Amides - 479 entries found
Your search criteria are
Matohnjuk L.A., Karpenko V.N., Olefir A.I., Anina I.A.
Experimental data for the establishment of the maximum permissible concentration for the fungicide polymarcine in the workplace air
Ėksperimental'nye materialy k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii polimarcina v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Results of research in animals designed to determine the biological effects of the fungicide polymarcine (a complex of zinc ethylene-bis(dithiocarbamate), manganese ethylene-bis(dithiocarbamate) and ethylene thiuram disulfide) administered by the oral or percutaneous route or by inhalation. Acute and toxic poisoning is characterised by changes in the blood picture, enzyme disturbances (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldolase and alkaline phosphatase), and a reduction in immunobiological activity. A threshold limit value of 0.5mg/m3 is recommended for work with this fungicide.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.17-20. 8 ref.
Barnes J.R., Henry N.W.
The determination of N-methylformamide and N-methylacetamide in urine.
N-methylformamide (MMF) and N-methylacetamide (MMAC) have been identified as the principal metabolites of dimethylformamide and dimethylacetamide in animals and in the urine of laboratory and other workers. The analytical method described permits the determination of MMF or MMAC in urine in the range of 5-500µl/l; it relies upon the use of a gas chromatograph and its sensitivity can reach 0.5µl/l of MMF and 0.3µl/l of MMAC under certain conditions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1974, Vol.35, No.2, p.84-87. 4 ref.
Hey W., Thiess A.M., Zeller H.
Possible health impairment in the manufacture and processing of dimethylcarbamic acid chloride
Zur Frage etwaiger Gesundheitsschädigungen bei der Herstellung und Verarbeitung von Dimethylcarbaminsäurechlorid [in German]
On the evidence of animal experiments, vapours of dimethylcarbamic acid chloride, an intermediate product in the manufacture of dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals and pesticides, have an irritating action, which may become carcinogenic, on the skin and mucous membranes. Medical examinations performed by the authors on the personnel of a large chemical works (production and processing) did not confirm these findings in man. However, this discrepancy is partially accounted for by the preventive measures employed (enclosed systems; wearing of masks, rubber aprons and rubber gloves; efficient ventilation; periodical mass miniature radiography of personnel).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Mar. 1974, Vol.24, No.3, p.71-77. 7 ref.
Dimethylformamide: a cause of acute pancreatitis?
The occurrence of symptoms of upper abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting and serum amylase levels in the upper normal range observed in workers exposed to the solvent dimethylformamide suggests that exposure to this chemical may cause acute pancreatitis.
Lancet, 10 Aug. 1974, Vol.2, No.7876, p.356.
Dési I., Gönczi L., Simon G., Farkas I., Kneffel Z.
Neurotoxicologic studies of two carbamate pesticides in subacute animal experiments.
2 pesticides, carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) and arprocarb (2-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate) were tested for neurotoxic effects in subacute experiments on rats. The authors examined the process of learning and performance of a previously learned task, and studied EEG patterns under resting conditions and under rhythmic light stimulation. The cholinesterase activity of the blood and of various parts of the brain was recorded. The findings in these animal experiments suggest that the early signs of possible subacute intoxication may be measured in humans by EEG and objective tests of psychological performance.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Mar. 1974, Vol.27, No.3, p.465-476. Illus. 19 ref.
Chin B.H., Eldridge J.M., Sullivan L.J.
Metabolism of carbaryl by selected human tissues using an organ-maintenance technique.
Metabolic profiles of carbaryl in various human tissues were determined using an in vitro organ-maintenance technique. This technique was disclosed recently as a potential method for the selection of a species metabolically similar to man, for use in toxicity studies without resorting to the risk of dosing human subjects. The present study shows that this technique further aided in delineating the contributory role of each organ in metabolic processes.
Clinical Toxicology, Feb. 1974, Vol.7, No.1, p.37-56. Illus. 15 ref.
Wyman Dorough H.
Metabolism of carbamate insecticides.
The metabolic fate of aldicarb, carbaryl and carbofuran was investigated in biological systems, and the effects of other insecticides and monoamine oxidase inhibitors on carbaryl metabolism studied in rats. Metabolic determinations were also made of 3-hydroxycarbofuran, its glucoside and glucuronide, and naphthyl glucoside. In vitro methods were developed to study mechanisms of glycosylation in insects and mammals, using 1-naphthol as model. It is recommended that development of carbamate insecticides as commercial pest control agents be encouraged; as a group, they have exhibited (1) effective insect control; (2) relatively short residual life in the environment; (3) rapid excretion from the body; and (4) polar terminal residues formed by metabolic detoxication processes.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. PB-231 596/8WJ, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA, Sep. 1973. 255p. 85 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$6.50/Microfiche US-$1.45.
Arató Sugár E., Bittera E.
Determination of dimethylformamide in air
Dimetilformamid meghatározása levegőben [in Hungarian]
Description of a colorimetric method for the determination of dimethylformamide (DMF) in air. Samples are taken by means of an impinger flask filled with a hydrochloric acid solution. DMF is transformed into dimethylamine by basic hydrolysis and made to react with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. Th colour intensity of the product of reaction with diluted hydrochloric acid and chloroform is measured by means of a Pulfrich photometer.
Munkavédelem, 1973, Vol.19, No.1-3, p.15-16.
Identification and determination of organophosphorus and carbaryl insecticides on ready-made thin-layer plates
Identifizierung und Bestimmung von phosphororganischen Insektiziden sowie Carbaryl auf Dünnschicht-Fertigplatten [in German]
Study of the possibilities of using chromatography on plates with thin layers of "Silufol" (layers of silica gel on reflecting strips of aluminium) for the identification and determination of organophosphorus and carbaryl insecticides. The method may be used for the quick semi-quantitative determination of the above insecticides during occupational health checks in agriculture. Detection levels and measurement limits are tabulated for various substances.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, July 1973, Vol.19, No.7, p.509-510. 11 ref.
Lukaneva A.M., Rodionov G.A.
Experimental data concerning the effects of DDT and Sevin on the pathogenesis of cholesteric atherosclerosis
Nekotorye eksperimental'nye dannye o vlijanii DDT i sevina na razvitie holesterinovogo ateroskleroza [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments carried out to elucidate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms (lipid metabolism) which form the pathogenic basis of atherosclerosis caused by the pesticides DDT and Sevin (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate). The comparative study of the morphopathological and histochemical changes in the aorta and coronary heart vessels showed that the evolution of atherosclerosis is strongly accelerated by the presence of these pesticides.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1973, No.9, p.41-45. Illus. 2 ref.
Pleština R., Svetličić B.
Toxic effects of two carbamate insecticides in dogs.
The authors observed a difference in duration of plasma cholinesterase inhibition in workers exposed to propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate) and promecarb (3-methyl-5-isopropylphenyl-N-methylcarbamate). To find out whether this difference is due to the enzyme-inhibitor interaction or to differences in absorption, they administered equitoxic doses of the 2 carbamates to dogs by intravenous and intramuscular injections. While a difference in inhibition duration was found only after intramuscular injection, the enzyme activity recovery was similar for both carbamates after intravenous injection. The delayed plasma cholinesterase recovery after promecarb administration was due to the much slower absorption of the compound after intramuscular injection.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.3, p.217-225. Illus. 19 ref.
Simeon V., Reiner E.
Comparison between inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and cholinesterase by some N-methyl- and NN-dimethyl-carbamates.
The authors established second order rate constants (ka) for the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and cholinesterase in various media (human and animal sera and erythrocytes) by 7 N-methylcarbamates and 2 NN-dimethylcarbamates; the values obtained are tabulated. A comparison between the 2 enzyme activities in pre-steady state (based on ka values) and in steady state (based on apparent equilibrium constants for enzyme and inhibitor) showed that the difference in degree of inhibition by the same compound in the steady and pre-steady states is proportional to the difference in stability of the carbamylated enzymes.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.3, p.199-206. 21 ref.
Burkackaja N.E., Matjušina V.I., Ivanova Z.V.
Evaluation of the health hazards of N-methylcarbamic acid dicresyl ester, a new insecticide and acaricide
Gigieničeskaja ocenka novogo insekticida i akaricida - dikrezilovogo ėfira N-metilkarbaminovoj kisloty [in Russian]
N-methylcarbamic acid dicresyl ester (Dicresyl) is a promising insecticide and acaricide, particularly for the veterinary protection of livestock. Its toxicity, however, requires special precautions in storage, transportation and applications in agriculture and veterinary medicine. The inhibition of blood cholinesterase activity (around 24 to 43% after exposure of 1 to 2 days) is an early symptom of poisoning. In the light of data from animal experiments, the authors recommend a TLV of 0.5 mg/m3 for Dicresyl in the working environment.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1973, No.8, p.99-101. 4 ref.
Ferguson W.S., Wheeler D.D.
Caprolactam vapor exposures.
5 volunteers were exposed to caprolactam vapours to establish irritant response and discomfort threshold. No discomfort was noted below 14 ppm at high relative humidities, but transient nose and throat irritation occurred in some subjects above 10 ppm at low relative humidities. There was no response below 7 ppm; most subjects found prolonged exposure to 100 ppm intolerable. The authors recommend a time-weighted average concentration of 5 ppm and stress that biological response to caprolactam dust is quite different.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1973, Vol.34, No.9, p.384-389. 3 ref.
Pham-Huu-Chanh., Azum-Gélade M.C., Nguyen-van-Bac., Nguyen-Dat-Xuong.
Toxicological studies of the N-n-propyl and N-n-butyl derivatives of formamide.
Single dose administration of formamide and its derivatives on mice and rats caused toxic symptoms and visceral lesions varying in distribution and severity with the dose and the compound. With few exceptions the toxicity varied in the same direction as the molecular weights. Rats were more resistant than mice. When injected at low but repeated doses so that the total quantity administered exceeded the sub-lethal dose, formamide and its N-methyl, N-ethyl, N-propyl, N-butyl and N-amyl derivatives produced no mortality, no apparent toxic signs and no detectable cellular damage. They did, however, cause variations in animal growth and induced biochemical variations of the blood and the urine.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Dec. 1973, Vol.26, No.4, p.596-605. Illus. 13 ref.
Natoff I.L., Reiff B.
Effect of oximes on the acute toxicity of anticholinesterase carbamates.
A study of the therapeutic efficacy of atropine, P2S (N-methyl pyridinium-2-aldoxime methane sulfonate) and obidoxime as antidotes to intoxication by carbamates in rats. The effects of oximes on the inhibition of cholinesterase in vitro by these carbamates was also measured. The results of the study show that intoxication by carbamate anticholinesterases is a function of their cholinesterase inhibitory activity and may best be treated with atropine sulfate. The additional use of oximes may be synergistic or ineffective. Only in the case of intoxication by carbaryl is oxime therapy contraindicated, the toxicity of carbaryl being enhanced by oximes (an effect for which no explanation is yet available).
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Aug. 1973, Vol.25, No.4, p.569-575. Illus. 17 ref.
Jagubov A.S., Suvalova T.I.
Comparative study of blastomogenic effect of a binary mixture of alkyl carbamates and their constituents
Sravnitel'naja ocenka blastomogennogo dejstvija binarnoj smesi alkilkarbamatov i ee komponentov [in Russian]
Results of experiments on mice to which doses of 1, 0.1 and 0.01 mg/g of methyl carbamate, ethyl carbamate and alkyl carbamates in binary mixtures were administered by repeated subcutaneous injection. No carcinogenic effect was observed with methyl carbamate; the binary mixture caused blastomas in the lung tissue after administration of a 1 mg/g dose. This carcinogenic effect is attributed to the presence of ethyl carbamate in the mixture.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1973, No.8, p.19-22. 8 ref.
Cornish H.H., Ling B.P., Barth M.L.
Phenobarbital and organic solvent toxicity.
Investigations were carried out on rats to determine the effect of phenobarbital pretreatment on the toxicity of various chlorinated hydrocarbons. It was demonstrated that phenobarbital has a marked potentiating effect in the case of subsequent exposures to carbon tetrachloride and particularly chloroform, whereas no such effect is apparent in the case of methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Since barbiturates may be used by industrial workers, it is important to be aware of the potential synergistic effect associated with the inhalation of certain organic solvents.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1973, Vol.34, No.11, p.487-492. 26 ref.
Dimethylformamide-induced abdominal pain and liver injury.
This article describes an attack of severe abdominal pain, hypertension, leucocytosis and hepatic damage following an accidental dermal and respiratory exposure to dimethylformamide (DMF). Pain began 62 hours after the man - a mixing machine operator - received a splash of DMF over approximately 20% of his body surface, and was associated with porphobilinogenuria.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov. 1973, Vol.27, No.5, p.340-341. 7 ref.
Djurić D., Poštić-Grujin A., Graovac-Leposavić L., Delić V.
Disulfiram as an indicator of human susceptibility to carbon disulfide - Excretion of diethyldithiocarbamate sodium in the urine of workers exposed to CS2 after oral administration of disulfiram.
The authors assume that CS2 and disulfiram (Antabuse) are metabolised by the same enzyme systems. They hope to establish, therefore, that the urinary excretion of diethyldithiocarbamate (disulfiram metabolite) after oral administration of disulfiram runs parallel to the individual's capacity to detoxicate sulfur compounds. If the hypothesis is correct, the simple disulfiram test would be useful in predicting individual susceptibility to CS2 poisoning. Applied to preplacement job examination, it would be possible to select only resistant workers. Further investigations are necessary.
Archives of Environmental Health, June 1973, Vol.26, No.6, p.287-289. 5 ref.
Petrova-Vergieva T., Ivanova-Chemishanska L.
The effect of maneb on intrauterine development of rats.
A single dose of the fungicide maneb (manganese diethyldithiocarbamate) administered to pregnant female rats during the phase of organogenesis induces nervous-system and skeleton malformations in the foetus (exencephalia, encephalocele, cheilognathopalatoschisis, phocomelia, amelia, ectrodactylism, microcaudia, acaudia, etc.). Doses corresponding to 2/3, 1/3 and 1/6 of the lethal dose 50 (6g/kg for adult rats) proved to be teratogenic. A dose corresponding to 1/12 LD50, both single and repeated, did not affect gestation.
Works of the United Research Institute of Hygiene and Industrial Safety, 1972, Vol.23, p.65-70. 5 ref.
Ivanova-Chemishanska L., Kaloyanova F., Izmirova N., Zlateva M., Valcheva V.
Experimental inhalatory toxicity and substantiation of the maximum allowable concentration for some dithiocarbamates in the air of the working area.
Results of animal experiments carried out with a view to assessing the inhalation toxicity of zineb, maneb and mancozeb, and to establishing threshold limit values for long-term exposure. Toxic effects consisted of inflammatory, and sometimes ulcerative, changes in the trachea, inflammatory vascular damage to the lung which sometimes degenerated into emphysematous and atelectatic changes, hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic changes (severity according to concentration). Maneb and mancozeb, which contain manganese, have a more severe toxic action on the respiratory tract and other parenchymatous organs than zineb. The following threshold limit values are recommended: 1mg/m3 for zineb; 0.4mg/m3 for maneb; 0.5mg/m3 for mancozeb.
Works of the United Research Institute of Hygiene and Industrial Safety, 1972, Vol.23, p.55-64. Illus. 14 ref.
Cavigneaux A., Cabasson G.B.
Intoxication par l'acrylamide [in French]
Description of a case of acrylamide poisoning which tends to show that this intoxication, the clinical picture of which has been known for many years, may occur in the application of acrylamide-containing acrylic resins and not just in their production. A worker had, for 18 months, been applying waterproof coatings using a relatively new process in which acrylamide-containing acrylic resin is pumped by hand into fissures where it polymerises; the resin was prepared on-site. Symptoms included: hand paraesthesia, followed by asthenia with significant sensorimotor disorders in the lower limbs and inability to walk. Since the other resin components could be exculpated, it seems clear that acrylamide is the cause of this intoxication. The need to strengthen building site safety and health measures is emphasised.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Mar. 1972, Vol.33, No.3, p.115-116.
Caprolactam - Fire and explosion hazards
Kaprolaktam - nebezpečí požáru a vybuchu [in Czech]
Results of experiments on the flammable and explosive properties of caprolactam dust and vapours carried out in the German Democratic Republic and in Czechoslovakia. Although fine particulate caprolactam dust is very explosive, it has low flammability. However, deposited dust burns well once ignited and both explosion pressure and pressure-rise velocity are high. Caprolactam vapours are non-flammable under normal conditions; even at a high temperature and at the lower explosive limit, they will ignite only with difficulty. The Czechoslovak standard ČSN 73 0760 of 1959 classifies firms handling caprolactam under the category of undertakings in which flammable substances with a flashpoint of over 125°C are used.
Bezpečná práca, 1972, Vol.3, No.1, p.20-21. 4 ref.
Experience with dimethylformamide exposure
Erfahrungen bei der Exposition mit Dimethylformamid [in German]
Paper read at the 1st International Symposium of Plant Physicians of the Chemical Industry (Ludwigshafen, 27-29 April 1972). Report on studies in a dyeworks in which short-term peak concentrations of 50-200ppm dimethylformamide were detected. However, in most cases the concentrations were definitely below the West German TLV of 20ppm. Men doing hazardous work wore respiratory protective equipment and rubber gloves. Laboratory and radiological examination of exposed workers indicated that transient exposure to dimethylformamide concentrations above the West German TLV do not lead to liver damage provided suitable protective measures are taken. (For the complete proceedings of this symposium, see CIS 73-32.)
1. Internationales Symposium der Werksärzte der chemischen Industrie, Medichem, BASF Ärztliche Abteilung, 67 Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany, 1972. 8p. Illus. 14 ref.
Examinations of persons with chronic exposure to certain aliphatic amines and dimethyl-formamide, and the resultant consequences for ophthalmic screening tests
Untersuchungen chronisch Amin- und Dimethyl-Formamid-Exponierter und sich daraus ergebende Konsequenzen für augenärztliche Reihenuntersuchungen [in German]
A report on opthalmological screening tests (questionnaire, vision evaluation, slit-lamp examination, ophthalmoscopy, examination of the central and peripheral field of vision) in persons who had had long-term exposure to the following substances: methyl-amine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and dimethylformamide. The examinations revealed no pathological changes in the eye, which could be definitely attributed to the effect of these substances. A report is given on experience with these examinations and improvements are proposed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, May 1972, Vol.18, No.5, p.332-335. Illus. 23 ref.
Rjazanova R.A., Družinina V.A., Nevstrueva V.V.
Proposed threshold limit values (TLV) of zineb in air based on animal experiments
Ėksperimental'nye materialy k obosnovanija predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii cineba v vozduhe rabočih pomeščenij [in Russian]
Description, with comments, of animal experiments carried out to ascertain the toxic effects of inhaled zineb. The functional disturbances observed in various body systems as a result of breathing zineb concentrations of 200, 20 and even 5mg/m3 is shown in a table. Research was also carried out on the embryo of rats. In view of the gonadotoxic and embryotoxic effects of zineb, an atmospheric TLV of 0.5mg/m3 is recommended for this compound.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1972, Vol.50, No.8, p.42-45. 3 ref.
American Industrial Hygiene Association
Method of collection and analysis of dimethylformamide - HCON (CH3)2. The substance is adsorbed in water and converted to hydroxamic acid by the addition of hydroxylamine sulphate and sodium hydroxide. The colorimetric determination of hydroxamic acid is made after addition of hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride. Concentrations of dimethylformamide as low as 5ppm (TLV 10ppm) can be determined. Other amides will interfere.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1972, Vol.33, No.6, p.438-439. 1 ref.
Schubel F., Linss G.
Inhalation allergy to "Zineb 80" fungicide
Inhalationsallergie durch Fungizid "Zineb 80" [in German]
Report of a case of pronounced allergic mucosal irritation with oedema following work in a field which had 1h previously been sprayed with Zineb 80 (zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate). Medical history, clinical and laboratory findings and therapy are described. Workers should not be allowed to enter fields immediately after they have been treated with agricultural chemicals, even if these chemicals are claimed to be non-toxic for man.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, June 1971, Vol.26, No.25, p.1187-1189. 6 ref.
< previous | 1... 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10