and acrylonitrile.
Materials tested were natural rubber, neoprene, a mixture of the two, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl alcohol, and nitrile. The ranges of penetrant concentrations observed after 5 and 240min are given.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1978, Vol.39, No.11, p.921-922. Illus. 5 ref.
Dharmarajan V., Weill H.
Physical state of airborne p,p'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and its measurement.
Measurement of MDI and setting of exposure limits are based on the assumption that MDI is in the gas phase. However, a major portion of airborne MDI in the working environment during spraying operations is present in aerosol form. The standard method thus underestimates the concentration at the workplace. A new method for calibration of continuous reading monitors to measure airborne MDI concentrations in mg/m3 (instead of ppm) is described.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1978, Vol.39, No.9, p.737-744. Illus. 3 ref.
NIAX catalyst ESN - A mixture of dimethylaminopropionitrile and bis[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl] ether.
Published as Joint NIOSH/OSHA Current Intelligence Bulletin No.26, this warning notice refers to outbreaks of renal dysfunction among workers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacture. Background details are given together with results of studies. Animal studies are discussed and the NIOSH recommendations are reproduced with suggested guidelines for minimising employee exposure (monitoring, product substitution, contaminant controls, employee isolation, personal protective equipment).
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-157, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, May 1978. 7p.
Adams W.G.F., Carney I.F., Chamberlain J.D., Paddle G.M., Peters J.M., Wegman D.H.
In the first of these 2 letters to the Editor, Adams et al. review their own and other studies and conclude that it is unjustified to suggest that occupational exposure to TDI at 0.003ppm or higher is unsafe; in their opinion the TLV of 0.02ppm is sufficient to protect the vast majority of workers. In their answer, Peters and Wegman, whose work (CIS 77-1993) is criticised in the first letter, assert their view that TDI has serious respiratory effects at 0.003ppm and above, and that workers should be protected from these effects.
Lancet, 17 June 1978, Vol.1, No.8077, p.1308 and 26 Aug. 1978, Vol.2, No.8087, p.472. 5 ref.
Sakurai H., Onodera M., Utsunomiya T., Minakuchi H., Iwai H., Matsumura H.
Health effects of acrylonitrile in acrylic fibre factories.
The relationship between exposure and biological effects of acrylonitrile (AN) was studied in 102 workers exposed for more than 5 years and in controls at 6 acrylic factories, classified into 3 groups according to AN exposure. Exposure in the group with the highest 8-h average was 4.2ppm, and in these workers the mean urinary AN concentration was 360µg/l and the mean urinary thiocyanate concentration 11.4mg/l. No health effects of AN were seen, except possibly slight liver damage in highly exposed workers. Carcinogenicity was not studied. Urinary AN and thiocyanate determinations may provide a useful estimate of exposure at levels below 5ppm.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1978, Vol.35, No.3, p.219-225. 24 ref.
Karol M.H., Ioset H.H., Alarie Y.C.
Tolyl-specific IgE antibodies in workers with hypersensitivity to toluene diisocyanate.
Incorporation of a p-tolyl (mono)isocyanate-human serum albumin (TMI-HSA) antigen conjugate into a solid-phase radioimmunoassay permitted detection of tolyl-specific IgE antibodies in 3 of 4 workers with clinical hypersensitivity to tolylene diisocyanate (TDI). The worker with a negative reaction had not been exposed to TDI for at least 2 years. 19 TDI-exposed, non-sensitised workers had antibody titres similar to normal. High titres of tolyl-specific IgE antibodies were not correlated with high levels of total serum IgE. Use of the monoisocyanate instead of TDI in antigen preparation prevented cross-linking of antigen protein, as usually occurs with TDI, and assured that tolyl hapten groups were exposed. TMI-HSA antigens may prove beneficial in serological or cutaneous evaluation of TDI-sensitised workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1978, Vol.39, No.6, p.454-458. 17 ref.
NIOSH current intelligence bulletin reprints - Bulletins 1 thru 18.
These reprints include the initial notification of the hazards presented, the background (studies, toxicity in animals and humans, workers and industries subject to exposure, supplier and users of the substances) and bibliographies. Studies in progress are mentioned and recommendations are given for chloroprene, trichloroethylene, ethylene dibromide, chrome pigments, asbestos, hexamethylphosphoric triamide, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane, chloroform, radon daughters, dimethylcarbamoyl chloride, diethylcarbamoyl chloride, explosive azides, inorganic arsenic, nitrosamines in cutting fluids, metabolic precursors of 2-naphthylamine, 2-nitropropane, acrylonitrile.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-127, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 1 Mar. 1978. 125p. 104 ref.
Hardy H.L., Purnell C.J.
Use of foam for the emergency suppression of vapour emissions from organic isocyanate liquid surfaces.
An initial experimental study to compare the efficiency of various types of firefighting foam in suppressing vapour emission from an exposed liquid surface of tolylene diisocyante (TDI) is reported. The requirements for effective action are listed. The work concentrated on foam with an expansion ratio of 10. Foaming agents chosen for evaluation were: 4% protein, 3% synthetic (lauryl alcohol derivative), 6% fluorochemical (surfactants with perfluorinated groups), and 4% alcohol-resistant (protein-based with additives to prevent destruction of polar solvents). The protein-based foams were the most effective, the fluorochemical foam least. Protein-based foam formed a gel-like skin over the liquid isocyante surface before appreciable water drainage occurred, and atmospheric TDI concentrations remained below the TLV for several hours.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 1978, Vol.21, No.1, p.95-98. 6 ref.
Jacobs H.W., Syrjala R.H.
The use of infrared analyzers for monitoring acrylonitrile.
A small portable infrared gas analyser for analysis of a wide variety of gases and vapours is described. For acrylonitrile monitoring, it can be incorporated into a fixed-station, multi-point monitoring system which sequentially measures the acrylonitrile concentration at 12 separate locations up to 400ft (120m) from the instruments and records them on a strip chart. The system requires very little operator attendance and no routine maintenance or expendable supplies. It can be equipped with alarms to warn of high concentration levels. Other applications are presented.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1978, Vol.39, No.2, p.161-165. Illus. 1 ref.
Kimmerle G., Eben A.
Toxicity and determination of methyl isocyanate in air
Toxicité et dosage dans l'air de l'isocyanate de méthyle [in French]
Translation of: Zur Toxizität von Methylisocyanat und dessen quantitativer Bestimmung in der Luft. Archiv für Toxikologie, Berlin (West), 1964, Vol.20, No.4, p.235-241. Illus. 12 ref. Research on inhalation toxicity and cutaneous effects of methyl isocyanate (MI) in animals. Inhalation of MI vapours, even when diluted, caused pulmonary oedema, as well as severe lesions of the skin and mucosae. The authors describe a method for determination of MI concentrations in air and propose a TLV of 0.02ppm.
Traduction INRS 75 A-77, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1977. 15p. Illus. 12 ref.
Wallenstein G., Rebohle E., Schneider W.D., Bergmann I.
Diagnosis and evaluation of respiratory tract diseases due to isocyanates
Zur Diagnostik und Begutachtung von Atemtrakterkrankungen durch Isozyanate [in German]
Clinical, functional and allergological studies in 70 patients from various branches of polyurethane production and processing are reported. All were exposed to isocyanates, mainly tolylene diisocyanate, and were suffering from respiratory tract symptoms. The toxic and irritating properties of the isocyanates played the major role, and there was no evidence of an allergic process. In the German Democratic Republic, recognition of this condition as an occupational disease is possible by way of a special decision.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1977, Vol.23, No.3, p.142-145. Illus. 45 ref.
Maltoni C., Ciliberti A., Di Maio V.
Carcinogenicity bioassays on rats of acrylonitrile administered by inhalation and by ingestion.
Acrylonitrile was given by inhalation in doses of 5, 10, 20 and 40ppm for 4h daily, and by ingestion in a dose of 5mg/kg, both for a year. Results were generally not significant, and the compound is evaluated as having a borderline oncogenic effect. Proposals for further investigations are made.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1977, Vol.68, No.6, p.401-411. Illus. 1 ref.
Conso F., Neel P., Pouzoulet C., Efthymiou M.L., Gervais P., Gaultier M.
Acute poisoning by halogenated hydroxybenzonitrile derivatives in man (ioxynil, bromoxynil).
Toxicité aiguë chez l'homme des dérivés halogénés de l'hydroxybenzonitrile (ioxynil, bromoxynil) [in French]
Description of 4 cases of acute poisoning in workers at the drying stage in the production process for these herbicides. The biochemical action of 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile or bromoxynil, and 3,5,-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile or ioxynil is the same as that of 2,4-dinitrophenol and dinitro-o-cresol: disturbance of the cellular oxidative phosphorylation processes, giving rise to pathological sweating followed by thirst, emaciation and functional renal insufficiency. Poisoning was due in a large measure to a considerable increase in production without a parallel increase in the ventilation capacity of the workshop. Factors favouring poisoning: heat, long working hours, neglect of hygiene rules (shower after work, wearing of mask).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, July-Aug. 1977, Vol.38, No.7-8, p.674-677.
Experimental determination of maximum admissible concentration of benzonitrile in the workplace air
Ėksperimental'noe obosnovanie predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii benzonitrila dlja vozduha rabočej zony [in Russian]
Results of studies in several animal species of the acute (lethal concentration and dose) and chronic toxicity of benzonitrile, which produces symptoms similar to those of benzene poisoning (functional changes of the nervous system, liver and kidneys, morphological peripheral blood changes). The acute poisoning hazard is negligible. There is a high risk of poisoning by chronic inhalation, with a danger threshold of 10mg/m3. An exposure limit of 1mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1977, No.6, p.34-37. 11 ref.
Diisocyanates. A review of the literature on medical and toxicological observations
Diisocyanater. En litteraturstudie över medicinska och toxikologiska erfarenheter [in Swedish]
Subjects reviewed: types of diisocyanate and chemical properties; effects of exposure (reactions with biological tissues, animal experiments, observations of human exposure, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects); theories on pathogenesis; preventive measures (threshold limit values, methods of determination in air, periodic medical examinations of exposed workers).
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1977:11, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden. 73p. 96 ref.
Isocyanates - Medical surveillance.
Sections of this guidance note are devoted to: properties and reactions of isocyanates; di-isocyanates (particularly tolylene di-isocyanate, diphenyl methane di-isocyanate and hexamethylene di-isocyanate); sources of exposure; TLVs; clinical effects on eyes, skin and respiratory system; medical supervision (pre-employment and periodic examinations); interpretation of spirometry; first aid instructions and facilities.
Guidance Note MS 8, Health and Safety Executive, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, June 1977. 3p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: £0.30.
Butcher B.T., Jones R.N., O'Neil C.E., Glindmeyer H.W., Diem J.E., Dharmarajan V., Weill H., Salvaggio J.E.
Longitudinal study of workers employed in the manufacture of toluene-diisocyanate.
Workers at a tolylene diisocyanate (TD) manufacturing plant were studied longitudinally (health questionnaire, lung function tests, environmental monitoring, and immunologic testing). 26 of 89 workers in the exposed group reported increased lower respiratory symptoms. Environmental monitoring showed frequent excursions of TD concentrations above the TLV. There was poor correlation between area and personal exposure levels. No exposure-related decline of pulmonary function was demonstrable. Immunologic studies showed development of positive skin test to TD-human serum albumin conjugate by some persons and increasing incidence of TD-specific IgE antibodies as measured by radioallergosorbent test. TD did not induce histamine release from leukocytes in vitro but did diminish in vitro stimulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate by isoproterenol. Most of the clinically sensitive persons demonstrated adverse bronchial response when challenged by inhalation of TD. When challenged with Mecholyl, clinically sensitive persons showed greater reactivity of airways than nonsensitive persons.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Sep. 1977, Vol.116, No.3, p.411-421. 36 ref.
New first aid/medical treatment label for exposure to acrylonitrile.
This label is designed to accompany patients for further medical care after emergency treatment. Places to be marked indicate degree of exposure, toxic effects, symptoms, first aid given and medical treatment to be carried out.
Chemical Industries Association Ltd., Alembic House, 93 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7TU, United Kingdom. Price: £0.54 per 10.
Cavelier C., Pham Q.T., Mereau P., Mur J.M., Rombach F., Cicolella A., Bui Dinh Long L.
Isocyanates and respiratory function - Results of 2 epidemiological studies in workers engaged in the manufacture of polyurethane products
Isocyanates et fonction respiratoire - Résultats de deux enquêtes épidémiologiques chez des ouvriers fabriquant des pièces de polyuréthane. [in French]
These studies carried out by the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) revealed: (1) discrete changes in alveolar permeability in workers exposed to diisocyanate concentrations close to the currently permissible TLV (0.02ppm); and (2) clinical signs and functional changes in subjects exposed to concentrations which in some cases were 100 times higher than the TLV.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1977, No.88, Note No.1068-88-77, p.315-327. Illus. 33 ref.
Wegman D.H., Peters J.M., Pagnotto L., Fine L.J.
Chronic pulmonary function loss from exposure to toluene diisocyanate.
A dose-response relationship was found in 1972 in 112 workers exposed to TDI. This paper reports re-examination of 57 of them in 1974. They were divided into 3 exposure groups (<0.0015; 0.0020-0.0030; >0.0035ppm). Decline in the FEV1.0 in 2 years was 3-4 times higher than expected in the highest dose group, borderline in the middle group, and normal in the low-dose group. Chronic occupational exposure to 0.003ppm (TLV: 0.02ppm) is considered unsafe.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1977, Vol.34, No.3, p.196-200. 17 ref.
Butcher B.T., Salvaggio J.E., O'Neil C.E., Weill H., Garg O.
Toluene diisocyanate pulmonary disease: immunopharmacologic and mecholyl challenge studies.
Workers showing clinical sensitivity to tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) were studied for (1) in vitro TDI-induced leukocyte histamine release; (2) determination of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in lymphocytes exposed to TDI; (3) effect of TDI on the isoproterenol-induced increase in lymphocyte cAMP levels; and (4) acetyl-β-methylcholine (mecholyl) inhalation challenge. TDI did not induce histamine release; lymphocyte cAMP levels were not affected by TDI exposure; stimulation of lymphocyte cAMP by isoproterenol was reduced; when challenged with mecholyl, 7 of 10 sensitive individuals had a greater than 20% decrease in FEV1 (1 of 10 controls). TDI-induced obstructive airways disorders may be associated with altered β-adrenergic function.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Mar. 1977, Vol.59, No.3, p.223-227. Illus. 30 ref.
Morel C., Cavigneaux A., Protois J.C.
Fiche toxicologique No. 129, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14.
4,4'-diisocyanate de diphénylméthane. [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, storage, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology. French occupational safety and health regulations in force, protection of the environment, transport. Technical and medical recommendations. Annexe: preparation of decontaminants; destruction of waste.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1977, No. 87, Note No.1065-87-77, p.263-267. 23 ref.
ECG changes in acute n-butyl isocyanate poisoning
EKG-Veränderungen bei der akuten n-Butylisozyanatvergiftung [in German]
The irritant effect of isocyanates on the conjunctiva, trachea and bronchi is known. These studies in 18 persons involved in an industrial accident confirmed the harmful respiratory effects, while electrocardiographic changes in the conduction system occurred in 7 cases. The ECG changes were no longer present after 8 days. The possibility that the effect on the cardiac muscle results from hydrolysis products is discussed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Apr. 1976, Vol.22, No.4, p.235-238. Illus. 23 ref.
Hoffmann P., Kleine D., Franzen E.
Detection of acrylonitrile exposure: Detoxication by coupling to D-glucuronic acid
Zum Nachweis der Acrylnitril-Exposition: Detoxikation von Acrylnitril durch Kopplung an D-Glucuronsäure [in German]
To study the metabolic pathway of nitriles in mammals and its value as an exposure test, the increase in free and conjugated glucuronic acid in the urine of rats after oral intoxication with acrylonitrile was measured. Glucuronic acid was significantly raised in the first 24h urine after a dose of at least a quarter of the LD50 (20.5mg/kg). Glucuronic acid excretion returned to normal on the 2nd day after exposure. A mechanism is suggested for the binding of nitrile, in which N-glucuronidate is formed after hydrolysis to the amide. Development of a simple exposure test for workers engaged in the production and processing of acrylonitrile is considered possible.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, May 1976, Vol.22, No.5, p.310-312. 19 ref.
Hansen I., Rothe A.
Occupational medical viewpoints in polyurethane processing
Arbeitsmedizinische Gesichtspunkte bei der Verarbeitung von Polyurethanen [in German]
The contents of this booklet are based on a broad literature review and the author's experience. Aspects dealt with: basis of polyurethane (PUR) chemistry, toxicology of starting materials for PUR, applications of PUR processing procedures and aspects of health hazards due to starting materials in PUR production, assessment of health hazards in PUR processing, occupational health protection of workers in the PUR-processing industry.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1976. 79p. 121 ref. Price: M.2.20.
Ostrovskaja R.S., Podrez Z.G., Braginskaja L.L., Boklag Ė.P., Efremov A.M., Volkova G.A.
Health status of workers in a modern acrylonitrile production plant
Sostojanie zdorov'ja rabotajuščih na sovremennom proizvodstve nitrila akrilovoj kisloty [in Russian]
Results of an occupational health survey in a modern acrylonitrile production plant. The principal harmful substances encountered were: acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide and hydrocarbons often exceeding Soviet TLVs, and noise. The authors observed in particular changes in nervous and cardiovascular functions (autonomic asthenia with hypervagotonic dystonia), insufficiency of hepatic function, increase in methaemoglobin level and in glucuronic acid excretion.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1976, No.6, p.8-12. 11 ref.
Details are given of uses of acrylonitrile, hazards, fire fighting, source of further information, relevant British regulations, physical and chemical properties.
H 51, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Prevention Association, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJ, United Kingdom, Nov. 1976. 2p.
Gurova A.I., Alekseeva N.P., Gorlova O.E., Černyšova R.A.
Data for establishing TLVs for trifluoromethylphenyl isocyanate and butyl isocyanate in the workplace air
Materialy k obosnovaniju PDK v vozduhe rabočej zony m-triftormetilfenilizocianata i butilizocianata [in Russian]
Data on the toxic effects of these isocyanates and results of animal experiments. A TLV of 1mg/m3 is recommended in both cases.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1976, No.3, p.53-55. 5 ref.
Manno M., Lotti M.
Cholinesterases in human toluene diisocyanate exposure.
Serum and red cell cholinesterase activities were measured and respiratory function examined in 30 workers employed in TDI production. Red cell cholinesterase activity was significantly low in 70%, and 5 cases of increased bronchial reactivity were found. The inhibition mechanism and the relation of this enzymatic change to bronchoconstriction phenomena are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 21 Oct. 1976, Vol.38, No.1, p.55-60. 17 ref.
Saia B., Fabbri L., Mapp C., Marcer G., Mastrangelo G.
Epidemiology of chronic non-specific lung disease in a population exposed to isocyanate - Part I. Analysis of symptoms - Part II. Analysis of respiratory impairment.
Studies in 180 workers at a refrigerator production plant (furnace workers, injectors, assembly-line workers) exposed to diphenylmethane diisocyanate are reported. Part I was based on a European Coal and Steel Community questionnaire and physical examination. 19% had chronic obstructive lung disease and 27% simple bronchitis, correlated with age and duration of exposure. Part II reports the spirometric studies: reductions in VC and FEV1.0 occurred in about half of the workers, significantly related to exposure. Furnace workers (who open the moulds) showed the greatest incidence of changes. With increased exposure the difference between the different workposts tended to diminish.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1976, Vol.67, No.3, p.278-284; July-Aug. 1976, Vol.67, No.4, p.305-314. Illus. 7 ref.
Fässer zerbarsten [in German]
Several drums, containing residual tolylene diisocyanate (TDI), burst. This article examines the causes of the incident. To wash out the residual TDI, a mixture of methanol, water and ammonia was used. Apparently increased internal pressure in the drums built up due to an exothermic reaction of the mixture with TDI and consequent vaporisation of the methanol. Suggested preventive measures: first get rid of as much residual TDI as possible by other means; make slits in the drum lids; use an excess of methanol.
Arbeitsschutz im Werk, 1976, No.34, p.82-83. Illus.
Occupational skin disorders due to polyurethane chemicals
Zur Frage arbeitsbedingter Hautschädigungen durch Polyurethanchemikalien [in German]
On account of the increasing use of polyurethanes the incidence of contact dermatitis, especially that due to diisocyanate compounds, is commoner than the literature suggests. A review of the chemistry of polyurethanes is followed by the author's observations of 12 cases caused by 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, 4 by isophorone diisocyanate, 3 by tolylene diisocyanate and 1 by triphenylmethane triisocyanate. Results of skin tests with standard and special test allergens are tabulated. It is pointed out that contact with polyurethanes during testing is not without danger in itself. The findings suggest group allergy between diphenylmethane diisocyanate and the corresponding aromatic diamine, diaminodiphenylmethane.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Feb. 1976, Vol.24, p.7-24. Illus. 29 ref.
Gut I., Kopecký J., Nerudová J., Holeček V.
Metabolism and toxicity of acrylonitrile
Metabolismus a toxicita akrylonitrilu [in Czech]
Literature survey of the biotransformation and toxicity of acrylonitrile: physical and chemical properties of acrylonitrile; reactivity and biotransformation; metabolism; acute lethal effects; effects on the nervous system, respiratory tract, liver, urinary tract, cardiovascular system, blood, and skin; cumulative effects; clinical picture of toxic effects in man; mechanism of toxicity; determination of acrylonitrile, cyanides and thiocyanates.
Pracovní lékařství, Apr. 1976, Vol.28, No.4, p.110-118. 70 ref.
Scrima M., Salvadori P.
TDI determinations in polyurethane paints and work environments
Controllo del TDI nelle vernici poliuretaniche e negli ambienti di lavoro [in Italian]
A simple gas chromatographic method is described for determination of the free tolylene diisocyanate monomer. Air concentrations during painting by various techniques and during drying, and concentration of TDI in the dry matter of 12 paints are given. Most of the paints tested showed a level well above the limit of 0.7% laid down in the United Kingdom and Germany (Fed.Rep.).
Lavoro umano, Mar. 1976, Vol.28, No.2, p.48-59. 9 ref.
Axford A.T., McKerrow C.B., Parry Jones A., Le Quesne P.M.
Accidental exposure to isocyanate fumes in a group of firemen - Neurological complications after a single severe exposure to toluene diisocyanate.
These 2 articles describe the immediate and long-term gastrointestinal and respiratory (A.T. Axford et al., p.65-71), and neurological (P.M. Le Quesne et al., p.72-78) effects of fumes of burning polyurethane foam experienced by 35 firemen. Persistent respiratory and neurological symptoms were still present 4 years later. Several individual case histories are given.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1976, Vol.33, No.2, p.65-78. Illus. 12 ref.
Seemann J., Wölcke U.
Formation of toxic isocyanate vapours on thermal decomposition of polyurethane paints and their polyfunctional hardeners
Über die Bildung toxischer Isocyanatdämpfe bei der thermischen Zersetzung von Polyurethanlacken und ihren polyfunktionellen Härtern [in German]
A series of accidents prompted investigation of the toxicity of polyurethane (PUR) pyrolysis vapours. The chemistry of PUR paints and avoidance of poisoning by the use of diisocyanates with low vapour pressure (Desmodur), and the known facts on pyrolysis of PUR resins are first dealt with. The conditions (pyrolysis temperature of 400-600°C) and results of studies with commercial hardeners and paints are reported. In all cases diisocyanates were detected, the extent of the reformation varying considerably. The values were however considerably higher for polyisocyanates than for PUR varnishes. In the presence of PUR paints, the possibility of a hazard from thermal decomposition products should therefore always be borne in mind.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Jan. 1976, Vol.26, No.1, p.2-9. 22 ref.
Duprat P., Gradiski D., Marignac B.
Irritant and allergenic properties of 2 isocyanates: toluene diisocyanate (TDI) - diphenylmethyl diisocyanate (MDI)
Pouvoir irritant et allergisant de deux isocyanates: toluène diisocyanate (TDI) - diphénylméthane diisocyanate (MDI). [in French]
The authors studied the irritant properties of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) on the skin and ocular mucosae of white rabbits, using the Draize method (with histopathological examination of the ensuing lesions and their evolution). To determine whether lesions observed in man are allergic in nature, they endeavoured to discover possible delayed sensitising properties of these substances in guinea pigs, using the Kligman-Magnusson method. The results of their experiments, presented in detail in tabular form, show that: on rabbit skin TDI is a medium irritant, more caustic than MDI; on the mucosae of the eye MDI is a mild irritant, TDI is a strong irritant; on guinea-pig skin both TDI and MDI can produce contact allergy-type sensitisation. This allergenic property is long lasting but varies according to the allergen concentration.
European Journal of Toxicology - Journal européen de toxicologie, Jan.-Feb. 1976, Vol.9, No.1, p.41-53. 17 ref.
Charles J., Bernstein A., Jones B., Edwards J.H., Seal R.M.E., Seaton A., Jones D.J.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis after exposure to isocyanates.
This paper gives case reports of 4 patients who developed dyspnoea after exposure to tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) or hexamethylene diisocyanate, in whom evidence of interstitial rather than bronchial disease was found. Lung biopsy was performed in one patient: the microscopic appearances ranged from acute inflammation to end-stage fibrosis, with suggestions that the process was a hypersensitivity response to an inhaled allergen. Challenge tests with TDI-albumin in rabbits produced extensive lung damage of the type associated with an Arthus reaction. It is suggested that patients exposed to isocyanates may occasionally develop a hypersensitivity pneumonitis rather than the more usual asthmatic syndrome.
Thorax, Apr. 1976, Vol.31, No.2, p.127-136. Illus. 23 ref.
Mapp C., Fabbri L., Marcer G., Mastrangelo G., Saia B.
Epidemiological evaluation of the immediate irritative effect of isocyanates: study of the "one-day effect".
Valutazione epidemiologica dell'azione irritativa immediata degli isocianati: controllo del "one day effect" [in Italian]
Report on lung function studies in 19 polyurethane production workers exposed to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The following measurements were made on each subject: vital capacity, one-second forced expiratory volume, and airway resistance. Ventilatory changes (reductions of 28-33%) were found after 8-h exposure, and in some subjects recovery of the vital capacity was incomplete after administration of a bronchodilator aerosol. The severer effects found in workers showing low values in the morning argue against their being employed in conditions exposing them to MDI. Smoking had no effect on the values.
Lavoro umano, Jan. 1976, Vol.28, No.1, p.17-24. Illus. 14 ref.
Seeman J., Wölcke U.
Hazards of thermal decomposition of polyurethane paints and their polyfunctional hardeners
Gefahren bei der Hitzezersetzung von Polyurethanlacken und deren polyfunktionellen Härtern [in German]
Cases of poisoning due to pyrolysis products of polyurethane (PUR) paints led to a study on the reformation of diisocyanates in the form of poisonous vapours: chemistry, toxicology and pryolysis of PUR paints; design of investigation; results. Commercial polyfunctional hardeners and other paints were decomposed, and the volatile pyrolysis products analysed by gas chromatography. Diisocyanates were reformed in all cases, in varying quantities. Aromatic diisocyanates were more readily released than aliphatic. The possibility of a hazard of thermal decomposition products should therefore always be borne in mind when PUR paints are used.
Forschungsbericht Nr.152, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach, 4600 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1975. 59p. Illus. 24 ref.
Diisocyanater [in Norwegian]
These rules (entry into force: 1 Mar. 1976) concern safety and health measures to be observed in all establishments using diisocyanates (in particular, tolylene and diphenylmethane diisocyanates). Contents: physical properties; toxicity; TLVs; safety measures (substitution of other substances; personnel information; medical supervision; personal protective equipment); workplace design and layout, ventilation; housekeeping; storage; destruction of empty containers; first aid; fire hazard; monitoring by detector tube; elimination or neutralisation of spills; penalties.
Verneregler No.33, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Dep., Oslo 1, Norway, 1975. 7p. Gratis.
Mutual Accident Insurance Association for the Chemical Industry (Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie), Heidelberg, Oct. 1975.
Acrylnitril [in German]
Contents of this information sheet: chemical and physical characteristics (particularly occupational safety and health aspects); harmful effects; fire and explosion hazards; technical occupational safety and health measures concerning workplaces and storage, fire and explosions, containers); personal protection (eyes, respiratory tract, skin); first aid; elimination of acrylonitrile; measures in case of fire; advice to plant physicians.
Verlag Chemie, Postfach 1260/1280, 6940 Weinheim, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 10p. Price: DM.1.50.
Conditions of work in acrylonitrile production and their influence on workers' health
Ob uslovijah truda v proizvodstve nitrila akrilovoj kisloty i ih vlijanii na organizm rabočih [in Russian]
Results of several occupational health surveys carried out in an acrylonitrile production unit. A first series of air sampling and tests of clothing samples and other contaminated surfaces (including skin of exposed workers) showed concentrations exceeding TLVs; improved safety engineering methods were then introduced: automation of certain process controls, improved ventilation and airtight enclosure of equipment. In spite of this, laboratory tests on personnel still showed many abnormalities in the blood picture, as compared with healthy controls. The author recommends avoidance of any manual contact, use of barrier creams and thorough decontamination of personal protective equipment.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1975, No.8, p.8-11. 7 ref.
Gurova A.I., Alekseeva N.P., Gorlova O.E., Černyšova R.A.
Toxicity of dimethylcyanamide
O toksičnosti dimetilcianamida [in Russian]
Report on animal experiments, with the following results: the mechanism of action of dimethylcyanamide (DMC) in the body is identical to that of inorganic cyanamides; the methyl groups in the DMC molecule affect its physical properties but not its toxicity; in spite of the great toxicity of DMC the risk of inhalation poisoning is minimal in industrial conditions; DMC is absorbed by the skin and is irritatant to the conjunctiva; it shows little cumulation. Recommended TLV for blending with other cyanamides: 0.5mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1975, No.11, p.23-27. 14 ref.
Haguenoer J.M., Dequidt J., Lévy J.C., Martin D., Jacquemont M.C.
Experimental acetonitrile poisoning - 1. Acute poisoning by intraperitoneal injection - 2. Acute poisoning by inhalation - 3. Medium-term poisoning by repeated intraperitoneal injections - 4. Influence of hydroxocobalamin on medium-term poisoning
Intoxications expérimentales par l'acétonitrile - 1. Intoxications aiguës par voie intrapéritonéale - 2. Intoxications aiguës par voie pulmonaire - 3. Intoxications à moyen terme par injections intrapéritonéales répétées - 4. Influence de l'hydroxocobalamine sur l'intoxicatio [in French]
These 4 notes describe experiments on rats, with the following principal results: lethal doses of acetonitrile are relatively high for rats (this low toxicity is probably linked to the slow transformation of acetonitrile into hydrocyanic acid); the relation between the death of the animal and the cyanide level appears to be established, but the fact that the quantities of free and combined cyanides found in the organs of rats which survived repeated doses of 50mg/kg acetonitrile are in the same order of magnitude as those found after fatal acute poisonings suggests that hydrocyanic acid is not the only agent causing the deaths observed. The protective effect of hydroxocobalamin was demonstrated.
European Journal of Toxicology - Journal européen de toxicologie, Mar.-Apr. 1975, Vol.8, No.2, p.94-121. Illus. 6 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Mar. 1975.
Principles to be observed in preventive medical examinations - Isocyanate hazards
Berufsgenossenschaftliche Grundsätze für arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorgeuntersuchungen - Gefährdung durch Isocyanate [in German]
These principles are intended to serve for prevention and early detection of isocyanate-caused diseases. They relate to the extent of the fitness and follow-up examinations and the following points: list of the toxicologically most important isocyanates, physical and chemical properties and threshold limit values of air concentrations, hazard sources, absorption and method of action, clinical table of acute and chronic poisoning, prohibition of employment of certain categories of workers.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Nov. 1975, Vol.10, No.11, p.223-226. 18 ref.
Multiple hazard substances: ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile and carbon disulfide
Stoffe mit mehreren gefährlichen Eigenschaften: Äthylenoxid - Acrylnitril - Schwefelkohlenstoff [in German]
Toxicity and explosibility of these substances; heat production hazard by polymerisation; hazardous concentrations and chemical reactions; transportation hazards.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Nov. 1975, Vol.27, No.11, p.452-455.
Kimmerle G., Lorke D., Machemer L.
Inhalation toxicity of tert-butyl isocyanide in rats and mice - Acute toxicity and evaluation of embryotoxic and mutagenic effects
Inhalationstoxikologische Untersuchungen mit tertiärem Butylisonitril an Ratten und Mäusen - Akute Toxicität und Prüfung auf embryotoxische und mutagene Wirkungen [in German]
Description of the methods used and results obtained in experiments with tert-butyl isocyanide, used as an intermediate in the chemical industry. Lethal effects were observed in rats only with high concentrations. However, embryotoxic and spermatotoxic effects were observed with low concentrations to which the parent animals did not react.
Archives of Toxicology, 1975, Vol.33, No.3, p.241-250. 12 ref.
Sato M., Ishizu S., Momotani H.
Determination of acrylonitrile, cyanide and thiocyanate in blood and urine.
Procedures for determining the quantity of acrylonitrile, cyanide and thiocyanate in the blood and urine of humans and animals. Acrylonitrile was determined by gas chromatography with Porapak-Q as a filler, after distillation of acrylonitrile from biological media with the reagent methyl ethyl ketone. Cyanide in biological medium was distilled with the aid of bubbling into sodium hydroxide solution by adding sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and determined by Epstein's method. Thiocyanate was determined by Aldridge's method after injection of a sample into an ion-exchange column. The gas chromatogram and calibration curves, and tables with recovery rates are accompanied by English captions. Abstract in English.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Mar. 1975, Vol.17, No.2, p.99-105. Illus. 15 ref.
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