Amides - 479 entries found
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Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter vaststelling van MAC-waarden (Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards)
Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for thiourea
The health hazards of exposure to thiourea are evaluated. Attention is given to: production, uses and occurrences; environmental and biological monitoring; occupational exposure limits in various countries; toxicokinetics; toxic effects (acute toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutageniticy, and epidemiology). Based on human experiments an occupational exposure limit is recommended of 0.5mg/m3 as time weighted average for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek. Thiourea has sensitising properties. Skin contact should be avoided. Summary in Dutch.
Department of Social Affairs and Employment, Directorate-General of Labour (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 Ma Voorburg, Netherlands, 1990. 11p. 13 ref.
Urea: safe use and handling
Chemical safety data sheet. Toxic effects: risk of mild irritation of skin, eyes and mucous membranes in sensitive persons. Under normal conditions of use and handling, urea is not considered toxic to humans or animals.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1989. 4p. 5 ref.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 89. Thiurams and dimethyldithiocarbamates
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation - 89. Tiuramer och Dimetylditiokarbamater [in Swedish]
A critical survey of the literature relevant for the discussion of an occupational exposure limit is given. Disulfiram: The critical target of the toxic effects is the thyroid gland. Ferbam: The critical effects are sensitisation and cross-sensitisation with other thiurams. Thiram: The critical effects are sensitisation and cross-sensitisation with other thiurams. Thiram may also affect spermatogenesis. Ziram: The critical effects are sensitisation and cross-sensitisation with other thiurams. The present occupational exposure limit values for thiurams and dimethyldithiocarbamates are mainly based on their sensitising properties and effects on skin. There is a need to conduct short- and long-term inhalation exposure studies to clarify dose-effect relationships between effects and exposure to thiurams and dimethyldithiocarbamates in thyroids and gonads.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 35p. Illus. 183 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Pharmaceutical drugs
These monographs survey the available literature on 5 antineoplastic agents, 4 antimicrobial agents, 2 diuretics, ciclosporin (an immunosuppressant), cimetidine (used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers), paracetamol (a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug) and dantron (a laxative). Data include: chemical and physical properties; production, occurrence and analysis; biological data relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans; carcinogenic evaluation. Appendices provide a summary table and activity profiles for genetic and related effects. Of the drugs studies, ciclosporin and thiotepa are classified as carcinogenic to humans.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1990. 415p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 65.00; USD 52.00.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control
NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing adverse health effects from exposure to dimethylformamide (DMF)
Dimethylformamide (DMF) is readily absorbed through the skin and is a potent liver toxin. It is also known to cause skin problems and alcohol intolerance. Current evidence associating DMF with cancer in humans is not conclusive. Recommendations for the reduction of exposure include information and training of workers, engineering controls, biological monitoring, medical screening and use of personal protective equipment.
Publications Dissemination, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1988, USA, Sep. 1990. 10p. 38 ref.
Kurttio P., Vartiainen T., Savolainen K.
Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides and ethylenethiourea
Exposure of workers to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs; maneb or mancozeb) in 29 potato farms was evaluated during the control of potato late blight. Concentrations of EBDCs and ethylenethiourea (ETU), an impurity and degradation product in EBDC formulations, in ambient air were evaluated during pesticide application. Biological monitoring of exposure to EBDCs was carried out by measuring the concentrations of ETU, a metabolite of EBDCs, in urine for 22 days after the end of the exposure. The estimated inhaled doses of ETU and EBDCs during the average 4 hour application period were 0.07 and 1.8µg/kg, respectively. Only 1-10% of ETU on the clothes reached the skin. The creatinine corrected concentrations of ETU in urine were 0.1-2.5µg/mmol creatinine 24 hours after exposure ended. The estimated half life for eliminating ETU through the kidneys was close to 100 hours. These results indicate that the measurement of ETU in urine is suitable for biological monitoring of exposure to EBDCs.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1990, Vol.47, No.3, p.203-206. Illus. 31 ref.
National Board of Labour Protection (Finland)
Translation into English of the chemical safety information sheet described in CIS 89-69. Exposure limit: 30mg/m3. Toxicity: the vapour irritates the eyes and the respiratory tract; the solution is easily absorbed through skin and irritates the skin; long term exposure to the solution can cause eczema; high concentrations of the vapour can cause renal and hepatic damage. Mandatory European labelling: T, R20, R36, R37, R38, R39, S24, S26, S36, S44.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1989. 2p.
Wu Y.Q., Wang J.D., Chen J.S., Chung S.C., Hwang S.Y.
Occupational risk of decreased plasma cholinesterase among pesticide production workers in Taiwan
The influence of ventilation control and work practices on the health of workers potentially exposed to organophosphate and carbamate compounds were re-examined in 989 employees from pesticide factories in Taiwan during 1986-1987. Results showed that 43 of 515 production employees had decreased plasma cholinesterase as compared with four of 340 non-production employees. There was a significant association between the level of housekeeping and work practices and the prevalence of decreased plasma cholinesterase ( p = 0.022). It is concluded that inadequate ventilation control and poor work practices may create a potential danger of pesticide poisoning among production employees in Taiwan and should be corrected immediately.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1989, Vol.16, No.6, p.659-666. Illus. Bibl.
Ames R.G., Brown S.K., Mengle D.C., Kahn E., Stratton J.W., Jackson R.J.
Cholinesterase activity depression among California agricultural pesticide applicators
Cholinesterase activity measurements in California of 542 agricultural pesticide applicators under medical supervision during the first 9 months of 1985 were analysed. 26 workers, 4.8% of the sample, had cholinesterase values at or below the California threshold values for removal from continued exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides (60% of baseline for red blood cell cholinesterase and 50% of baseline for plasma cholinesterase activity). Eight of these 26 workers, 31.5% had pesticide-related illnesses. Pesticides most frequently associated with cholinesterase depressions exceeding California threshold values included mevinphos (Phosdrin), oxydemeton methyl (Metasystox-R), methomyl (Lannate), and acephate (Orthene); these pesticides included organophosphates in toxicity categories I and II and one carbamate in toxicity category I.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, No.2, p.143-150. Bibl.
Walrath J., Fayerweather W.E., Gilby P.G., Pell S.
A case-control study of cancer among DuPont employees with potential for exposure to dimethylformamide
Case-control study involving four plants using dimethylformamide (DMF). The results showed no statistically significant association between ever having been exposed to DMF and subsequent development of cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx, liver, malignant melanoma, prostate and testis.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1989, Vol.31, No.5, p.432-438. 18 ref.
Collins J.J., Swaen G.M.H., Marsh G.M., Utidjian H.M.D., Caporossi J.C., Lucas L.J.
Mortality patterns among workers exposed to acrylamide
A cohort of 8,854 men, 2,993 of whom were exposed to acrylamide, was examined from 1925 to 1983 for mortality. This cohort consisted of 4 plant populations in 2 countries: the United States and The Netherlands. No statistically significant excess of all-cause or cause-specific mortality was found among acrylamide workers. Analysis by acrylamide exposure levels showed no trend of increased risk of mortality from several cancer sites. These results do not support the hypothesis that acrylamide is a human carcinogen.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1989, Vol.31, No.7, p.614-617. 14 ref.
Brown S.K., Ames R.G., Mengle D.C.
Occupational illness from cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides among agricultural applicators in California, 1982-1985
California pesticide illness investigation reports involving toxicity category I or II organophosphate and carbamate pesticide exposures among agricultural pesticide applicators were reviewed for the years 1982-1985. The pesticides associated with each illness were recorded, and the exposures were classified as chronic, short-term, or accidental. Illnesses were associated with a range of pesticides, including both organophosphates and carbamates in both toxicity categories I and II. Approximately 19% of the illnesses were due to accidents. Overall, the analysis identified a need for improving occupational health surveillance and the regulations governing worker health and safety.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1989, Vol.44, No.1, p.34-39. 7 ref.
He F., Zhang S., Wang H., Li G., Zhang Z., Li F., Dong X., Hu F.
Neurological and electroneuromyographic assessment of the adverse effects of acrylamide on occupationally exposed workers
Seventy-one acrylamide workers and fifty-one unexposed referents were studied. Weak legs and nimb hands and feet, preceded by skin peeling from the hands, were the early symptoms of the acrylamide workers; their early signs were impairment of vibration sensation in their toes and loss of ankle reflexes. Three cases had cerebellar involvement followed by polyneuropathy due to heavy exposure. Electroneuromyographic changes, including a decrease in the sensory action potential amplitude, neurogenic abnormalities in electromyography, and prolongation of the ankle tendon reflex latency, are of greater importance in the early detection of acrylamide neurotoxicity since they can precede the neuropathic symptoms and signs. The diagnostic criteria for occupational acrylamide intoxication of this study revealed three severe poisonings, six moderate poisonings, and 43 mild poisonings. The total prevalence of acrylamide poisoning was 73.2%. The prevention of dermal exposure to acrylamide should be emphasised.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1989, Vol.15, No.2, p.125-129. 13 ref.
Dimetil acetamide [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheed published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit (OSHA): 8h-TWA = 35mg/m3. Toxicity: skin absorption; hepatic damage; jaundice.
Noticias de seguridad, May 1989, Vol.51, No.5, 4p. insert.
Commission of the European Communities
Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals: Aromatic amines, aromatic nitro compounds, carbamate pesticides, nickel
The available data on the human health effects, metabolism and biological indicators of these substances are reviewed. Conclusions reached: for aromatic amines and aromatic nitro compounds, determination of methaemoglobin level is used for detecting recent exposure to those compounds capable of oxidising haemoglobin iron, along with measurement of the compounds or their metabolites in urine; the internal dose and level of exposure to carbamates can be assessed by determination of their urinary metabolites; for carbamate insecticides with anticholinesterase activity, blood cholinesterases can be used as bioindicators of absorption and effect; determination in plasma/serum and urine are the most useful methods for biological monitoring of nickel exposure.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1988. 80p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Novikov S.M., Porohova L.A.
Toxicity of diacetoneacrylamide and methylenebisacrylamide
Toksičnost' diacetonakrilamida, metilenbisakrilamida [in Russian]
Identity. Physical and chemical properties. Uses: methylenebisacrylamide (1) - in copolymer production; diacetoneacrylamide (2) - as cross-linking agent in polymer production; in chromatography. Toxicity: (1) intragastric LD50 for rats 2720mg/kg, epicutaneous LD50 for rats 5g/kg; rat cumulation coefficient >5; no skin or mucous membrane irritation; nervous system damage; intragastric LD50 for rats 430mg/kg; rat cumulation coefficient 4.4; strong irritant effects on the ocular mucous membranes; nervous system damage; animal death (within two days of the experiment); no skin irritation; skin contact killed no rats. Exposure limits: (1) TSEL = 5mg/m3; (2) recommended safe exposure level (RSEL) = 1mg/m3. Safety: respiratory protection plus eye protection against the latter substance; medical surveillance with particular emphasis on the state of the nervous system.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1988, No.9, p.55.
Toxicity of polyoxyethylated caprolactam, an inhibitor of atmospheric metal corrosion
Toksičnost' polioksiėtilirovannogo kaprolaktama - ingibitora atmosfernoj korrozii metalla [in Russian]
Contents: physical and chemical properties; uses; animal toxicity (rats): LD50 when administered intragastrically was 10g/kg, threshold of acute effects: 240mg/m3 (the maximum attainable concentration of 700mg/m3 killed no rats), threshold of chronic effects: 23mg/m3, threshold of gonadotoxic effects 194.6mg/m3; absorbed through intact skin; weak irritant; no evidence of sensitising or cumulative effects; one-time or repeated exposure (intragastric, epicutaneous or inhalation) caused blood changes, renal and cardiac dysfunctions and blood serum enzymatic activity disturbances; determination in air by thin-layer chromatography; recommended exposure limit (USSR MAC in workplace air 5mg/m3 (aerosol)).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1988, No.9, p.52-53.
2-Acetylaminofluorene, potential human carcinogen
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits: none established. Toxicity: potential human carcinogen.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226-1988, USA, 1988. 6p. Bibl.
Mihajlova O.G., Ivanov J.V.
Study on potential atherogenic hazard of the pesticide acetochlor
Izučenie potencial'noj aterogennoj opasnosti pesticida acetohlora [in Russian]
Biochemical and cytological changes in the cardiovascular systems of rabbits associated with exposure to the pesticide acetochlor suggested that the compound is atherogenic. When administered jointly with cholesterol, its apparent atherogenic action was intensified. It is suggested that a safety factor of 100 be used when setting standards for autochlor residues.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.84-85. 9 ref.
Romeo L., Gobbi M., Pezzini A., Caruso B., Costa G.
Asthma induced by sodium tosylchloramide: a case report
Asma da tosilcloramide sodica: descrizione di un caso [in Italian]
The case is reported of a patient exposed to Chloramine T (CT) (used as a disinfectant in stables, kennels, slaughterhouses and animal-transport vehicles) who complained of rhinorrhea and fits of asthma-like dyspnoea when using this substance. A diagnosis of allergic bronchial asthma was made after specific bronchial provocation tests with a demonstration of CT-specific IgE antibodies with the RAST method. The importance of using traditional diagnostic parameters is stressed (specific and non-specific bronchial provocation tests) which can be used together with the determination of specific IgE in vitro.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1988, Vol.79, No.3, p.237-240. Illus. 8 ref.
Dithiocarbamate pesticides, ethylenethiourea, and propylenethiourea: A general introduction
This report assesses what is known about the impact of dithiocarbamate pesticides and two of their most important metabolites on man, animals, plants, and the environment. Intended to serve as a general introduction to documented health and environmental risks, the report concentrates on those dithiocarbamates that are most used and best known in order to characterise these pesticides as a group. More than 250 published reports are critically assessed in terms of methodological design as well as findings.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1988. 140p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 15.00.
Carcinogenic substances at workplaces in foundries - Problems of estimating occupational exposure
Kanzerogene Gefahrstoffe an Giessereiarbeitsplätzen? Problematik der Abschätzung berufsbedingter stofflicher Belastung [in German]
Dose-effect relationships for substances with and without response thresholds are shown in graphs. These are used to explain why for carcinogens no limit values for exposure in the workplace can be derived. Epidemiologic findings are reviewed for the major carcinogens occurring at workplaces in foundries, such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (mainly benzo(a)pyrene), nitrosamines (mainly dimethylnitrosoamine) and nitrosamides.
Giesserei, Sep. 1988, Vol.75, No.19, p.579-584. Illus. 32 ref.
Chen J.L., Fayerweather W.E., Pell S.
Mortality study of workers exposed to dimethylformamide and/or acrylonitrile
Workers exposed to dimethylformamide (DMF) and/or acrylonitrile (ACN) were observed from 1950 through 1982 for mortality. The wage-roll workers exposed to DMF showed significant excess in total deaths attributable mainly to ischemic heart disease and external causes when compared with rates from E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co. However, there were no significant excesses in mortality when expected numbers were based on US or local statistics. No dose-response relationship were observed between DMF or ACN exposure and mortality. The significant excesses in mortality among employees exposed to DMF and/or ACN could be due to statistical chance or life-style factors.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1988, Vol.30, No.10, p.819-821. 3 ref.
Chen J.L., Fayerweather W.E., Pell S.
Cancer incidence of workers exposed to dimethylformamide and/or acrylonitrile
This study was to determine whether exposure to dimethylformamide (DMF) and acrylonitrile (ACN), separately or in combination, was associated with increased cancer incidence. Workers exposed to DMF and/or ACN were observed from 1956 through 1984 for cancer incidence. The workers exposed to DMF but not ACN showed significant excesses in incidence for buccal cavity and pharynx cancer and malignant melanoma. A significant excess of prostate cancer incidence was observed among wokers exposed to DMF and ACN. No dose-response relationships were observed between DMF or ACN exposure and cancer incidence. The significant excesses in cancer incidence among employees exposed to DMF and/or ACN could be due to statistical chance or other factors, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption. Further studies are warranted.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1988, Vol.30, No.10, p.813-818. 29 ref.
Delayed and immediate-type hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine
A case with both contact urticaria and delayed-type contact allergy to chlorhexidine is presented. A review of the literature on hypersensitivity reactions of delayed and immediate type to this compound is given.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1988, Vol.18, No.2, p.84-88. Illus. 18 ref.
Rubcov Ju.I., Striževskij I.I., Moškovič E.B., Kazakov A.I., Andrienko L.P.
Safety problems in work with urea-ammonium nitrate solutions
Voprosy bezopasnosti pri rabote s rastvorami karbamid-ammoniačnaja selitra [in Russian]
Aqueous solutions of urea and ammonium nitrate do not themselves present fire and explosion hazards. However, in plants where these liquid fertilisers are prepared or processed, measures must be taken to prevent them from leaking into insulation and drying, and insulation that may have been impregnated with urea-ammonium nitrate should be treated with care. Examples: flanged joints and valves should not be covered with insulation; cutting torches should not be used in the removal of insulation; insulation should be soaked with water before repair work is undertaken.
Himičeskaja promyšlennost', 1988, No.2, p.29-31. Illus. 6 ref.
Thiocarbamate pesticides: A general introduction
This evaluation of the toxicity data includes: summary; identity, properties and analytical methods; sources of human and environmental exposure; environmental transport, distribution and transformation; environmental levels and human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms in the environment; effects on animals and in vitro test systems; effects on man; previous evaluations by international bodies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1988. 49p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 9.00.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC); USSR State Committee for Science and Technology (GKNT); USSR Commission for UNEP
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit: MAC = 0.2mg/m3 (skin). Is absorbed through the skin; skin irritant; neurotoxic effects (peripheral nervous system).
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1988. 30p. 49 ref.
Kuljanov V.V., Koročkin S.V., Zapol'skij Ju.M.
Determining the flammable limits of dimethylformamide in mixtures with water
Opredelenie koncentracionnyh predelov vosplamenenija dimetilformamida v smesi s vodoj [in Russian]
On the basis of vapour pressures of dimethylformamide (DMF) and water, and the flammable limits of mixtures of air, water vapour and DMF vapour, it was calculated that the most concentrated DMF solution that would not pose a fire hazard is 70% DMF.
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Apr. 1987, No.4, p.51-52. Illus. 2 ref.
Agaev R.A., Kasymov V.H.
Toxicity of carbamide
Toksičnost' karbamida [in Russian]
Contents: physical and chemical characteristics, use (in agriculture as a fertiliser and feed additive; as a starting material for many chemical products), toxicity (intragastric LD50 for mice 11,000mg/kg, for rats 16,300mg/kg). Carbamide does not produce a skin-resorptive effect and its effects are only slightly cumulative; the threshold for chronic action is 160.3±2.12mg/m3. Recommended MAC for carbamide in workplace air: 10mg/m3, hazard class 3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1987, No.12, p.56.
Talakin Ju.N., Černyj L.V., Bajdalin M.P., Nekrasova I.A., Životnikova N.V., Savčenko M.N.
Toxicity of N-isoamylphthalimide
Toksičnost' N-izoamilftalimida [in Russian]
Contents: physical and chemical characteristics, use (in colour film production), toxicity (intragastric LD50 for rats 3.5±0.3g/kg, for mice 1.1±0.1g/kg, hazard class 3). N-isoamylphthalimide is an allergen and a weak irritant but is not absorbed by the skin. Safety measures: protection of eyes and the respiratory tract, and observance of personal hygiene.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1987, No.12, p.54-55.
Farli M., Ginanneschi M., Francalanci S., Martinelli C., Sertoli A.
Occupational contact dermatitis to N-methylol-chloracetamide
Case report of a 50-year-old male worker in a factory producing plasticine (modeling clay). The agent responsible, a preservative, was identified by patch testing. Transfer of the worker from mixing to other work relieved the problem.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1987, Vol.17, No.3, p.182-184. 11 ref.
Elagina M.S., Potokina E.S., Orlova T.M., Maločkin V.V., Fedorova E.A., Nečuškina L.V., Caričenko G.V.
Setting a standard for maphenide acetate aerosol
O normirovanii aėrozolja mafenida acetata [in Russian]
Animal experiments to study the toxicological properties of maphenide acetate showed it to be of low toxicity, non-irritant and not absorbed by the skin. Contact with maphenide acetate at the workplace may be a cause of various allergies. A maximum allowable concentration of 0.5mg/m3 for aerosols of maphenide acetate in workplace air (allergen, hazard class 2) is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.50-51. 2 ref.
Kolpakov I.E., Soboleva L.P.
Functional changes in the cardiorespiratory system of workers engaged in zinc production
Funkcional'nye izmenenija kardiorespiratornoj sistemy u rabotajuščih s cinebom [in Russian]
Medical examinations of 170 workers aged 24-50 engaged in zineb (zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate) production revealed cholinergic reactions of the cardiovascular system in workers with up to 6 years of exposure to this fungicide. After 6-10 years adrenergic reactions were observed in those working in contact with zineb. Hypertension was much more common among men than among women, whereas hypotonia was rare among men but frequently encountered among women. Repetitive bronchospasm was observed at early and late stages of exposure. Concrete medical prophylactic measures are proposed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1987, No.6, p.35-38. 8 ref.
Grin' N.V., Talakin Ju.N., Savčenko M.V., Černyh L.V., Nižaradze M.Z., Ivanova L.A.
Basis for tentative safe exposure levels for thiourea and ammonium thiocyanate in air
Obosnovanie orientirovačnyh bezopasnyh urovnej vozdejstvija tiomočeviny i rodanistogo ammonija v atmosfernom vozduhe [in Russian]
Animal experiments to study the toxicological properties of thiourea and ammonium thiocyanate enabled the establishment of maximum allowable concentrations of 0.3mg/m3 (aerosol, hazard class 2) for thiourea and 5mg/m3 (aerosol hazard class 3) for thiocyanate in workplace air. TSELs outside the workplace of 0.01mg/m3 and 0.05mg/m3 for thiourea and thiocyanate respectively are recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.75-76. 6 ref.
Borm P.J.A., Jong L., Vliegen A.
Environmental and biological monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to dimethylacetamide
Exposure to dimethylacetamide was measured by stationary monitoring, personal ambient monitoring, and biological monitoring. Personal exposure in the breathing zone varied considerably in comparison with a relatively constant level observed with stationary monitoring. No correlation between personal airborne exposure and excretion of monomethylacetamide in urine was detected during a workshift. Most (6) workers studied (8) excreted about 13% of the calculated inhaled dose as metabolite in urine. For 2 workers this parameter was about 30%. For substances which are easily absorbed through the skin, biological monitoring is superior to airborne concentration monitoring in determining total uptake and possible health risk.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1987, Vol.29, No.11, p.899-903. Illus. 18 ref.
Kalinova G., Izmirova N., Kalojanova F.
Minimum waiting periods for safe work with phosdrin and vydate in greenhouses
Minimalni srokove za bezopasna rabota s fosdrin i videjt v oranžerii [in Bulgarian]
Degradation dynamics of vydate and phosdrin were followed on treated greenhouse flowers. Vydate reduces plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity (ChEA). It is a pesticide that degrades slowly. Phosdrin degrades faster and the amount when no effect on ChEA is observed (0.25mg) allows one-hour exposure of workers (weeding and picking carnations) as early as the first day after spraying. Minimum waiting periods are proposed for work in greenhouses after spraying: 3 days for phosdrin and 4 days for vydate.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.5, p.39-43. Illus. 7 ref.
Koleva M., Ivanova-Čemišanska L., Burkova T.
Study on renal function in chronic peroral propineb intoxication
Proučvane na băbrečnata funkcija pri hronična oralna intoksikacija s propineb [in Bulgarian]
Rats were perorally treated with propineb in doses of 425 and 34mg/kg body mass (1/20 and 1/125 LD50), two times weekly for 4.5 months. Renal function was evaluated in terms of: clearance of endogenous creatinine, urea, sodium and potassium, chlorides in serum, serum osmolarity, clearance of free water and percentage of excreted versus filtered sodium. Decreased glomerular filtration and free water clearance, and increased sodium excretion were observed. Morphological studies established that functional changes precede morphological ones, and should be given consideration in the evaluation of pesticide residues in foods and in hygienic standard-setting.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.4, p.34-37. 8 ref.
Ivanova-Čemišanska L., Mirkova E., Mihajlova A., Ilieva P.
Studies on acute and subacute oral toxicity of Sandofan C-50
Izsledvane na ostrata i podostrata oralna toksičnost na Sandofan C-50 [in Bulgarian]
Sandofan C-50 is a preparation containing 40% copper oxychloride and 10% oxadixyl. The acute oral LD50 for albino rats (840mg/kg) puts the preparation into group III (moderately hazardous). At doses of 1/20 LD50 (42mg/kg) and 1/50 LD50 (16.8mg/kg) in 30-day experiments, there was no cumulative effect. Moderate signs of general toxic action were seen at the higher dose (42mg/kg): elevated activities of several dehydrogenases in blood and brain tissue, but there was no change in the general physical status and behaviour of the animals. The dose of 16.8mg/kg was inactive under the conditions of the 30-day experiments.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.6, p.41-46. Illus. 9 ref.
The determination of parts per billion concentrations of hexamethylphosphoramide and its metabolite, pentamethylphosphoramide, in urine
A simple and rapid technique for determining hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) and pentamethylphosphoramide (PMPA) is described. For the nominal concentration range of 10 to 1000ng/mL, HMPA and PMPA extraction from urine into chloroform averaged 88.0% and 80.2% respectively. The HMPA and PMPA in the extract are assessed by gas chromatography, using a phosphorus flame photometric detector, and quantified by an external standard calibration technique. The limit of detection for HMPA and PMPA in urine is 2ng/mL. The total analysis time is less than 20min. The method was validated by analysing spiked urine samples prepared by another laboratory. Linear regression correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 were obtained for HMPA and PMPA at 10 to 192ng/mL.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1987, Vol.48, No.12, p.997-1000. Illus. 9 ref.
Lisi P., Caraffini S., Assalve D.
Irritation and sensitization potential of pesticides
A pesticide series of 36 substances was patch tested in 652 subjects to establish the optimal test concentration and the frequency of irritant and allergic reactions. Allergic reactions to fungicides were found in 46 thiophthalimides (captan, folpet and difolatan) were the most common. Irritant and allergic reactions to other pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, etc.) were rare. Sensitivity to pesticides was significant in patients who work, or have worked, on the land. Cross sensitivity to bis-dithiocarbamates or thiophthalimides is possible.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1987, Vol.17, No.4, p.212-218. 25 ref.
Kurtz P.H., Shaw G., Kelter A., Jackson R.J.
Assessment of potential acute health effects in agricultural workers exposed during the application of chlordimeform
Agricultural workers exposed to chlordimeform (Cdf) used as a pesticide on cotton were monitored. Cdf metabolites were found in the urine of 132 workers and were positively correlated with the length of exposure and nature of job activity. Persons mixing and loading and engaged in miscellaneous tasks such as cleaning and maintenance of equipment had the greatest exposure. There was no evidence of urinary tract irritation by microscopic analysis of the urine, nor were significant differences found between preseason and postseason serum chemistry results. Despite the use of protective clothing and closed system transfer devices, Cdf was absorbed by workers as evidenced by urinary metabolite excretion.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1987, Vol.29, No.7, p.592-595. 7 ref.
Acrylamide in air
Guidance note on a laboratory method using high performance liquid chromatography after collection in an impinger that contains water. Scope: suitable for sampling over periods in the range 10min-8h. Although recommended for the determination of personal exposure, the method may be used for fixed location monitoring by suitable modification. Suitable for the measurement of airborne acrylamide in a concentration range of approximately 20-2000µg/m3 for samples of 50L of air. For a 10min (20L) sample, the detection limit is 40µg/m3. The sampling and analytical precision is expected to be better than 10% (assuming a pump error of 5%). Any compound that co-elutes with acrylamide under the operating conditions chosen is a potential interferent. Additional information on acrylamide: properaties, uses, toxicity, first aid.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 2QY, United Kingdom, Mar. 1987. 4p. 5 ref. Price: GBP 0.50.
Conde Salazar L., Gonzįlez M. A., Guimaraens D., Romero L.V.
Dermatosis due to thioureas
Dermatosis por tioureas/Dermatosis por tioureas [in Spanish]
Review of the different uses of thioureas in industry (manufacture of shoes, rubber clothes, photocopy paper etc.) and of the cutaneous affections observed among both workers and users of the final products. Allergic contact dermatitis due to thiourea has been found among persons using these products. In Spain, only 3 cases of sensibilisation have been reported. In the first case it was due to swimming goggles and in the second to sport shoes. The third case was a construction worker who could have been affected by the use of rubber gloves or shoes.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr.-June 1987, Vol.34, No.135, p.17-20. 14 ref.
Commission of the European Communities
Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals: Alkyl lead compounds, dimethylformamide, mercury, organophosphorus pesticides
The available data on the human health effects, metabolism and biological indicators of these substances are reviewed. Conclusions reached: determination of the substance (or its metabolites) in urine may be used for assessment of occupational exposure to organic lead, dimethylformamide, mercury vapours and inorganic mercury compounds; the measurement of mercury in blood may be used for evaluating exposure to organic mercury compounds; for organophosphorus pesticides, urinary excretion of metabolites is the best indicator of internal dose, while measurement of blood cholinesterase is the most important indicator of exposure.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1986. 77p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Saharova L.N., Murav'eva S.I., Makeeva L.T., Žigalov V.P., Grinberg A.A.
Hygienic assessment of the air in present-day caprolactam manufacture
Gigieničeskaja ocenka vozdušnoj sredy v sovremennom proizvodstve kaprolaktama [in Russian]
The air in caprolactam plants contains benzene, cyclohexane, cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone oxime and caprolactam. Simultaneous collection of 30min and 15min samples of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanone oxime revealed no differences in their concentrations, so 15min collection of samples with the use of AFAS-U filters is proposed. Monitoring of the average shift concentration of benzene in the workplace air should be done on the basis of time-weighted average concentrations.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1986, No.12, p.33-36. Illus. 3 ref.
Aldyreva M.V., Ivanova N.Ju., Palagušina A.I., Kupina L.M., Manžosova G.B., Borcevič S.V., Ketova N.A.
Follow-up of the health status of workers engaged in synthetic leather manufacture
Rezul'taty dinamičeskogo nabljudenija za sostojaniem zdorov'ja rabotajuščih v proizvodstve sintetičeskih kož [in Russian]
A five-year follow up of 221 workers occupationally exposed to dimethyl formamide (DMFA), the principal risk factor in synthetic leather manufacturing. Studies revealed high DMFA concentrations in the workplace air. An amendment for the DMFA MAC (10mg/m3) - hazardous upon penetration through the skin - is proposed. Detailed medical examination, including biochemical tests, of workers exposed to DMFA enabled the determination of the health hazards in the working environment, the establishment of the main clinical and laboratory signs of DMFA action and the development of contraindications to work involving exposure to DMFA.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1986, No.12, p.9-12. Illus. 9 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Health surveillance of workers exposed to organo-phosphorus and carbamate pesticides
This guidance note (revised edition), written for medical officers, describes the health risks associated with the use and handling of these pesticides as well as the medical prevention measures that should be undertaken. Contents: potential occupational sources of exposure; routes of absorption; biological effects; clinical manifestations of organo-phosphorus poisoning; measurement of cholinesterase activity as an index of organo-phosphorus uptake and effect; health surveillance; electro physiological monitoring; emergency treatment; notification requirements.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Feb. 1986. 4p. 5 ref.
Gudéhn A., Kolmodin-Hedman B.
Sampling and determination of airborne fenitrothion, dimethoate, mevinphos, linuron, metoxuron and trifluralin
Luftprovtagning av bekämpningsmedel inom trädgårdsnäringen [in Swedish]
Methods for personal sampling in the breathing zone of market gardeners working with pesticides were developed and/or evaluated in laboratory experiments. Fenitrothion, dimethoate, linuron, metoxuron and trifluralin were trapped on fibreglass filters and mevinphos was trapped in an XAD-4 adsorption tube. Recoveries ranged from 83-106%. No impairment in recovery was found after samples were stored for 3 weeks in the dark at -20°C.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 31p. Illus. 33 ref.
Legaspi Velasco J.A., Martķnez Murillo F.
Poisoning due to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides
Intoxicación por plaguicidas - Organicofosforados y carbamatos/Intoxicación por plaguicidas - Organicofosforados y carbamatos [in Spanish]
Contents of this booklet written for occupational physicians: general classification of pesticides; organophosphorus insecticides; negative effects on cholinesterase activity; cholinergic effects; diagnosis; treatment; medico-legal aspects; prevention.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Paseo de la Reforma 476, 06698 México, D.F., Mexico, 1986. 1st ed. 42p. Illus. 18 ref.
Basis of a maximum allowable concentration for carbamide in workplace air
Materialy k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii karbamida v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
67 workers exposed to carbamide (urea) in the workplace showed symptoms of vascular distony, 4.5% had dermatitis on exposed areas of the body (face, forearms, wrists). Experiments on animals showed that carbamide has a slight irritating effect on the upper respiratory tract and a general toxic effect on the liver and kidneys, and produces disorders of protein metabolism. Recommended MAC: 10mg/m3 (hazard class 3) for carbamide in workplace air.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1986, No.3, p.43-44. 6 ref.
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