Cyano compounds - 577 entries found
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Mazzella di Bosco M., Tarducci G., Esposito Iacenna V.
Health effects of hydrocyanic acid, cyanides, cyano compounds, cyanic acid and its esters
Contributo alla conoscenza della patologia da acido cianidrico, cianuri, composti del cianogeno, acido cianico e suoi esteri [in Italian]
Aspects reviewed are: pathogenesis (toxicological profiles of hydrocyanic acid; organic compounds such as nitriles; isocyanates), symptoms of acute poisoning, long-term exposure, first aid, prevention and biological monitoring. Conclusions: knowledge of the occupational pathology is relatively sparse, especially as regards the clinical picture of prolonged exposure; medical supervision of exposed subjects is not without difficulties even when methods of biological monitoring are available.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, Sept.-Dec. 1980, Vol.6, Nos.5-6, p.685-700. 60 ref.
Baur X., Dorsch W., Fruhmann G., Römmelt H., Roth P., Diller W.
Clinical symptoms and results of a RAST test and an inhalation provocation test
Klinische Symptomatik und Ergebnisse von RAST und inhalativem Provokationstest [in German]
Report on research to determine the indicative value of the RAST test for clinical diagnosis of asthma due to isocyanate. Description of preparation of test discs, methods used for carrying out the RAST test and TDI exposure test. Technical data concerning exposure, symptoms and results of x-ray examinations, lung function tests and RAST tests in 9 workers with symptoms of respiratory sensitivity are set out in tabular form, with comments. The results show a specific sensitisation with IgE antibodies in several patients with asthma due to exposure to isocyanates. The results of the RAST and the exposure test did not always agree. Tranfer to other work did not always result in immediate disappearance of respiratory disorder.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, Apr. 1980, No.4, p.104-109. 22 ref.
Diller W., Alt E., Bauer X., Fruhmann G.
Mass screening using specific radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) of workers exposed to isocyanate
Feldstudie mit spezifischen Radio-Allergo-Sorbens-Testen (RAST) bei Isocyanat-Exponierten (TDI) [in German]
Results of RAST tests of serum samples from 117 workers exposed to tolylene diisocyanate. The tests were negative in 83 exposed but symptomless workers; in 34 exposed workers with respiratory symptoms 5 had positive RAST test findings. Apparently, isocyanates have a low degree of antigenic potential, but in the case of exposure to isocyanates together with respiratory symptoms, a positive RAST test shows an allergic condition, in which case the worker should be transferred immediately to another post.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, Apr. 1980, No.4, p.100-103. 18 ref.
Determination of isocyanates in air - Liquid chromatography method
Bestämming av isocyanater i luft - Vätskekromatografisk metod (HPLC) [in Swedish]
Description of a liquid chromatography method (high performance) which overcomes some of the disadvantages of spectrophotometric methods (high separation sensitivity for isocyanate adducts). The air to be analysed is passed through a solution of 9-(N-methylaminomethyl)anthracene in toluene. Reaction times vary between 20min and 2h according to the type of isocyanate. The sample is eluted with an acetonitrile/triethylammonium phosphate buffer solution. Detection is by measuring UV absorbance (254nm).
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Arbetsmedicinska avdelningen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1980. 13p. Illus. 2 ref.
Thiess A.M., Frentzel-Beyme R., Link R., Wild H.
Mortality study of workers exposed to acrylonitrile in chemical plants
Mortalitätsstudie bei Chemiefacharbeitern verschiedener Produktionsbetriebe mit Exposition auch gegenüber Acrylnitril [in German]
Review of the present state of the art concerning mutagenicity and pathogenicity of acrylonitrile (AN). Report of a survey of the effects of long-term AN exposure in 1,459 workers (i.e. 15,350 man-years under observation). Analysis of 89 fatalities (breakdown by diagnosis, presence of tumours (20 cases), exposure, smoking habits, and comparisons with predictable statistical values). Many of the workers surveyed were exposed to other substances as well as AN, which renders evaluation of AN exposure difficult. A comparison of the results with those of other epidemiological surveys carried out in other large chemical plants raises the suspicion that AN may be carcinogenic (lung cancer, neoplasms of the lymphatic system).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, July 1980, Vol.30, No.7, p.259-267. Illus. 13 ref.
Durand G., Linglin P.
Isocyanates and respiratory function - Use of respiratory function tests with a "vitalograph" apparatus in occupational medicine
Isocyanates et fonction respiratoire - Apports du vitalograph en médecine du travail [in French]
MD thesis. General considerations on isocyanates (properties, industrial uses, poisoning symptoms, mode of toxicity, TLVs). Report on an investigation in 25 workers employed in a plant using diphenylmethane diisocyanate to protect a rigid polyurethane foam used in the manufacture of skis. The major part of the thesis is devoted to a presentation and detailed analysis of the results of spirometric tests with a "vitalograph" (technical data on this apparatus are given); VC, FEV1, mean mid-expiratory flow rate. Out of 20 subjects whose spirometric tracings could be used, 6 showed a significant reduction in one or more parameters during the daily hours of work. The influence of smoking is considered, and the limitations of the results obtained are emphasised.
Université scientifique et médicale de Grenoble, Domaine de la Merci, La Tronche, France, 1980. 75p. Illus. 40 ref.
Dharmarajan V., Rando R.J.
Critical evaluation of continuous monitors for toluene diisocyanate.
The modalities and results of an exhaustive and critical laboratory study to evaluate the performance of continuous area and personal monitors are described. The studies consisted of dynamic calibrations, the effect of humidity and temperature on the measurements, and the interferences due to commonly encountered contaminants in a TDI manufacturing plant. The response and resolution of the personal monitor for short-term fluctuations of TDI concentration in time and space are reported.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1980, Vol.41, No.12, p.869-878. Illus. 14 réf.
Nava C., Briatico-Vangosa G.
Isocyanate pathology: Methods of immunological diagnosis
La patologia da isocianati: metodi di diagnosi immunologica [in Italian]
250 workers exposed to diisocyanates were studied. Skin tests were done with conjugates of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) or methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and human or egg albumin. There were reactions due to the presence of IgE and IgG immunoglobins, and cross reactions between the isocyanates. Exposure tests were also done in 45 cases: there were immediate and/or diphasic reactions in 55.6% and late reactions in 22.2%. The immunogenic and allergogenic properties of TDI and MDI were established.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1980, Vol.71, No.4, p.305-311. Illus. 13 ref.
Nerudová J., Kopecký J., Gut I., Holeček V.
In vitro investigation of acrylonitrile metabolism in the rat
Metabolismus akrylonitrilu u krysy in vitro [in Czech]
Research on the conversion of acrylonitrile (AN) into cyanide by liver microsomes. The dependance of conversion on the concentration of cofactors, on the concentration of microsomal protein, and pH of the mixture during incubation indicate the role of liver monoxygenases in conversion. Addition of an inhibitor of the epoxy hydratase enzyme significantly decreases conversion of AN to cyanide, this supports the hypothesis according to which the first stage of AN biotransformation is AN oxidation to glycidonitrile and a subsequent hydration of this nitrile into glycolaldehyde cyanohydrin. The presence of cyanohydrin in the incubation mixture seems to be established by processing of this mixture at pH 6.3 after incubation, resulting in the cyanohydrin - cyanide balance being shifted in favour of cyanide, and in a 3-fold increase in the conversion rate of AN to cyanide.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1980, Vol.32, No.3, p.98-103. Illus. 20 ref.
Andersen M., Binderup M.L., Kiel P., Larsen H., Maxild J.
Mutagenic action of isocyanates used in the production of polyurethanes.
Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), 4-4'-methylenediphenyl isocyanate (MDI), 1,6-hexane diisocyanate (HDI), phenyl isocyanate, and 1-naphthyl isocyanate, were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella. TDI, 1-naphthyl isocyanate, and MDI were mutagenic after metabolic activation. The effect is ascribed to the amine analogues formed during hydrolysis. Isocyanates are thus potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic to man.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1980, Vol.6, No.3, p.221-226. Illus. 20 ref.
Hazards of organic isocyanates and their prevention
Risques et prévention lors de l'utilisation des isocyanates organiques. [in French]
Communication to the Joint Technical Regional Committee for the Textile Industry (Comité technique régional des industries textiles), Lille, France. Contents: health disorders and health damage due to commercially available polyurethanes (PU); statistics of compensated disease due to PU in France; properties of isocyanates used in industry; principal uses (paints and varnishes, expanded plastics for moulding; foaming); hazards; preventive medicine; safety engineering (integrated safety; collective protection; storage and distribution; work on storage tanks; leakage; liquid transfer of isocyanates; risk of inhalation); methods of analysis in the atmosphere; fire hazards and their prevention.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, BP 3008, 59024 Lille Cedex, 12 June 1980. 34p. Illus. 15 ref. Gratis.
Nerudová J., Holeček V., Gut I., Kopecký J.
Relations between acrylonitrile pharmacokinetics and its conversion to thiocyanate according to mode of administration
Vztah mezi kinetikou akrylonitrilu po různém způsobu aplikace a jeho přeměnou na rhodanid [in Czech]
In animal experiments, acrylontrile (AN) administered orally is very slowly absorbed by the liver (10% of the dose is found in the stomach 12h after administration), indicating the high level (20-30%) of conversion to thiocyanate. On intraperitoneal administration, absorption is very rapid and its level declines exponentially (half-life 19min), as after intravenous administration. The distribution of AN (0.71/kg) in the body is almost uniform, and the liver-blood distribution ratio of approx. 1 indicates poor affinity of the liver for AN and explains its low rate of conversion to thiocyanate. The pharmacokinetics of foree AN in the blood and especially the liver are consistent with the metabolised AN foraction and not with the urinary elimination rate of thiocyanate (mol/kg/h).
Pracovní lékařství, Jan. 1980, Vol.32, No.1, p.15-18. Illus. 15 ref.
Isocyanater [in Swedish]
This directive (effective 1 Jan. 1981) applies to all activities involved in the production and indusrial use of isocyanates. Contents: general rules (substitution of less harmful substances; use wherever possible of prepolymerised isocyanates; personnel information); medical supervision; marking and labelling; workplaces and workplace layout and equipment (ventilation); elimination of spills; personal protection and personal hygiene. Appended: detailed commentaries (properties of 8 isocyanates, health hazards, reference to other directives and standards).
AFS 1980:10, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 19 Aug. 1980. 20p. Gratis.
Health damage due to diisocyanates
Erkrankung durch Diisocyanate [in German]
Tolylene, diphenylmethane, naphthylene and hexamethylene diisocyanates are the most important as regards volume of production and number of workers exposed. Disorders of the respiratory tract (including a recent case of allergic asthma) were observed in 5% of the exposed workers. Roundup of the state of the art concerning toxic concentrations in animals and man, symptoms and health damage. In comparison with the lung disorders due to these substances, toxic and allergic skin disorders are relatively insignificant. Review of the symptoms and clinical course of allergic asthma; results of immunological research.
Sichere Arbeit, 1980, Vol.33, No.2, p.23-25.
Allergic contact dermatitis from methyl isothiocyanate in soil disinfectants.
Conclusions from 9 cases of occupational exposure are reported: methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) causes primarily a toxic dermatitis, but is also a strong sensitiser; no cross reactions between MITC and benzyl isothiocyanate were seen; in one patient an MITC burn of the foot and leg caused systemic poisoning from absorption with reversible liver parenchymal damage.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1980, Vol.6, No.3, p.183-186. 6 ref.
Smith A.B., Brooks S.M., Blanchard J., Bernstein I.L., Gallagher J.
Absence of airway hyperreactivity to methacholine in a worker sensitized to toluene diisocyanate (TDI).
A woman exposed to TDI working in a plant producing polyester-resin/fibrous reinforced plastic fixtures reacted negatively to tests for p-tolyl isocyanate IgE antibodies and leukocyte inhibition factor for isocyanate antigen. Methacholine challenges were negative even when symptoms were at a maximum. Airway response to TDI may not always be accompanied by methacholine hyperreactivity.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1980, Vol.22, No.5, p.327-331. 42 ref.
Epidemiologic study of workers exposed to acrylonitrile.
1345 workers were analysed from 1956 to 1976. There were 25 cases of cancer (20.5 expected) including 8 of the respiratory tract (4.4). Risk increased with increased duration and severity of exposure. There were 20 cancer deaths (17.4). Acrylonitrile may be a human carcinogen.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1980, Vol.22, No.4, p.245-252. 11 ref.
White W.G., Morris M.J., Sugden E., Zapata E.
Isocyanate-induced asthma in a car factory
Respiratory symptoms occurred in women machinists making seat covers from nylon backed with flame-bonded polyurethane foam. A study of 192 women showed an increase in asthmatic symptoms associated with this fabric. Results are given of lung function and environmental studies. Concentrations of 0.0003-0.003ppm tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) were found in the air around the fabric. 4 of 9 women with symptoms had IgE antibodies to TDI.
Lancet, 5 Apr. 1980, Vol.1, No.8171, p.756-760. 10 ref.
Keogh J.P., Pestronk A., Wertheimer D., Moreland R.
An epidemic of urinary retention caused by dimethylaminopropionitrile.
The epidemic was discovered in a polyurethane production plant, probably due to the use of a catalyst containing dimethylaminopropionitrile. No new cases occurred after its removal.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22-29 Feb. 1980, Vol.243, No.8, p.746-749. 15 ref.
Kreiss K., Wegman D.H., Niles C.A., Siroky M.B., Krane R.J., Feldman R.G.
Neurological dysfunction of the bladder in workers exposed to dimethylaminopropionitrile.
An outbreak of neurogenic bladder dysfunction occurred in 104 (63%) of 166 workers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacture. The epidemic began with the introduction of the catalyst dimethylaminopropionitrile (DMAPN), and stopped when the use of DMAPN was discontinued. Epidemiological and neurological data are given. DMAPN is the only neurotoxin that produces urinary symptoms more frequently than limb nerve symptoms.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22-29 Feb. 1980, Vol.243, No.8, p.741-745. 19 ref.
Cavelier C., Mereau P., Mur J.M.
Results of two epidemiological surveys with workers producing polyurethane foam mouldings.
Résultats de deux enquętes épidémiologiques chez des ouvriers fabriquant des pičces en mousse de polyuréthane. [in French]
One study comprised 318 people working in factories manufacturing car trimmings and seats. The mean atmospheric concentration of isocyanates (TDI and MDI) was generally below the threshold limit value of 0.02ppm. There was no excessive incidence of bronchitic or asthmatic disorders or allergic reactions, especially in TDI exposed workers. Reduction in VC and in factor K (CO transfer/alveolar volume) was observed in the most highly exposed subjects. The second study involved 125 people working in a factory using massive quantities of TDI. Atmospheric concentrations of isocyanates were higher than the TLV on average, with peaks up to 100 times the TLV. There was an excessive incidence of subacute symptoms and syndromes of the restrictive type. Results are compared with those of other authors. A reduction of the TLV is recommended, and MDI should replace TDI.
Edition INRS No.1103, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Oliver-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 1979, p.103-151. Illus. 33 ref.
Diisocyanater [in Norwegian]
Revision of the previous rules (CIS 77-1342). The TLVs for 2,4-tolylene, 2,6-tolylene and diphenylmethane diisocyanates are now fixed at 0.01ppm.
Bestillingsnr. 313, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway, May 1979. 8p. Gratis.
Chester E.H., Martinez-Catinchi F.L., Schwartz H.J., Horowitz J., Fleming G.M., Gerblich A.A., McDonald E.W., Brethauer R.
Patterns of airway reactivity to asthma produced by exposure to toluene diisocyanate.
Bronchial inhalation challenge tests were done in 20 symptomatic workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 10 asthmatic and 10 healthy controls. The presence of immediate, dual and late reactions in symptomatic workers suggested the presence of specific sensitivity to TDI. TDI may cause asthma by both specific and non-specific (irritant) mechanisms.
Chest, Feb. 1979, Vol.75, No.2, Supplement, p.229-231. Illus. 9 ref.
Alexandersson R., Kolmodin-Hedman B., Hedenstierna G., Magnusson M.
Diisocyanates - HDI: Lung physiology studies in car painters
Diisocyanater - HDI: Lungfysiologiska undersökningar av billackerare [in Swedish]
The effects of isocyanates, especially hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), were studied in car painters, sheet-metal workers (exposed to solvents, but not HDI), and car mechanics (no exposures). The results of lung function studies (spirometry and nitrogen washout) on Monday morning were compared with those on Friday afternoon. Closing volume was increased in HDI-exposed workers, and tended to increase over the working week. The nitrogen washout method indicates small airways effects before they are discernible by spirometry.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1980:5, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1979. 22p. 37 ref.
Kiesselbach N., Korallus U., Lange H.J., Neiss A., Zwingers T.
Acrylonitrile - Epidemiological study - Bayer 1977.
Acrylnitril - Epidemiologische Studie - Bayer 1977 [in German]
A study of 884 workers exposed to acrylonitrile in 1950-1977 is reported: population, mortality, cancer mortality, retrospective interpretation. The risk of dying is smaller than (healthy worker effect), and cancer death risk the same as, the risk for the general population. There was no indication of a relation between duration of exposure and the frequency or localisation of tumours.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Oct. 1979, Vol.29, No.10, p.256-259.
Nordic Group of Experts for TLV Documentation - 9. Diisocyanates
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 9. Diisocyanater [in Swedish]
Literature survey of diisocyanate toxicity: physicochemical properties; toxicology, organic effects (irritation, sensitisation, lung function, skin, conjunctiva, blood and haematopoietic organs, gastrointestinal tract); pathogenic mechanism; exposure indices; dose-response relation (acute and chronic effects); research needs; evaluation of data. Appended: TLVs adopted in 18 countries; sampling and analysis methods.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1979:34, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, Aug. 1979, 54p. 106 ref.
Lipina T.G., Tubina A.Ja., Kunilova L.V.
Determination of tolylene diisocyanate and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate in air
Opredelenie toluilendiizocianata i 4,4'-difenilmetandiizocianata v vozduhe [in Russian]
2 photocolorimetric methods are described. 4,4'-Diphenylmethane diisocyanate reacts by condensation with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DABA) in the presence of acetic acid. Sensitivity is 0.25µg/4ml solution. Detection limit is 0.04mg/m3. 2,4-Tolylene diisocyanate also reacts with DABA. Sensitivity is 0.5µg/4ml; detection limit 0.025mg/m3. Chlorobenzene, phosgene, ammonia and biphenyl vapours do not interfere. The diisocyanates can be determined separately.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1979, No.8, p.55-56. 7 ref.
Evaluation and control of industrial exposure to acrylonitrile.
Current toxicological information on acrylonitrile is reviewed with emphasis on the known acute effects, recent evidence of long-term effects, and the revised hygiene standards being developed in the United Kingdom, Fed.Rep. of Germany, and the USA. On the background of the properties of acrylonitrile, important factors in monitoring and controlling workplace exposure are set out: open-air construction, double mechanical seals on pumps and agitators, enclosed drainage system, containment of liquid acrylonitrile or its vapour, venting of storage tanks and vessels during transfer operations, enclosure or ventilation of sampling points, personal protection, training.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1979, Vol.22, No.4, p.429-435. 20 ref.
Hardy H.L., Devine J.M.
Use of organic isocyanates in industry - Some industrial hygiene aspects.
The health hazards (skin contact, eye splash, ingestion, inhalation) of isocyanate monomers and prepolymers are set out, and recent papers dealing with acute and chronic effects of isocyanate inhalation and their relevance to hygiene standards are reviewed. Methods of process control (substitution, total enclosure, partial enclosure under local exhaust extraction) are presented.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1979, Vol.22, No.4, p.421-427. 14 ref.
Tse C.S.T., Chen S.E., Bernstein I.L.
Induction of murine reaginic antibodies by toluene diisocyanate - An animal model of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to isocyanates.
Investigation to establish an analogous homocytotropic antibody model in mice immunised with isocyanate-protein conjugates. Tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) was conjugated to serum albumins; the amount of ligand was determined spectrophotometrically. Mice were immunised and boosted 28 days later with 100µg TDI conjugated proteins or unconjugated proteins plus 1mg alum. Sera were assessed for 48h passive cutaneous anaphylaxis; sera from mice immunised with conjugated serum albumin demonstrated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis titers of 1:57 or higher when challenged with homologous conjugates and somewhat lower titers after reactions with heterologous conjugates. Mice immunised with carrier proteins alone produced homocytotropic antibody (1:40) to corresponding unconjugated proteins and homologous TDI-conjugates (1:5 to 1:10) but not to heterologous carrier proteins or TDI-conjugates. Findings are shown in tabular form.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Oct. 1979, Vol.120, No.4, p.829-835. 17 ref.
Determination of isocyanates in workplace air by liquid chromatography
Mätning av isocyanater i arbetsmiljön med vätskekromatografisk metodik [in Swedish]
Testing of a new method, more sensitive than those currently used to determine concentrations of isocyanates in workplace air. The concentration of isocyanates is determined by combining them with an anthracene derivative when sampling. After separation in the laboratory the isocyanates are determined individually by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The method has been used in industry with good results (manufacture of polyurethane cushions). English version may be obtained from Health and Safety Executive, Translation Services, Explosion and Flame Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, United Kingdom.
Undersökningsrapport 1979:23, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 17184 Solna, Sweden, 1979. 42p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: Swe-cr.10.00.
Henry N.W., Wilhelme R.S.
An evaluation of respirator canisters to acrylonitrile vapors.
At acrylonitrile vapour concentrations of 30, 100, 400 and 1000ppm and 50% relative humidity, industrial size canisters had breakthrough times that agreed favourably with estimated values. At 10ppm acrylonitrile and 7, 50 and 90% relative humidity the breakthrough time was 5 times lower than estimated. Breakthrough times were proportional to the amount of carbon present in the canister. The results illustrate the need to determine breakthrough times for compounds under controlled conditions similar to those encountered in the field, especially at low concentrations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1979, Vol.40, No.12, p.1017-1022. 9 ref.
Harries M.G., Burge P.S., Samson M., Taylor A.J.N., Pepys J.
Isocyanate asthma: respiratory symptoms due to 1,5-naphthylene diisocyanate.
Occupational asthma is reported in 3 workers exposed to 1,5-naphthylene diisocyanate (NDI), a hot curing agent used in manufacturing rubber. NDI was thought to be safer than tolylene or diphenylmethane diisocyanate on account of its higher melting point. Provocation tests indicated sensitisation to NDI. After 3 years, airways narrowing persisted in the 2 workers who remained exposed.
Thorax, Dec. 1979, Vol.34, No.6, p.762-766. 12 ref.
Campbell D.N., Moore R.H.
The quantitative determination of acrylonitrile, acrolein, acetonitrile and acetone in workplace air.
This simple, sensitive procedure uses porous polymer adsorption and thermal desorption with gas chromatographic analysis. Detailed instructions are given. A static and a dynamic calibration procedure are compared. The additional equipment required costs around $2,000.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1979, Vol.40, No.10, p.904-909. Illus. 5 ref.
Kleinsorge H., Thiess A.M., Zeller H.
Investigation of morbidity in workers engaged in phthalonitrile production
Untersuchungen zur Morbidität bei Mitarbeitern aus der ortho-Phthalodinitril-Produktion [in German]
Following information in the literature concerning a possible leukaemia hazard due to phthalonitrile, tests were carried out in employees of a large chemicals plant exposed to this substance. The industrial uses of phthalonitrile and production methods are discussed and possible exposures during production, animal experiments and case studies in man are reviewed. The morbidity survey, covering 81 workers, revealed 11 cases of acute poisoning. Clinical and neurological test results were within normal limits; there appears to be little evidence for any chronic effect.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, May 1979, Vol.29, No.5, p.130-132. 6 ref.
Fleig I., Thiess A.M.
Chromosome tests in phthalonitrile-exposed workers
Chromosomenuntersuchungen bei Mitarbeitern mit Exposition gegenüber ortho-Phthalodinitril (o-PDN) [in German]
Description of the methods used, and results of analysis of chromosome changes in 20 workers exposed to phthalonitrile for periods varying between 2 and 24 years. No significant difference was observed between these results and those of a control group. The presence of chromosome exchanges in the group of exposed workers is mentioned.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, May 1979, Vol.29, No.5, p.127-129. 6 ref.
Frentzel-Beyme R., Thiess A.M., Wieland R.
Survey of mortality among workers employed in phthalonitrile production
Mortalitätssurvey bei Mitarbeitern aus der ortho-Phthalodinitril-Produktion [in German]
Epidemiological survey of 22 workers or former workers of a chemicals plant exposed to phthalonitrile, which is carcinogenic in rats. Causes of death in relation to latency time, case studies and probability factors are indicated for the 13 deaths which had occurred in the workers. Four deaths were due to malignant disease (neoplasms of the stomach and lungs). A 34 year-old worker died from acute myeloid leukaemia with evolution towards leukanaemia, following 53 months phthalonitrile exposure during the 5 years preceding death. No conclusions can be drawn from this isolated case.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, May 1979, Vol.29, No.5, p.121-127. Illus. 3 ref.
Kopecký J., Zachardová D., Gut I., Filip J.
Acrylonitrile metabolism in the rat in vivo
Metabolismus akrylonitrilu u krysy in vivo [in Czech]
Studies on the metabolic fate of acrylonitrile (AN) in the literature are reviewed, and the results reported of experiments in rats with labelled AN-14CN. The major part of the radioactivity eliminated via the urine was in metabolites other than thiocyanates, whatever the mode of administration. Paper chromatography showed the principal metabolite to be N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)cysteine, that is acrylonitrile mercapturic acid. Analysis of urine collected between 8 and 12h after acylonitrile ingestion showed the presence of another as yet unidentified metabolite.
Pracovní lékařství, July 1979, Vol.31, No.6-7, p.203-207. Illus. 30 ref.
Kryńska A., Pośniak M.
Method for determining tolylene diisocyanate in air
Metoda oznaczania toluilenodwuizocyjanianu w powietrzu [in Polish]
A review of the industrial uses and toxicity of 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) and various methods for its determination in air is followed by a description of a colorimetric method by which 0.06mg TDI can be determined in 1m3 air. The TDI is converted into diamine by hydrolysis; the diamine is caused to react with sodium carbonate, and then with salt R, used as a passive component in the coupling reaction which produces an azo dye. Maximum absorption of the compound thus obtained occurs at 490nm wavelength, and the variation coefficient is within ±6%. Salt R effectively replaces N-(1-naphtlyl)ethylenediamine which is difficult to obtain; thus the sensitivity and accuracy of this method are comparable with those of Marcali's method.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1979, Vol.29, No.100, p.35-43. 20 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, London.
Isocyanates: Toxic hazards and precautions
This guidance note gives information on: properties; chemical formulae; TLVs (0.02ppm for toluene diisocyanate and diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and other aromatic isocyanates, 0.01ppm for isophorone diisocyanate, in the United Kingdom); determination of environmental levels; toxic effects; handling of isocyanates; protective clothing; medical supervision of workers and first aid; statutory requirements; descriptive list of 5 types of isocyanate compounds and of 5 other isocyanates; industrial uses; toxic hazards and precautions to be taken in manufacturing processes for foam block, flexible foam (flame bonding), moulded articles, polyurethane foam, etc.) and use of urethane rubbers, polyurethane paints and lacquers, printing inks, adhesives, and foundry core binders.
Guidance Note EH 16, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Feb. 1979. 7p. Price: Ł0.30.
Karol M.H., Sandberg T., Riley E.J., Alarie Y.
Longitudinal study of tolyl-reactive IgE antibodies in workers hypersensitive to TDI.
3 workers with tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) sensitivity were evaluated for IgE antibodies over 13 months, using a radioallergosorbent test system. Antibody titres were elevated in 2 who experienced several bronchial hypersensitivity responses to TDI with or without cutaneous reactions during the study period. Antibody titres were low in a third subject who showed no such reactions during the study. In the absence of renewed TDI exposure, sensitive workers may have titres indistinguishable from those of non-sensitive TDI-workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1979, Vol.21, No.5, p.354-358. 10 ref.
Schoultz K.S., Gideon J.A., Bochinski J.H.
Application of control technology developed in the polyvinyl chloride industry to polymerization processes using acrylonitrile.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymerisation processes and emission sources are sufficiently similar to allow a high level of transfer of control technology. Control strategies and individual controls to limit worker exposure in the PVC industry are described (management organisation, preliminary air sampling, worker training, initial controls of atmospheric process vessels, vent stacks, area and worker isolation, sample collection, filters and strainers, rupture discs and pressure relief valves, leak prevention, work practices, on-stream maintenance, automatic monitoring systems, local ventilation, general exhaust ventilation, long-range controls), and their applicability to PAN processes evaluated in each case.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1979, Vol.40, No.2, p.128-136.
Carcinogenic hazard of acrylonitrile
Risque cancérogčne de l'acrylonitrile. [in French]
A brief review of the uses, physical properties, toxicity and U.S. and Soviet TLVs for acrylonitrile, this information sheet summarises the results of experiments on rats conducted at the Dow Chemical Toxicology Research Laboratory (USA) and by C. Maltoni (Italy) and those of an epidemiological survey carried out by the Du Pont de Nemours company (USA). All these studies pointed towards suspected carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile in man. Acting on the above data, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), USA, issued a standard (effective 2 Nov. 1978) fixing a TLV of 2ppm for acrylonitrile (CIS 78-1357). Standards approximating the NIOSH standard have been issued in the Federal Republic of Germany, and an investigation concerning workplace acrylonitrile concentrations has been undertaken in France.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st quarter 1979, No.94, Note No.1159-94-79. p.19-21.
Hazards of spraying with two-pack paints containing isocyanates.
The spray from these paints consists partly of isocyanate in liquid form, and partly of particles of the prepolymer, with isocyanate droplets adhering to them. 6 case histories of paint sprayers allergic to isocyanates are given, illustrating the lack of information provided by manufacturers and of precautions taken. Recommendations made included: spraying only in booths or enclosures with effective exhaust ventilation; use of airline breathing apparatus; exclusion of workers with a history of respiratory allergy; mention of the isocyanate ingredient on the label.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1979, Vol.29, No.1, p.22-24.
British Cast Iron Research Association
Handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials in the foundry - materials for isocyanate-based processes
This data sheet describes the hazard from isocyanate-based processes for mould and core making in foundries and recommends measures to prevent accidental exposure.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1978. 3p. 7 ref.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Occupational exposure to acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide) - Final standard.
This final standard, dated 22 Sep. 1978 (effective 2 Nov. 1978) sets the permissible limit of occupational exposure to acrylonitrile at 2ppm for an 8-h time-weighted average (TWA), with a ceiling level of 10ppm for any 15min period during an 8-h day, and an "action level" of 1ppm as an 8-h TWA. Definitions are followed by provisions concerning: reporting of emergencies; exposure monitoring; regulated areas; compliance; respiratory protection; protective clothing; housekeeping; hygiene facilities and practices; initial and periodic medical examinations; employee information and training; warning signs and labels; record keeping. Appended: safety data (health hazards, first aid, safe use, handling and storage) and technical guidelines sheet (physical and chemical data; fire, explosion and reactivity data; spill and leak elimination, waste disposal), medical surveillance guidelines, and sampling and analytical methods. The text of the standard is preceded by background and explanatory material.
Federal Register, 3 Oct. 1978, Vol.43, No.192, p.45762-45819.
Fink J.N., Schlueter D.P.
Bathtubs refinisher's lung: An unusual response to toluene diisocyanate.
Immunologic and inhalation challenge studies were performed on a 45 year-old patient engaged in bathtub refinishing who developed systemic and respiratory symptoms (cough, dyspnoea, myalgia, fever to 40°C) suggestive of hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to his occupation (the refinishing process involved the use of a catalyst containing tolylene diisocyanate). All clinical features of the disorder were reproduced by challenge. No immunologic mechanism could be identified. A change of occupation resulted in complete relief of symptoms. The patient had worn a mask when spraying the activated paint, but the premises were inadequately ventilated.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Nov. 1978, Vol.118, No.5, p.955-959. Illus. 24 ref.
Studies on the toxic effect of acrylonitrile - Its metabolism, absorption and excretion.
Rabbits were exposed to 20ppm acrylonitrile for 8h/week for 8 weeks. The amount of free acrylonitrile excreted in the urine increased from the first to the third exposure, after which a steady state was reached. Liver activity and thiocyanate accumulation in the liver also decreased. 48h after a subcutaneous 14C-lacrylonitrile injection an insoluble acrylonitrile complex remained in the blood and tissues. Part of the acrylonitrile absorbed into the body appears to combine strongly with the tissues by cyanoethylation and this complex causes inhibition of enzyme activity, lowering the metabolism of acrylonitrile.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 30 Aug. 1978, Vol.33, No.3, p.497-505. Illus. 23 ref.
Health damage due to diisocyanates
Erkrankungen durch Diisocyanate [in German]
The first instalment of this article considers damage to the skin and respiratory tract following exposure to diisocyanates. Referring to the literature, the author reviews the present state of the art concerning acute toxicity, subacute bronchial disorders and chronic lung disease, with observations on the cases of fever which sometimes occur after inhaling isocyanate vapours. He emphasises the fact that tolylene diisocyanate appears to play a major role in the development of tissue damage. Toxic or allergic skin damage is a less serious problem than lung damage. Clinical aspects and pathogenesis of asthma due to diisocyanates are studied separately in the second instalment: atopical bronchial asthma, asthma with formation of immune complexes, cellular immunity, immuno-pharmacological observations. Up to the present, an immunological mechanism for this typical extrinsic asthma due to use of Desmodur has not been adequately documented.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1978, Vol.26, No.6, p.184-187; and 1979, Vol.27, No.1, p.5-10. 73 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to diisocyanates.
Recommendations are made for the protection of health from 6 diisocyanates. The time-weighted averages and ceiling concentrations (in µg/m3) respectively, are: tolylene diisocyanate 35, 140; diphenylmethane diisocyanate 50, 200; hexamethylene diisocyanate 35, l40; naphthylene diisocyanate 40, 170; isophorone diisocyanate 45, 180; dicyclohexylmethane 4,4'-diisocyanate 55, 210. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of personnel, work and sanitation practices, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the heads: biologic effects of exposure; environmental data; development of standard; reseach needs. Procedures for sampling and analysis and useful additional information are given in appendices.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-215, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1978, 138p. 156 ref.
Liot F., Philbert M., Dessanges J.F., Hadengue P., Briotet A., Seitz B., Lemaigre D.
Respiratory allergy to polyurethanes - Usefulness of provocation tests - A case study
Allergie respiratoire aux polyuréthanes - Intéręt des tests de provocation - A propos d'une observation. [in French]
Case study of allergic asthma, finally diagnosed after much trial and error, in a subject indirectly exposed to a diisocyanate (Desmodur T), his office being adjacent to a motor car painting shop. The author makes use of this case study to stress the usefulness of provocation tests, which enabled the diagnosis to be made, and to recommend the examination and interviewing of the patient on the work site itself. Medico-legal aspects are considered.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1978, Vol.39, No.12, p.713-719. Illus. 14 ref.
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